Gene Symbol: Drd3
Description: dopamine receptor D3
Alias: D(3) dopamine receptor, dopamine D3 receptor isoform, dopaminergic receptor D3
Species: rat
Products:     Drd3

Top Publications

  1. Sokoloff P, Giros B, Martres M, Bouthenet M, Schwartz J. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics. Nature. 1990;347:146-51 pubmed
    ..It seems to mediate some of the effects of antipsychotic drugs and drugs used against Parkinson's disease, that were previously thought to interact only with D2 receptors. ..
  2. Dalley J, Fryer T, Brichard L, Robinson E, Theobald D, Laane K, et al. Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement. Science. 2007;315:1267-70 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that trait impulsivity predicts cocaine reinforcement and that D2 receptor dysfunction in abstinent cocaine addicts may, in part, be determined by premorbid influences. ..
  3. Conrad K, Ford K, Marinelli M, Wolf M. Dopamine receptor expression and distribution dynamically change in the rat nucleus accumbens after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. Neuroscience. 2010;169:182-94 pubmed publisher
  4. Castorina A, Giunta S, D Agata V. Protective effect of the dopamine D(3) receptor agonist (7-OH-PIPAT) against apoptosis in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:927-34 pubmed
  5. Morgado P, Marques F, Ribeiro B, Leite Almeida H, Pêgo J, Rodrigues A, et al. Stress induced risk-aversion is reverted by D2/D3 agonist in the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1744-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the brain mechanisms related to risk-based decision-making are altered after chronic stress, but can be modulated by manipulation of dopaminergic transmission. ..
  6. Nagai Y, Ueno S, Saeki Y, Soga F, Hirano M, Yanagihara T. Decrease of the D3 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in lymphocytes from patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1996;46:791-5 pubmed
    ..A further binding study showed reduction of the D3R binding sites in PD lymphocytes. The decrease of the D3R mRNA expression correlated with the degree of clinical severity in PD patients. ..
  7. Barik S, de Beaurepaire R. Dopamine D3 modulation of locomotor activity and sleep in the nucleus accumbens and in lobules 9 and 10 of the cerebellum in the rat. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005;29:718-26 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study suggests that dopamine D3 receptors in the cerebellum and nucleus accumbens are involved in several aspects of the regulation of locomotor activity and sleep. ..
  8. Livingstone C, Strange P, Naylor L. Molecular modelling of D2-like dopamine receptors. Biochem J. 1992;287 ( Pt 1):277-82 pubmed
    ..Such models will be useful for establishing structure-function relationships between ligands and the dopamine receptors, and may ultimately provide a template for the design of receptor-specific drugs. ..
  9. Boyce Rustay J, Risinger F. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice and the motivational effects of ethanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:373-9 pubmed
    ..D3 KO and C57 mice had similar response rates of ethanol and food as well as similar water intakes. Overall, these results indicate that elimination of D3 receptor function has little influence on ethanol reward or intake. ..

More Information


  1. Clemens S, Hochman S. Conversion of the modulatory actions of dopamine on spinal reflexes from depression to facilitation in D3 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:11337-45 pubmed
  2. Yaroslavsky I, Colletti M, Jiao X, Tejani Butt S. Strain differences in the distribution of dopamine (DA-2 and DA-3) receptor sites in rat brain. Life Sci. 2006;79:772-6 pubmed
  3. McQuade J, Xu M, Woods S, Seeley R, Benoit S. Ethanol consumption in mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene. Addict Biol. 2003;8:295-303 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the D3-R -/- mice adequately learn a CTA to ethanol and do not ham differing taste reactivity to saccharin or quinine. However, D3-R -/- mice do appear to have a slower rate of ethanol metabolism. ..
  4. Deransart C, Landwehrmeyer G, Feuerstein T, Lucking C. Up-regulation of D3 dopaminergic receptor mRNA in the core of the nucleus accumbens accompanies the development of seizures in a genetic model of absence-epilepsy in the rat. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;94:166-77 pubmed
  5. Guitart Masip M, Johansson B, Fernández Teruel A, Tobeña A, Gimenez Llort L. Divergent effect of the selective D3 receptor agonist pd-128,907 on locomotor activity in Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: relationship to NGFI-A gene expression in the Calleja islands. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;196:39-49 pubmed
    ..These results, together with previous findings, suggest that differences in D3 receptor expression in the Calleja islands may contribute to the divergent behavioral effect of PD-128,907 administration in the two strains of Roman rats. ..
  6. Swain S, Beuk J, Heidbreder C, Beninger R. Role of dopamine D3 receptors in the expression of conditioned fear in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;579:167-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, BP 897 and SB-277011A dose-dependently attenuated the expression but not the acquisition of conditioned fear. These findings suggest that BP 897 and SB-277011A reduce the control of responding by aversively conditioned stimuli. ..
  7. Fiorentini C, Busi C, Gorruso E, Gotti C, Spano P, Missale C. Reciprocal regulation of dopamine D1 and D3 receptor function and trafficking by heterodimerization. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These data give a novel insight into how D1R and D3R may function in an integrated way, providing a molecular mechanism by which to converge D1R- and D3R-related dysfunctions. ..
  8. Huang H, Ren H, Chen C, Wang X, Yang J, Han Y, et al. D3 dopamine receptor regulation of D5 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubule cells. Hypertens Res. 2012;35:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..It indicates that activation of D(3) receptor increases D(5) receptor expression and function. Altered regulation of D(3) receptor on D(5) receptors may have a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. ..
  9. Kumar U, Patel S. Immunohistochemical localization of dopamine receptor subtypes (D1R-D5R) in Alzheimer's disease brain. Brain Res. 2007;1131:187-96 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate subtype-specific changes in dopamine receptors in AD that may be important in disease pathophysiology and that may also serve as potential targets for therapeutic intervention in AD. ..
  10. Marley A, von Zastrow M. DISC1 regulates primary cilia that display specific dopamine receptors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10902 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insight to receptor cell biology and suggest a relationship between DISC1 and neural dopamine signaling. ..
  11. Van Kampen J, Stoessl A. Effects of oligonucleotide antisense to dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in a rodent model of behavioural sensitization to levodopa. Neuroscience. 2003;116:307-14 pubmed
  12. Vallone D, Pignatelli M, Grammatikopoulos G, Ruocco L, Bozzi Y, Westphal H, et al. Activity, non-selective attention and emotionality in dopamine D2/D3 receptor knock-out mice. Behav Brain Res. 2002;130:141-8 pubmed
    ..Lastly double mutation experiments reveal an interaction between D2R and D3R with the former prevailing on the latter. ..
  13. Duarte C, Biala G, Le Bihan C, Hamon M, Thiébot M. Respective roles of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in food-seeking behaviour in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003;166:19-32 pubmed
    ..The properties of D(2)/D(3) receptor agonists, to reinstate food seeking at larger doses, and to potentiate food-primed response reinstatement at lower doses, are preferentially mediated by D(2) rather than by D(3) receptors. ..
  14. Bongarzone E, Howard S, Schonmann V, Campagnoni A. Identification of the dopamine D3 receptor in oligodendrocyte precursors: potential role in regulating differentiation and myelin formation. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5344-53 pubmed
    ..It also suggests that dopamine or some other D3r ligand may play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or the formation of myelin by mature oligodendrocytes. ..
  15. Bahi A, Boyer F, Bussard G, Dreyer J. Silencing dopamine D3-receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in vivo induces changes in cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:3415-26 pubmed
    ..Thus D(3)R expression significantly contributes to behavioural changes associated with chronic cocaine delivery. ..
  16. McQuade J, Benoit S, Xu M, Woods S, Seeley R. High-fat diet induced adiposity in mice with targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene. Behav Brain Res. 2004;151:313-9 pubmed
    ..weight, body fat and food intake regulation in a mouse with a targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene (Drd3)...
  17. Fishburn C, Belleli D, David C, Carmon S, Fuchs S. A novel short isoform of the D3 dopamine receptor generated by alternative splicing in the third cytoplasmic loop. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:5872-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that an internal acceptor site in the exon coding for the distal part of the third cytoplasmic loop directs alternative splicing of the D3 dopamine receptor. ..
  18. Glickstein S, Hof P, Schmauss C. Mice lacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors have spatial working memory deficits. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5619-29 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the sustained improvement of spatial working memory in METH-pretreated D(2) mutants is attributable to D(1) receptor-mediated mechanisms. ..
  19. Staner L, Hilger C, Hentges F, Monreal J, Hoffmann A, Couturier M, et al. Association between novelty-seeking and the dopamine D3 receptor gene in bipolar patients: a preliminary report. Am J Med Genet. 1998;81:192-4 pubmed
    ..Questionnaire were examined in 37 recovered Research Diagnostic Criteria-diagnosed BP patients genotyped for DRD3, DRD4, and serotonin 2A receptor (5HTR2a) polymorphisms...
  20. Yang S, Han Y, Zheng S, Kou X, Asico L, Huang H, et al. Enhanced Natriuresis and Diuresis in Wistar Rats Caused by the Costimulation of Renal Dopamine D3 and Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptors. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28:1267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current study indicates that D3R, in combination with AT2R, enhances natriuresis and diuresis, via ERK1/2-MAPK pathway, that may be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. ..
  21. Robinson S, Caron M. Chimeric D2/D3 dopamine receptors efficiently inhibit adenylyl cyclase in HEK 293 cells. J Neurochem. 1996;67:212-9 pubmed
  22. Accili D, Fishburn C, Drago J, Steiner H, Lachowicz J, Park B, et al. A targeted mutation of the D3 dopamine receptor gene is associated with hyperactivity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1945-9 pubmed
    ..Mice heterozygous for the D3 receptor mutation show similar, albeit less pronounced, behavioral alterations. Our findings indicate that D3 receptors play an inhibitory role in the control of certain behaviors. ..
  23. Asico L, Ladines C, Fuchs S, Accili D, Carey R, Semeraro C, et al. Disruption of the dopamine D3 receptor gene produces renin-dependent hypertension. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:493-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of the D3 receptor increases renal renin production and produces renal sodium retention and renin-dependent hypertension. ..
  24. Li Z, Yu C, Han Y, Ren H, Shi W, Fu C, et al. Inhibitory effect of D1-like and D3 dopamine receptors on norepinephrine-induced proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2761-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between alpha1-adrenergic and dopamine receptors, especially D1-like and D3 receptors in VSMCs, could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. ..
  25. Fernandes A, Easton A, de Souza Silva M, Schumann G, Müller C, Desrivieres S. Lentiviral-mediated gene delivery reveals distinct roles of nucleus accumbens dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in novelty- and light-induced locomotor activity. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:1344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings suggest that D2R and D3R, expressed in the NAcc, have both shared and non-overlapping roles in transduction of alerting signals elicited by potentially important sensory and environmental cues. ..
  26. Joyce J, Der T, Renish L, Osredkar T, Hagner D, Reploge M, et al. Loss of D3 receptors in the zitter mutant rat is not reversed by L-dopa treatment. Exp Neurol. 2004;187:178-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, unlike in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats, in Zi/Zi rats administered L-dopa does not reverse the loss of BDNF mRNA or lead to an elevation of D(3) receptor number. ..
  27. Zhang Z, Zhang X, Hou G, Yao H, Reynolds G. Interaction between polymorphisms of the dopamine D3 receptor and manganese superoxide dismutase genes in susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia. Psychiatr Genet. 2003;13:187-92 pubmed
    To investigate the influence of a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), and assess its interaction with a Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphism, in contributing to tardive dyskinesia in a chronic inpatient ..
  28. Yoshikawa T, Yoshida N. The possible involvement of dopamine D3 receptors in the regulation of gastric emptying in rats. Life Sci. 2010;87:638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here suggest that peripheral dopamine D(2) receptors and, at least in part, dopamine D(3) and central dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors play an important role in the regulation of gastric motility in rats. ..
  29. Volta M, Viaro R, Trapella C, Marti M, Morari M. Dopamine-nociceptin/orphanin FQ interactions in the substantia nigra reticulata of hemiparkinsonian rats: involvement of D2/D3 receptors and impact on nigro-thalamic neurons and motor activity. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous dopamine contributes to these responses affecting the level of GABAergic inhibition of the nigral output via D(2)/D(3) receptors. ..
  30. Roussos P, Giakoumaki S, Bitsios P. The dopamine D(3) receptor Ser9Gly polymorphism modulates prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PPI is modulated by the D(3) receptor and its levels depend on the Ser9Gly polymorphism. ..
  31. Basile M, Lin R, Kabbani N, Karpa K, Kilimann M, Simpson I, et al. Paralemmin interacts with D3 dopamine receptors: implications for membrane localization and cAMP signaling. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;446:60-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, paralemmin has been implicated as a potent modulator of cellular cAMP signaling within the brain. ..
  32. Ariano M, Aronin N, DiFiglia M, Tagle D, Sibley D, Leavitt B, et al. Striatal neurochemical changes in transgenic models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2002;68:716-29 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest modifications in the striatal DA system and that its downstream signaling through cyclic AMP mechanisms is disrupted severely in HD following onset of motor symptoms. ..
  33. Freedman S, Patel S, Marwood R, Emms F, Seabrook G, Knowles M, et al. Expression and pharmacological characterization of the human D3 dopamine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994;268:417-26 pubmed
    ..The finding that a wide range of structurally diverse human dopamine D2 (hD2) receptor agonists have an apparent hD3 selectivity may imply that the hD3 receptor exists predominantly in a high affinity state. ..
  34. Karasinska J, George S, Cheng R, O Dowd B. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1741-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alterations in pCREB levels were associated with changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity but not reward. ..
  35. Pilla M, Perachon S, Sautel F, Garrido F, Mann A, Wermuth C, et al. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a partial dopamine D3 receptor agonist. Nature. 1999;400:371-5 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that compounds like BP 897 could be used for reducing the drug craving and vulnerability to relapse that are elicited by drug-associated environmental stimuli. ..
  36. Smits B, D Souza U, Berezikov E, Cuppen E, Sluyter F. Identifying polymorphisms in the Rattus norvegicus D3 dopamine receptor gene and regulatory region. Genes Brain Behav. 2004;3:138-48 pubmed
  37. Zhang Y, Cheng C, He D, Shi W, Fu C, Wang X, et al. Transcriptional gene silencing of dopamine D3 receptor caused by let-7d mimics in immortalized renal proximal tubule cells of rats. Gene. 2016;580:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the regulation mechanism of let-7d on dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in immortalized renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells of rats, where let-7d has a predicted homologous target site ..
  38. Avalos Fuentes A, Albarrán Bravo S, Loya Lopéz S, Cortés H, Recillas Morales S, Magaña J, et al. Dopaminergic denervation switches dopamine D3 receptor signaling and disrupts its Ca(2+) dependent modulation by CaMKII and calmodulin in striatonigral projections of the rat. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;74:336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Since calmodulin is a major cytoplasmic Ca(2+) buffer our findings suggest that abnormal Ca(2+) buffering may be an important component of the abnormalities observed during dopaminergic denervation. ..
  39. Li Q, Lu G, Antonio G, Mak Y, Rudd J, Fan M, et al. The usefulness of the spontaneously hypertensive rat to model attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be explained by the differential expression of dopamine-related genes in the brain. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:848-57 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the molecular and behavioural data that we obtained provide new information that may be relevant to understanding ADHD in man. ..
  40. Barbanti P, Fabbrini G, Ricci A, Cerbo R, Bronzetti E, Caronti B, et al. Increased expression of dopamine receptors on lymphocytes in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 1999;14:764-71 pubmed
    ..The increased density of D1-like and D2-like receptors on PBL in de novo PD patients may represent an upregulation mechanism resulting from the diffuse impairment of the dopaminergic system in PD. ..
  41. Soma M, Nakayama K, Rahmutula D, Uwabo J, Sato M, Kunimoto M, et al. Ser9Gly polymorphism in the dopamine D3 receptor gene is not associated with essential hypertension in the Japanese. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CR1-4 pubmed
    The Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene is thought to be involved in essential hypertension (EH) because dopamine inhibits renin secretion via this receptor and because disruption of the DRD3 gene increases blood pressure in mice...
  42. Pedrosa R, Gomes P, Zeng C, Hopfer U, Jose P, Soares da Silva P. Dopamine D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger activity in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rat proximal tubular epithelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1343-53 pubmed
  43. Nanko S, Sasaki T, Fukuda R, Hattori M, Dai X, Kazamatsuri H, et al. A study of the association between schizophrenia and the dopamine D3 receptor gene. Hum Genet. 1993;92:336-8 pubmed
    A study of the genetic association between schizophrenia and a BalI polymorphism in exon 1 of the dopamine D3 (DRD3) gene, a candidate gene for schizophrenia, was conducted...
  44. Pagliusi S, Chollet Daemerius A, Losberger C, Mills A, Kawashima E. Characterization of a novel exon within the D3 receptor gene giving rise to an mRNA isoform expressed in rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:465-71 pubmed
    ..Moreover, genomic Southern blot analyses suggest that the D3-receptor exon giving rise to this novel D3 mRNA variant might exist in other species. ..
  45. Wolstencroft E, Simic G, thi Man N, Holt I, Lam L, Buckland P, et al. Endosomal location of dopamine receptors in neuronal cell cytoplasm. J Mol Histol. 2007;38:333-40 pubmed
    ..Endosomal dopamine receptors may provide a useful method for identifying cell bodies of dopamine-responsive neurons to complement methods that detect only active receptors in the neuronal cell membrane. ..
  46. Giros B, Martres M, Pilon C, Sokoloff P, Schwartz J. Shorter variants of the D3 dopamine receptor produced through various patterns of alternative splicing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;176:1584-92 pubmed
    ..The functional significance and possible role of these shorter variants of the dopamine D3 receptor in cell signalling remain to be established. ..
  47. Moreno M, Economidou D, Mar A, López Granero C, Caprioli D, Theobald D, et al. Divergent effects of D?/? receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens core and shell on impulsivity and locomotor activity in high and low impulsive rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;228:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the symptom clusters of hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may be neurally dissociable at the level of the NAcb. ..
  48. Roberts C, Cummins R, Gnoffo Z, Kew J. Dopamine D3 receptor modulation of dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;534:108-14 pubmed
    ..3, 8.6, 7.6 and 8.2, respectively. These data demonstrate that dopamine efflux is modulated by both dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens. ..
  49. Xu M, Koeltzow T, Santiago G, Moratalla R, Cooper D, Hu X, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice exhibit increased behavioral sensitivity to concurrent stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors. Neuron. 1997;19:837-48 pubmed
    ..We conclude that one function of the D3 receptor is to modulate behaviors by inhibiting the cooperative effects of postsynaptic D1 and other D2 class receptors at systems level. ..
  50. Ruiz Salinas I, González Hernández A, Manrique Maldonado G, Marichal Cancino B, Altamirano Espinoza A, Villalón C. Predominant role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype for mediating the quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2013;386:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..min quinpirole in pithed rats is predominantly mediated by dopamine D3 and, to a lesser extent, by D4 receptor subtypes, with no evidence for the involvement of the D2 subtype. ..
  51. Snyder L, Roberts J, Sealfon S. Alternative transcripts of the rat and human dopamine D3 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;180:1031-5 pubmed
    ..This novel mRNA encodes a 109 amino acid protein containing two putative transmembrane domains. A similar variant cDNA for the human D3 receptor has also been identified. ..
  52. Prieto G, Pérez Burgos A, Palomero Rivero M, Galarraga E, Drucker Colín R, Bargas J. Upregulation of D2-class signaling in dopamine-denervated striatum is in part mediated by D3 receptors acting on Ca V 2.1 channels via PIP2 depletion. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:2260-74 pubmed publisher
  53. O Connell D, Vaughan C, Aherne A, Botkin S, Wang Z, Felder R, et al. Expression of the dopamine D3 receptor protein in the rat kidney. Hypertension. 1998;32:886-95 pubmed
    ..The rat kidney expresses the D3 receptor at sites previously deemed to have D2-like receptors. ..
  54. Mizuo K, Narita M, Miyatake M, Suzuki T. Enhancement of dopamine-induced signaling responses in the forebrain of mice lacking dopamine D3 receptor. Neurosci Lett. 2004;358:13-6 pubmed
    ..The present data provide direct evidence that a deletion of central dopamine D(3) receptor enhances the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor-mediated intracellular signaling. ..
  55. Farré D, Muñoz A, Moreno E, Reyes Resina I, Canet Pons J, Dopeso Reyes I, et al. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:1408-1420 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission. ..
  56. Li Y, Xia B, Li R, Yin D, Liang W. Changes in Expression of Dopamine, Its Receptor, and Transporter in Nucleus Accumbens of Heroin-Addicted Rats with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Overexpression. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:2805-2815 pubmed
    ..b>DRD3 and DAT increased in the NAc of the lentivirus group...
  57. Potenza M, Graminski G, Schmauss C, Lerner M. Functional expression and characterization of human D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. J Neurosci. 1994;14:1463-76 pubmed
    ..The results reveal functional similarities and differences between the D2R and D3R. ..
  58. Demotes Mainard J, Henry C, Jeantet Y, Arsaut J, Arnauld E. Postnatal ontogeny of dopamine D3 receptors in the mouse brain: autoradiographic evidence for a transient cortical expression. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;94:166-74 pubmed
    ..These developmental findings, and particularly the transient cortical expression of functional receptors, point to the involvement of D3 receptors in ontogenic processes. ..
  59. Kashyap P, Micci M, Pasricha S, Pasricha P. The D2/D3 agonist PD128907 (R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol) inhibits stimulated pyloric relaxation and spontaneous gastric emptying. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..D3R activation delays gastric emptying, an effect that may be due to impairment of pyloric relaxation. D3R antagonists therefore hold promise as useful agents for treatment of gastric motility disorders. ..
  60. Rajput P, Kharmate G, Somvanshi R, Kumar U. Colocalization of dopamine receptor subtypes with dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) in rat brain. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:53-63 pubmed publisher
  61. Bahi A, Dreyer J. Lentiviral vector-mediated dopamine d3 receptor modulation in the rat brain impairs alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:2369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, medications targeting the D3Rs may be beneficial to tackle EtOH abuse and alcoholism in humans. ..
  62. Shin Y, Kumar U, Patel Y, Patel S, Sidhu A. Differential expression of D2-like dopamine receptors in the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. J Hypertens. 2003;21:199-207 pubmed
  63. Zeng C, Asico L, Yu C, Villar V, Shi W, Luo Y, et al. Renal D3 dopamine receptor stimulation induces natriuresis by endothelin B receptor interactions. Kidney Int. 2008;74:750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that D(3) receptors physically interact with proximal tubule ETB receptors and that the blunted natriuretic effect of dopamine in SHRs may be explained, in part, by abnormal D(3)/ETB receptor interactions. ..
  64. Karasinska J, George S, El Ghundi M, Fletcher P, O Dowd B. Modification of dopamine D(1) receptor knockout phenotype in mice lacking both dopamine D(1) and D(3) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;399:171-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, dopamine D(1) receptor, but not dopamine D(3) receptor, is involved in the ability to perform on the rotarod and spatial learning. ..
  65. Beaulieu J, Tirotta E, Sotnikova T, Masri B, Salahpour A, Gainetdinov R, et al. Regulation of Akt signaling by D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:881-5 pubmed
  66. Kosmowska B, Wardas J, Głowacka U, Ananthan S, Ossowska K. Pramipexole at a Low Dose Induces Beneficial Effect in the Harmaline-induced Model of Essential Tremor in Rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016;22:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates that pramipexole reduces the harmaline-induced tremor, which may suggest its beneficial effects in ET patients. However, mechanisms underlying its action are still unclear and need further examination. ..
  67. Staley J, Mash D. Adaptive increase in D3 dopamine receptors in the brain reward circuits of human cocaine fatalities. J Neurosci. 1996;16:6100-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the D3 receptor may be a useful target for drug development of anticocaine medications. ..
  68. Carta A, Gerfen C, Steiner H. Cocaine effects on gene regulation in the striatum and behavior: increased sensitivity in D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2000;11:2395-9 pubmed
    ..The behavioral response to cocaine is also increased in these mice. These findings indicate that the D3 receptor plays an inhibitory role in the action of cocaine on behavior and gene regulation in the striatum. ..
  69. Griffon N, Jeanneteau F, Prieur F, Diaz J, Sokoloff P. CLIC6, a member of the intracellular chloride channel family, interacts with dopamine D(2)-like receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;117:47-57 pubmed
  70. Coronas V, Bantubungi K, Fombonne J, Krantic S, Schiffmann S, Roger M. Dopamine D3 receptor stimulation promotes the proliferation of cells derived from the post-natal subventricular zone. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1292-301 pubmed
    ..These findings provide support for a regulatory role of dopamine over cellular dynamics in post-natal SVZ. ..
  71. Zeng C, Wang D, Asico L, Welch W, Wilcox C, Hopfer U, et al. Aberrant D1 and D3 dopamine receptor transregulation in hypertension. Hypertension. 2004;43:654-60 pubmed
    ..Altered interactions between D(1) and D(3) receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension, including human hypertension, because these receptors also interact in human vascular smooth muscle cells. ..
  72. Crocq M, Mant R, Asherson P, Williams J, Hode Y, Mayerova A, et al. Association between schizophrenia and homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene. J Med Genet. 1992;29:858-60 pubmed
    ..005, p = 0.008). When pooled data were analysed, this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0001) with a relative risk of schizophrenia in homozygotes of 2.61 (95% confidence intervals 1.60-4.26). ..
  73. Baik J, Picetti R, Saiardi A, Thiriet G, Dierich A, Depaulis A, et al. Parkinsonian-like locomotor impairment in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature. 1995;377:424-8 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that D2 receptors have a key role in the dopaminergic control of nervous function. These mice have therapeutic potential as a model for investigating and correcting dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system. ..
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