Gene Symbol: Eed
Description: embryonic ectoderm development
Alias: polycomb protein EED
Species: rat
Products:     Eed

Top Publications

  1. Pasini D, Bracken A, Jensen M, Lazzerini Denchi E, Helin K. Suz12 is essential for mouse development and for EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4061-71 pubmed
    SUZ12 is a recently identified Polycomb group (PcG) protein, which together with EZH2 and EED forms different Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC2/3)...
  2. de Napoles M, Mermoud J, Wakao R, Tang Y, Endoh M, Appanah R, et al. Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B link ubiquitylation of histone H2A to heritable gene silencing and X inactivation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:663-76 pubmed
    ..These observations link H2A ubiquitylation, X inactivation, and PRC1 PcG function, suggesting an unanticipated and novel mechanism for chromatin-mediated heritable gene silencing. ..
  3. Pasini D, Cloos P, Walfridsson J, Olsson L, Bukowski J, Johansen J, et al. JARID2 regulates binding of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 to target genes in ES cells. Nature. 2010;464:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results demonstrate that JARID2 is essential for the binding of PcG proteins to target genes and, consistent with this, for the proper differentiation of embryonic stem cells and normal development. ..
  4. Montgomery N, Yee D, Chen A, Kalantry S, Chamberlain S, Otte A, et al. The murine polycomb group protein Eed is required for global histone H3 lysine-27 methylation. Curr Biol. 2005;15:942-7 pubmed
    ..PRC2, is composed of several proteins including the histone methyltransferase (HMTase) Ezh2, the WD-repeat protein Eed, and the Zn-finger protein Suz12...
  5. Walker E, Chang W, Hunkapiller J, Cagney G, Garcha K, Torchia J, et al. Polycomb-like 2 associates with PRC2 and regulates transcriptional networks during mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:153-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the role of PCL2 in both modulating transcription of ESC self-renewal genes in undifferentiated ESCs as well as developmental regulators during early commitment and differentiation. ..
  6. Peng J, Valouev A, Swigut T, Zhang J, Zhao Y, Sidow A, et al. Jarid2/Jumonji coordinates control of PRC2 enzymatic activity and target gene occupancy in pluripotent cells. Cell. 2009;139:1290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illuminate a mechanism of histone methylation regulation in pluripotent cells and during early cell-fate transitions. ..
  7. Herz H, Garruss A, Shilatifard A. SET for life: biochemical activities and biological functions of SET domain-containing proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 2013;38:621-39 pubmed publisher
  8. Lomniczi A, Loche A, Castellano J, Ronnekleiv O, Bosch M, Kaidar G, et al. Epigenetic control of female puberty. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreased and methylation of their promoters increased before puberty...
  9. Kim S, Paylor S, Magnuson T, Schumacher A. Juxtaposed Polycomb complexes co-regulate vertebral identity. Development. 2006;133:4957-68 pubmed
    ..The present study interrogated the genetic, biochemical and molecular interaction of BMI1 and EED, pivotal constituents of heterologous Polycomb complexes, in the regulation of vertebral identity during mouse ..

More Information


  1. Imagawa E, Higashimoto K, Sakai Y, Numakura C, Okamoto N, Matsunaga S, et al. Mutations in genes encoding polycomb repressive complex 2 subunits cause Weaver syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2017;38:637-648 pubmed publisher a rare congenital overgrowth disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) or EED (embryonic ectoderm development)...
  2. Ballaré C, Lange M, Lapinaite A, Martin G, Morey L, Pascual G, et al. Phf19 links methylated Lys36 of histone H3 to regulation of Polycomb activity. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the interaction of Phf19 with H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 is essential for PRC2 complex activity and for proper regulation of gene repression in embryonic stem cells. ..
  3. Hunkapiller J, Shen Y, Diaz A, Cagney G, McCleary D, Ramalho Santos M, et al. Polycomb-like 3 promotes polycomb repressive complex 2 binding to CpG islands and embryonic stem cell self-renewal. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002576 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Pcl3 is a component of PRC2 critical for ESC self-renewal, histone methylation, and recruitment of PRC2 to a subset of its genomic sites. ..
  4. Tie F, Furuyama T, Prasad Sinha J, Jane E, Harte P. The Drosophila Polycomb Group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in a complex containing the histone-binding protein p55 and the histone deacetylase RPD3. Development. 2001;128:275-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that histone deacetylation by this complex is a prerequisite for establishment of stable long-term silencing by other continuously required PcG complexes. ..
  5. Wang C, Zhao J, Lu C, Han X, An L, Ma X. Polycomb group proteins are essential for spinal cord development. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2010;15:1018-22 pubmed
    ..5-19.5 rat sacral cords. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed decreased EED, RNF2, SUZ12, and H3K27me3 expression in the normal, E15.5-19.5, rat sacral cords...
  6. Fujimura Y, Isono K, Vidal M, Endoh M, Kajita H, Mizutani Koseki Y, et al. Distinct roles of Polycomb group gene products in transcriptionally repressed and active domains of Hoxb8. Development. 2006;133:2371-81 pubmed
    ..The present study indicates distinct roles for class 2 PcG complexes in transcriptionally repressed and active domains of Hoxb8 gene. ..
  7. Cai L, Rothbart S, Lu R, Xu B, Chen W, Tripathy A, et al. An H3K36 methylation-engaging Tudor motif of polycomb-like proteins mediates PRC2 complex targeting. Mol Cell. 2013;49:571-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that PCL recognition of H3K36me3 promotes intrusion of PRC2 complexes into active chromatin regions to promote gene silencing and modulate the chromatin landscape during development. ..
  8. Montgomery N, Yee D, Montgomery S, Magnuson T. Molecular and functional mapping of EED motifs required for PRC2-dependent histone methylation. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:1145-57 pubmed
    ..27 (H3K27) methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 and the WD-repeat protein embryonic ectoderm development (EED). Histone H3K27 can be monomethylated (H3K27me1), dimethylated (H3K27me2), or trimethylated (H3K27me3)...
  9. Erhardt S, Su I, Schneider R, Barton S, Bannister A, Perez Burgos L, et al. Consequences of the depletion of zygotic and embryonic enhancer of zeste 2 during preimplantation mouse development. Development. 2003;130:4235-48 pubmed
    ..This phenotypic effect on growth could be attributed to the asymmetric localisation of the Ezh2/Eed complex and the associated histone methylation pattern to the maternal genome, which is disrupted in Ezh2 mutant ..
  10. Mager J, Montgomery N, de Villena F, Magnuson T. Genome imprinting regulated by the mouse Polycomb group protein Eed. Nat Genet. 2003;33:502-7 pubmed
    ..It has recently been found that the mouse Polycomb group (PcG) gene Eed (embryonic ectoderm development) acts to maintain repression of the imprinted X chromosome...
  11. van Lohuizen M, Tijms M, Voncken J, Schumacher A, Magnuson T, Wientjens E. Interaction of mouse polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins Enx1 and Enx2 with Eed: indication for separate Pc-G complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3572-9 pubmed
    ..Drosophila extra sex combs (esc) and its mammalian homolog embryonic ectoderm development (eed) are special Pc-G members, in that they are required early during development when Pc-G repression is initiated, a ..
  12. Pasini D, Hansen K, Christensen J, Agger K, Cloos P, Helin K. Coordinated regulation of transcriptional repression by the RBP2 H3K4 demethylase and Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1345-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate an elegant mechanism for repression of developmental genes by the coordinated regulation of epigenetic marks involved in repression and activation of transcription. ..
  13. Gu L, Huang B, Shen W, Gao L, Ding Z, Wu H, et al. Early activation of nSMase2/ceramide pathway in astrocytes is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal damage via inflammation in rat hippocampi. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:109 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunoblot analysis for nSMase2, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), embryonic ectoderm development (EED), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression; SMase assay for nSMase and ..