Gene Symbol: Edn1
Description: endothelin 1
Alias: Et1, endothelin-1, ET-1, PPET1, preproendothelin-1
Species: rat
Products:     Edn1

Top Publications

  1. Barden A, Herbison C, Beilin L, Michael C, Walters B, van Bockxmeer F. Association between the endothelin-1 gene Lys198Asn polymorphism blood pressure and plasma endothelin-1 levels in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. J Hypertens. 2001;19:1775-82 pubmed
  2. He F, Li J, Mu Y, Kuruba R, Ma Z, Wilson A, et al. Downregulation of endothelin-1 by farnesoid X receptor in vascular endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2006;98:192-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that FXR may play a role in endothelial homeostasis and may serve as a novel molecular target for manipulating ET-1 expression in vascular EC. ..
  3. Allahdadi K, Walker B, Kanagy N. Augmented endothelin vasoconstriction in intermittent hypoxia-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2005;45:705-9 pubmed
    ..Future studies will determine the specific changes in vascular smooth muscle signaling in IH hypertension causing this augmented contractile phenotype. ..
  4. Wilkes J, Hevener A, Olefsky J. Chronic endothelin-1 treatment leads to insulin resistance in vivo. Diabetes. 2003;52:1904-9 pubmed
  5. Kanagy N, Walker B, Nelin L. Role of endothelin in intermittent hypoxia-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;37:511-5 pubmed
    ..There was no significant change in plasma ET-1 over time in air-air rats. We conclude that IH exposure increases both MAP and plasma ET-1 and that the increased ET-1 may contribute to the hypertension. ..
  6. Chan Y, Tang F, O W. Adrenomedullin in the rat testis. II: Its production, actions on inhibin secretion, regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, and its interaction with endothelin 1 in the Sertoli cell. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:780-5 pubmed
    ..The regulation of ADM by FSH and its interaction with endothelin 1 (EDN1) in the rat Sertoli cells have also been established...
  7. Wang C, Liu J, Guo F, Ji Y, Liu N. Endothelin-1 induces the expression of C-reactive protein in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:537-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Comellas A, Briva A, Dada L, Butti M, Trejo H, Yshii C, et al. Endothelin-1 impairs alveolar epithelial function via endothelial ETB receptor. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:113-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Rozyczka J, Figiel M, Engele J. Chronic endothelin exposure inhibits connexin43 expression in cultured cortical astroglia. J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:303-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the observed ET-dependent inhibition of Cx43 expression and the resulting decline of GJIC might represent a major pathway by which ETs regulate astrocytic gene expression in the injured brain. ..

More Information


  1. Jain R, Shaul P, Borok Z, Willis B. Endothelin-1 induces alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition through endothelin type A receptor-mediated production of TGF-beta1. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:38-47 pubmed
    ..These findings increase our basic understanding of the role of ET-1 in pulmonary fibrosis and suggest potential roles for AEC-derived ET-1 in the pathogenesis of other alveolar epithelial-mediated lung diseases. ..
  2. Chan Y, O W, Tang F. Adrenomedullin in the rat testis. I: Its production, actions on testosterone secretion, regulation by human chorionic gonadotropin, and its interaction with endothelin 1 in the leydig cell. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:773-9 pubmed
    ..The regulation of ADM by hCG and its interaction with endothelin 1 (EDN1) in the rat Leydig cells are also observed...
  3. Girsh E, Dekel N. Involvement of endothelin-1 and its receptors in PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis in the rat. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;63:71-8 pubmed
  4. Yeager M, Belchenko D, Nguyen C, Colvin K, Ivy D, Stenmark K. Endothelin-1, the unfolded protein response, and persistent inflammation: role of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:14-22 pubmed publisher
  5. Ariel I, Skarzinski G, Belzer V, Abu Ahmad W, Abassi Z, Bursztyn M. Vasoactivity of the rat endovascular trophoblast. Placenta. 2016;46:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..trophoblasts (EVasT) express smooth muscle (SM) proteins and contract ex vivo upon exposure to endothelin-1 (ET1) via receptors A and B (ETA, ETB)...
  6. Vig P, Desaiah D, Subramony S, Fratkin J. Developmental changes in cerebellar endothelin-1 receptors in the neurologic mouse lurcher mutant. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1995;89:307-16 pubmed
    ..At P 15 to P 20, when about 50% to 75% neurons are lost respectively, these changes may also reflect astrogliosis. ..
  7. Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Suzuki H, Kodama T, Maemura K, Nagai R, et al. Elevated blood pressure and craniofacial abnormalities in mice deficient in endothelin-1. Nature. 1994;368:703-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ET-1 is essential for normal mouse development and may also play a physiological role in cardiovascular homeostasis...
  8. Ramzy D, Wallen J, Badiwala M, Tumiati L, Tepperman E, Ross H, et al. Endothelin-1 antagonism and nitric oxide augmentation prevents cyclosporine-induced vasomotor impairment. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests potential therapeutic strategies to prevent endothelial dysfunction as combined therapy with ET-1 antagonism and NO augmentation completely abrogated CyA-induced vascular injury. ..
  9. Feron O, Salomone S, Godfraind T. Influence of salt loading on the cardiac and renal preproendothelin-1 mRNA expression in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;209:161-6 pubmed
  10. Dai Z, Tan M, Chai C, Chen I, Jeng A, Kwan A, et al. Differential changes in endothelin-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in rats with a chronic high pulmonary flow. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;44 Suppl 1:S341-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression was upregulated, prior to that of ET-1, at the transcriptional level during pulmonary vascular remodeling in this chronic shunt model. ..
  11. Hu L, Wang X, Jiang X, Xu L, Pan H. In vivo and in vitro study of osteogenic potency of endothelin-1 on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have demonstrated the influence of EDN-1 on differentiation potential of BMSCs, which suggest that EDN-1 may be a new promising agent for bone tissue engineering. ..
  12. Ye D, Wang D. Function and regulation of endothelin-1 and its receptors in salt sensitive hypertension induced by sensory nerve degeneration. Hypertension. 2002;39:673-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ET(B) plays an antihypertensive role in response to high salt intake under both normal and sensory nerve degenerated conditions. ..
  13. Krenek P, Morel N, Kyselovic J, Wibo M. Amlodipine at high dose increases preproendothelin-1 expression in the ventricles and aorta of normotensive rats. J Hypertens. 2004;22:827-35 pubmed
    ..Endothelin-1 overexpression could contribute to the lack of inhibitory effect of high-dose amlodipine on ventricular mass in normotensive rats. ..
  14. Zeidan A, Broman J, Hellstrand P, Swärd K. Cholesterol dependence of vascular ERK1/2 activation and growth in response to stretch: role of endothelin-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:1528-34 pubmed
    ..Stretch-induced growth signaling in vascular smooth muscle depends on cholesterol-rich, membrane microdomains by a mechanism involving ETA receptors that respond to endogenous ET-1 production. ..
  15. Irukayama Tomobe Y, Miyauchi T, Kasuya Y, Sakai S, Goto K, Yamaguchi I. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha decreases endothelin-1-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;44 Suppl 1:S358-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the negative effect of the PPAR-alpha activator, fenofibrate, on ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy may be partly due to inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway. ..
  16. Koyama Y, Maebara Y, Hayashi M, Nagae R, Tokuyama S, Michinaga S. Endothelins reciprocally regulate VEGF-A and angiopoietin-1 production in cultured rat astrocytes: implications on astrocytic proliferation. Glia. 2012;60:1954-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ET-1 is a factor regulating astrocytic VEGF-A and ANG-1, and that increased VEGF-A production potentiates ET-induced astrocytic proliferation by an autocrine mechanism. ..
  17. Saab S, Tam S, Tran B, Melton A, Tangkijvanich P, Wong H, et al. Myosin mediates contractile force generation by hepatic stellate cells in response to endothelin-1. J Biomed Sci. 2002;9:607-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that endothelin-1-stimulated contractile force generation by stellate cells is mediated by myosin. ..
  18. Valle Casuso J, González Sánchez A, Medina J, Tabernero A. HIF-1 and c-Src mediate increased glucose uptake induced by endothelin-1 and connexin43 in astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32448 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this is the first evidence linking Cx43 to HIF-1, which is a master regulator of glucose metabolism. ..
  19. Zhai H, Hhang J, Gao M, Liu Y, Zhang S, Wang X, et al. Comparative study between Ephedra sinica Stapf and Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis on ET-1 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1? in rats with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13:3761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Ephedra and Schisandrae prevented alveolitis and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  20. Lin Y, Kwok C, Juan C, Hsu Y, Shih K, Chen C, et al. Angiotensin II enhances endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction through upregulating endothelin type A receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;451:263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest the synergistic effect of Ang II and ET-1 on the pathogenic development of hypertension. ..
  21. Rafols D, Steiner J, Rafols J, Petrov T. Intracellular coexpression of endothelin-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase underlies hypoperfusion after traumatic brain injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2004;362:154-7 pubmed
    ..The results further indicate that interaction between ET-1 and iNOS occurs at the cytosol and possibly the nuclear membranes, implicating mediation via endothelin receptors. ..
  22. Jernigan N, Walker B, Resta T. Endothelium-derived reactive oxygen species and endothelin-1 attenuate NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilation following chronic hypoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L801-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that both endothelium-derived ROS and ET-1 attenuate NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilation following CH. Furthermore, CH augments pulmonary VSM reactivity to NO. ..
  23. Harvey S, Gandhi C, Behal R, Olson M. Down-regulation and recovery of endothelin-1 binding and signaling in rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:558-63 pubmed
    ..The recovery of PI-PLC signaling in these cells is in contrast with a previous report, but consistent with recovery of the receptor complement. ..
  24. Momohara Y, Sakamoto S, Obayashi S, Aso T, Goto M, Azuma H. Roles of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and endothelin-1 for regulating myometrial contractions during gestation in the rat. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004;10:505-12 pubmed
    ..The impaired NO production due to accumulated endogenous NOS inhibitors possibly results in increased ET-1 content within the myometrium, thereby increasing myometrial contractions at term gestation and after delivery. ..
  25. Kisanuki Y, Emoto N, Ohuchi T, Widyantoro B, Yagi K, Nakayama K, et al. Low blood pressure in endothelial cell-specific endothelin 1 knockout mice. Hypertension. 2010;56:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken in conjunction with other lines of genetically altered mice, our results provide evidence for a paracrine vasoregulatory pathway mediated by endothelial cell-derived ET-1 acting on the vascular smooth muscle ET(A) receptor. ..
  26. Dong H, Shan N, Luo Y, Gao F, Li X, Xu J, et al. [L-arginine suppresses ischemia/reperfusion induced up-regulation of endothelin-1 production in a rat model of acute myocardial injury]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2011;23:731-3 pubmed
    ..340 ± 0.049 vs. 0.775 ± 0.029; ET-1 peptide: 0.390 ± 0.094 vs. 0.773 ± 0.055, both P < 0.05). L-Arg may be tested during certain stage of I/R injury as a therapeutic intervention for the suppression of ET-1 up-regulation. ..
  27. Rebolledo A, Milesi V, Raingo J, Gomez Alvis A, Rinaldi G, Grassi de Gende A. Insulin preincubation effects on rat vessel contractile responses: role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Endothelium. 2001;8:277-82 pubmed
    In the present work, we studied the possible mechanisms involved in the insulin-induced acceleration of ET1 contractions...
  28. Dumont Y, D Amours M, Lebel M, Lariviere R. Blood pressure-independent effect of angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade on renal endothelin-1 production in hypertensive uremic rats. J Hypertens. 2001;19:1479-87 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the reduction of renal ET-1 production is mediated by tissue-specific effects of AT1 receptor blockade, and may contribute to the renal protective effects of losartan. ..
  29. Yuan P, Wu W, Gao L, Zheng Z, Liu D, Mei H, et al. Oestradiol ameliorates monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension via NO, prostacyclin and endothelin-1 pathways. Eur Respir J. 2013;41:1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Oestrogen deficiency may aggravate development of pulmonary hypertension. 17?-oestradiol improved pulmonary hypertension via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate NO, PGI2 and ET-1 expression. ..
  30. Taniguchi T, Shimazawa M, Sasaoka M, Shimazaki A, Hara H. Endothelin-1 impairs retrograde axonal transport and leads to axonal injury in rat optic nerve. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2006;3:81-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a single intravitreous injection of ET-1 impaired retrograde axonal transport in the rat optic nerve and this impairment correlated with the histological optic nerve damage. ..
  31. Zhang J, Yang W, Hu B, Wu W, Fallon M. Endothelin-1 activation of the endothelin B receptor modulates pulmonary endothelial CX3CL1 and contributes to pulmonary angiogenesis in experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify a novel mechanistic interaction between the ET-1/ETB receptor axis and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in mediating pulmonary angiogenesis and vascular monocyte accumulation in experimental HPS. ..
  32. Tharaux P, Chatziantoniou C, Casellas D, Fouassier L, Ardaillou R, Dussaule J. Vascular endothelin-1 gene expression and synthesis and effect on renal type I collagen synthesis and nephroangiosclerosis during nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats. Circulation. 1999;99:2185-91 pubmed
    ..In this model of hypertension, ET-1 is a major activator of collagen I formation in renal resistance vessels and participates in the development of renal fibrosis without affecting systolic blood pressure. ..
  33. Sachidanandam K, Portik Dobos V, Harris A, Hutchinson J, Muller E, Johnson M, et al. Evidence for vasculoprotective effects of ETB receptors in resistance artery remodeling in diabetes. Diabetes. 2007;56:2753-8 pubmed
    ..ET-1 contributes to the remodeling of mesenteric resistance arteries in diabetes via activation of ET(A) receptors, and ET(B) receptors provide vasculoprotective effects. ..
  34. Elgebaly M, Portik Dobos V, Sachidanandam K, Rychly D, Malcom D, Johnson M, et al. Differential effects of ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonism on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007;47:125-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, ET-1 contributes to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes and ET receptor antagonism with atrasentan or A-192612 displays differential effects depending on dose and receptor subtype. ..
  35. Guarino N, Puri P. Antenatal dexamethasone enhances endothelin-1 synthesis and gene expression in the heart in congenital diaphragmatic hernia in rats. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1563-7 pubmed
    ..Prenatal corticosteroids increase the cardiac production of ET-1, and this may enhance heart growth and cardiac inotropism at birth. ..
  36. de Jonge H, Dekkers D, Houtsmuller A, Sharma H, Lamers J. Differential Signaling and Hypertrophic Responses in Cyclically Stretched vs Endothelin-1 Stimulated Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;47:21-32 pubmed
  37. Shimojo N, Jesmin S, Zaedi S, Otsuki T, Maeda S, Yamaguchi N, et al. Contributory role of VEGF overexpression in endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H474-81 pubmed
  38. GLENN D, Rahmutula D, Nishimoto M, Liang F, Gardner D. Atrial natriuretic peptide suppresses endothelin gene expression and proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts through a GATA4-dependent mechanism. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:209-17 pubmed publisher
  39. Kim J, Ryu H, Kang T. Status epilepticus induces vasogenic edema via tumor necrosis factor-?/ endothelin-1-mediated two different pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74458 pubmed publisher
  40. Nakano D, Pollock D. Contribution of endothelin A receptors in endothelin 1-dependent natriuresis in female rats. Hypertension. 2009;53:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Infusion of endothelin 1 (ET-1) significantly increased sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in female, but not male, wt rats (Delta U(Na)V: 0...
  41. Yao H, Tu J, Shan Q, Xia Q. [Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide mediated the lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac negative inotropic role]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009;25:228-32 pubmed
    ..ET-1 and NO mediate myocardial dysfunction in hearts isolated and decrease [Ca2+]i transients in cardiac myocytes from LPS-treated rats. But neither ET-1 nor NO participates in the impairment of SR Ca2+ -ATPase induced by LPS. ..
  42. Hernandez C, Rodriguez B, Losada E, Corraliza L, García Ramírez M, Simo R. Normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients with retinopathy have an impaired tubular response to desmopressin: its relationship with plasma endothelin-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2060-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to elucidate whether this tubular resistance to dDAVP might favor dehydration in these patients. ..
  43. Jeong G, Chung K, Lee W, Kim Y, Sung S. The effect of a nitric oxide donor on endogenous endothelin-1 expression in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:1943-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that early administration of SNP in renal ischemia-reperfusion improves renal function by suppressing ET-1 expression. ..
  44. Giraldo A, Barrett O, Tindall M, Fuller S, Amirak E, Bhattacharya B, et al. Feedback regulation by Atf3 in the endothelin-1-responsive transcriptome of cardiomyocytes: Egr1 is a principal Atf3 target. Biochem J. 2012;444:343-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study therefore identify Atf3 as a nexus in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy required to facilitate the full and proper growth response. ..
  45. Whitman E, Pisarcik S, Luke T, Fallon M, Wang J, Sylvester J, et al. Endothelin-1 mediates hypoxia-induced inhibition of voltage-gated K+ channel expression in pulmonary arterial myocytes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L309-18 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the inhibition of K(v) channel expression and rise in [Ca(2+)](i) during chronic hypoxia may be the result of HIF-1-dependent induction of ET-1. ..
  46. Li D, Yang P, Xiong Q, Song X, Yang X, Liu L, et al. MicroRNA-125a/b-5p inhibits endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding demonstrated that endothelial miR-125a/b-5p inhibits ET-1 expression in VECs, which revealed a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism in vasomotor homeostasis. ..
  47. Mukherjee A, Loesch A. Co-localisation of nitric oxide synthase and endothelin in the rat supraoptic nucleus. Histochem J. 2002;34:181-7 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of the possible role and significance of nitric oxide and endothlin-1 in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. ..
  48. Zhang W, Yip K, Lin M, Shimoda L, Li W, Sham J. ET-1 activates Ca2+ sparks in PASMC: local Ca2+ signaling between inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;285:L680-90 pubmed
  49. Qi H, Ye J, Song L, Chen W, Liang J, Mu D. [Exploration of serum endothelin-1 as a marker of early radiation lung injury]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;21:356-8, 361 pubmed
    ..The serum ET-1 can be used as a marker of early diagnosis and dynamic changes of radiation lung injury. ..
  50. Klonowski Stumpe H, Reinehr R, Fischer R, Warskulat U, Lüthen R, Haussinger D. Production and effects of endothelin-1 in rat pancreatic stellate cells. Pancreas. 2003;27:67-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that ET-1 may act as a paracrine and autocrine factor for activated PSCs and may mediate contractions of activated, but not quiescent, PSCs. ..
  51. Clouthier D, Hosoda K, Richardson J, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Kuwaki T, et al. Cranial and cardiac neural crest defects in endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Development. 1998;125:813-24 pubmed
    ..These observations define a novel genetic pathway for inductive communication between cephalic neural crest cells and their environmental counterparts. ..
  52. Di Giulio C, Verratti V, Artese L, Petruccelli G, Walski M, Pokorski M. Aging and expression of heme oxygenase-1 and endothelin-1 in the rat carotid body after chronic hypoxia. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 5:41-4 pubmed
  53. Zhang F, Kaide J, Yang L, Jiang H, Quan S, Kemp R, et al. CO modulates pulmonary vascular response to acute hypoxia: relation to endothelin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H137-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a product of HO activity, most likely CO, inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction by reducing ET-1 vascular levels and sensitivity. ..