Dmd

Summary

Gene Symbol: Dmd
Description: dystrophin
Alias: DNADMD1, dystrophin, apodystrophin-3, apodystrophin-I, dystrophin, muscular dystrophy, dystrophin-related
Species: rat
Products:     Dmd

Top Publications

  1. Kim T, Wu K, Xu J, Black I. Detection of dystrophin in the postsynaptic density of rat brain and deficiency in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:11642-4 pubmed
    ..DMD is characterized by a defect in a protein, dystrophin, that is located predominantly in muscle but has been detected in brain...
  2. Nakamura K, Fujii W, Tsuboi M, Tanihata J, Teramoto N, Takeuchi S, et al. Generation of muscular dystrophy model rats with a CRISPR/Cas system. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5635 pubmed publisher
    ..muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene encoding Dystrophin. DMD model animals, such as mdx mice and canine X-linked muscular dystrophy dogs, have been widely utilized in ..
  3. Villarreal Silva M, Suárez Sánchez R, Rodríguez Muñoz R, Mornet D, Cisneros B. Dystrophin Dp71 is critical for stability of the DAPs in the nucleus of PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells express a cytoplasmic (Dp71f) and a nuclear (Dp71d) isoform of Dp71 as well as various dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs)...
  4. Enríquez Aragón J, Cerna Cortés J, Bermudez de Leon M, Garcia Sierra F, Gonzalez E, Mornet D, et al. Dystrophin Dp71 in PC12 cell adhesion. Neuroreport. 2005;16:235-8 pubmed
  5. Acosta R, Montañez C, Fuentes Mera L, Gonzalez E, Gomez P, Quintero Mora L, et al. Dystrophin Dp71 is required for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2004;296:265-75 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the deficiency of Dp71 correlated with an altered expression of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) members alpha and beta dystrobrevins...
  6. Blake D, Hawkes R, Benson M, Beesley P. Different dystrophin-like complexes are expressed in neurons and glia. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:645-58 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, dystrophin is found at the muscle sarcolemma and at postsynaptic sites in neurons...
  7. Gorecki D, Lukasiuk K, Szklarczyk A, Kaczmarek L. Kainate-evoked changes in dystrophin messenger RNA levels in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience. 1998;84:467-77 pubmed
    b>Dystrophin and dystroglycan messenger RNAs are expressed in specific brain areas, including regions of the cortex and the hippocampus, and in such neurons dystrophin has been localized to postsynaptic densities...
  8. Deconinck A, Rafael J, Skinner J, Brown S, Potter A, Metzinger L, et al. Utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cell. 1997;90:717-27 pubmed
    The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood...
  9. Brenman J, Chao D, Xia H, Aldape K, Bredt D. Nitric oxide synthase complexed with dystrophin and absent from skeletal muscle sarcolemma in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cell. 1995;82:743-52 pubmed
    ..We show that nNOS partitions with skeletal muscle membranes owing to association of nNOS with dystrophin, the protein mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bulfield G, Siller W, Wight P, Moore K. X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:1189-92 pubmed
    ..Linkage analysis with four X chromosome loci indicates that mdx maps in the Hq Bpa region of the mouse X chromosome. This gives a gene order of mdx-Tfm-Pgk-1-Ags, the same as for the equivalent genes on the human X chromosome. ..
  2. Cerna J, Cerecedo D, Ortega A, Garcia Sierra F, Centeno F, Garrido E, et al. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion. J Mol Biol. 2006;362:954-65 pubmed
    b>Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown...
  3. Claudepierre T, Dalloz C, Mornet D, Matsumura K, Sahel J, Rendon A. Characterization of the intermolecular associations of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex in retinal Müller glial cells. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 19:3409-17 pubmed
    ..in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients has been attributed to altered expression of C-terminal products of the dystrophin gene in this tissue...
  4. Rodríguez Muñoz R, Villarreal Silva M, González Ramírez R, Garcia Sierra F, Mondragon M, Mondragon R, et al. Neuronal differentiation modulates the dystrophin Dp71d binding to the nuclear matrix. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:303-7 pubmed publisher
    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains unknown. To approach this issue, we have selected the PC12 neuronal cell line. These cells express both a Dp71f cytoplasmic variant and a Dp71d nuclear isoform...
  5. Xu Y, Li J, Wang R. [Changes of dystrophin and desmin in rat gastrocnemius under micro-damage induced by hypoxia]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:339-48 pubmed
    ..05). The contents of dystrophin and desmin fluctuated after hypoxia exposure, increased at 1 d, decreased at 2 d, increased dramatically again ..
  6. Bithell A, Alberta J, Hornby F, Stiles C, Williams B. Expression of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mr-gef, is regulated during the differentiation of specific subsets of telencephalic neurons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;146:107-18 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that mr-gef encodes a protein that is part of a signaling pathway involved in telencephalic neurogenesis; particularly in the development of GABAergic interneurons. ..
  7. Kyoi S, Otani H, Sumida T, Okada T, Osako M, Imamura H, et al. Loss of intracellular dystrophin: a potential mechanism for myocardial reperfusion injury. Circ J. 2003;67:725-7 pubmed
    Because the absence of sarcolemmal dystrophin renders cardiomyocytes vulnerable to mechanical force, the present study investigated whether sarcolemmal membrane fragility upon reperfusion is associated with the loss of membrane dystrophin...
  8. Cisneros B, Rendon A, Genty V, Aranda G, Marquez F, Mornet D, et al. Expression of dystrophin Dp71 during PC12 cell differentiation. Neurosci Lett. 1996;213:107-10 pubmed
    The expression of dystrophin-protein 71 (Dp71) was investigated during nerve growth factor (NGF) induced differentiation of PC12 cells...
  9. Kakarla S, Rice K, Katta A, Paturi S, Wu M, Kolli M, et al. Possible molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the F344XBN rat heart. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were associated with alterations in the composition of the cardiac dystrophin glycoprotein complex and elevated cytoplasmic IgG and albumin immunoreactivity...
  10. Chavez O, Harricane M, Aleman V, Dorbani L, Larroque C, Mornet D, et al. Mitochondrial expression of a short dystrophin-like product with molecular weight of 71 kDa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;274:275-80 pubmed
    ..To determine the alterations which the absence of dystrophin proteins induces, we compared the expression of Dp71d in microsomes and Dp71f in mitochondria from mdx and mdx(..
  11. Koenig X, Dysek S, Kimbacher S, Mike A, Cervenka R, Lukacs P, et al. Voltage-gated ion channel dysfunction precedes cardiomyopathy development in the dystrophic heart. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20300 pubmed publisher
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, is associated with severe cardiac complications including cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrhythmias...
  12. Chamova T, Guergueltcheva V, Raycheva M, Todorov T, Genova J, Bichev S, et al. Association between loss of dp140 and cognitive impairment in duchenne and becker dystrophies. Balkan J Med Genet. 2013;16:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of findings have proved that rearrangements located in the second part of the dystrophin ( DMD ) gene seem to be preferentially associated with cognitive impairment...
  13. Song K, Scherer P, Tang Z, Okamoto T, Li S, Chafel M, et al. Expression of caveolin-3 in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Caveolin-3 is a component of the sarcolemma and co-fractionates with dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15160-5 pubmed
    ..plasma membrane) and coincides with the distribution of another muscle-specific plasma membrane marker protein, dystrophin. In addition, caveolin-3 protein expression is dramatically induced during the differentiation of C2C12 skeletal ..
  14. Rice K, Preston D, Neff D, Norton M, Blough E. Age-related dystrophin-glycoprotein complex structure and function in the rat extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:1119-29 pubmed
    This study tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) may precede age-associated alterations in muscle morphology and function...
  15. Petitprez S, Zmoos A, Ogrodnik J, Balse E, Raad N, El Haou S, et al. SAP97 and dystrophin macromolecular complexes determine two pools of cardiac sodium channels Nav1.5 in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2011;108:294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..5 (Ser-Ile-Val) constitute a PDZ-domain binding motif that interacts with the syntrophin-dystrophin complex. As dystrophin is absent at the intercalated discs, Na(v)1...
  16. Haenggi T, Soontornmalai A, Schaub M, Fritschy J. The role of utrophin and Dp71 for assembly of different dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DPCs) in the choroid plexus and microvasculature of the brain. Neuroscience. 2004;129:403-13 pubmed
    ..present in the choroid plexus epithelium and vascular endothelial cells, whereas the short C-terminal isoform of dystrophin (Dp71) is localized in the glial end-feet surrounding blood vessels...
  17. Hazai D, Halasy K, Mornet D, Hajos F, Jancsik V. Dystrophin splice variants are distinctly localized in the hippocampus. Acta Biol Hung. 2006;57:141-6 pubmed
    It has previously been demonstrated that Dp71, the most abundant dystrophin protein in the brain, is mainly localized in the postsynaptic densities...
  18. Feng J, Yan J, Buzin C, Towbin J, Sommer S. Mutations in the dystrophin gene are associated with sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Mol Genet Metab. 2002;77:119-26 pubmed
    ..Approximately 30% of all DCM is thought to be inherited, while 70% is sporadic. Mutations in the dystrophin gene have been associated with the uncommon X-linked form of DCM...
  19. Austin R, Fox J, Werstuck G, Stafford A, Bulman D, Dally G, et al. Identification of Dp71 isoforms in the platelet membrane cytoskeleton. Potential role in thrombin-mediated platelet adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47106-13 pubmed
    ..F., Zuerbig, S., and Fox, J. E. B. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27259-27265). Although platelets do not contain dystrophin, the identification of smaller C-terminal isoforms of dystrophin, including Dp71, which are expressed in a wide ..
  20. Inanlou M, Kablar B. Abnormal development of the diaphragm in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos leads to pulmonary hypoplasia. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:363-71 pubmed
    ..Together, it appears that mechanical forces generated by contractile activity of the diaphragm muscle play an important role in normal lung growth and development by affecting cell proliferation and TTF-1 expression. ..
  21. Nico B, Frigeri A, Nicchia G, Corsi P, Ribatti D, Quondamatteo F, et al. Severe alterations of endothelial and glial cells in the blood-brain barrier of dystrophic mdx mice. Glia. 2003;42:235-51 pubmed
    In this study, we investigated the involvement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brain of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an experimental model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
  22. Kim J, Yeo S, Ryu H, Kim M, Kim D, Jo S, et al. Astroglial loss and edema formation in the rat piriform cortex and hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4612-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Following SE the AQP4-deleted area was clearly detected in the PC, not in the hippocampus. Decreases in dystrophin and ?-syntrophin immunoreactivities were followed by reduction in AQP4 immunoreactivity...
  23. de Brouwer A, Nabuurs S, Verhaart I, Oudakker A, Hordijk R, Yntema H, et al. A 3-base pair deletion, c.9711_9713del, in DMD results in intellectual disability without muscular dystrophy. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014;22:480-5 pubmed publisher
    We have identified a deletion of 3 base pairs in the dystrophin gene (DMD), c.9711_9713del, in a family with nonspecific X-linked intellectual disability (ID) by sequencing of the exons of 86 known X-linked ID genes...
  24. Lehti T, Kalliokoski R, Komulainen J. Repeated bout effect on the cytoskeletal proteins titin, desmin, and dystrophin in rat skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2007;28:39-47 pubmed
    ..study was to evaluate the effect of repeated bouts of exercise on the cytoskeletal proteins titin, desmin, and dystrophin. Rats were made to run downhill for 90 min 1 or 5 times separated by 14 days...
  25. Belkin A, Burridge K. Association of aciculin with dystrophin and utrophin. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:6328-37 pubmed
    ..We showed that this 400 kDa band comigrated with dystrophin and immunoblotted with anti-dystrophin antibodies...
  26. Prado F, dos Santos D, Blefari V, Silva C, Machado J, Kettelhut I, et al. Early dystrophin loss is coincident with the transition of compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189469 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dystrophin provides mechanical stability to the plasma membrane through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and, ..
  27. Cerecedo D, Mondragon R, Cisneros B, Martínez Pérez F, Martínez Rojas D, Rendon A. Role of dystrophins and utrophins in platelet adhesion process. Br J Haematol. 2006;134:83-91 pubmed
    ..Recently, we demonstrated the presence of dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to short dystrophin isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71) and the uthophin gene ..
  28. Lechner B, Lim J, Mercado M, Fallon J. Developmental regulation of biglycan expression in muscle and tendon. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:347-55 pubmed
    Biglycan is an extracellular ligand for the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) that is upregulated in both dystrophic and regenerating muscle...
  29. Rodríguez Muñoz R, Cárdenas Aguayo M, Alemán V, Osorio B, Chávez González O, Rendon A, et al. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137328 pubmed publisher
    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons...
  30. Hoshino S, Ohkoshi N, Ishii A, Shoji S. The expression of alpha-dystrobrevin and dystrophin during skeletal muscle regeneration. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2002;23:131-8 pubmed
    The expression of alpha-dystrobrevin and dystrophin in rat tibialis anterior muscles was chronologically evaluated during a cycle of regeneration after myonecrosis induced by the injection of cardiotoxin...
  31. Ursitti J, Lee P, Resneck W, McNally M, Bowman A, O Neill A, et al. Cloning and characterization of cytokeratins 8 and 19 in adult rat striated muscle. Interaction with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41830-8 pubmed
    ..b>Dystrophin and K19 could be co-immunoprecipitated and co-purified from extracts of cardiac muscle, suggesting a link ..
  32. Takatoh J, Kudoh H, Kondo S, Hanaoka K. Loss of short dystrophin isoform Dp71 in olfactory ensheathing cells causes vomeronasal nerve defasciculation in mouse olfactory system. Exp Neurol. 2008;213:36-47 pubmed publisher
    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene encodes dystrophin, which is a protein defective in DMD patients, as well as a number of shorter isoforms, which have been shown to be expressed in various non-muscle, primarily neural, tissues...
  33. Cortés J, Montalvo E, Muñiz J, Mornet D, Garrido E, Centeno F, et al. Dp71f modulates GSK3-beta recruitment to the beta1-integrin adhesion complex. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK3-beta is an ILK substrate and the carboxi-terminal region of dystrophin 427 is a substrate for hierarchical phosphorylation by GSK3-beta...
  34. Jellali A, Stussi Garaud C, Gasnier B, Rendon A, Sahel J, Dreyfus H, et al. Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina. J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:76-87 pubmed
    ..These structures were in close apposition with synaptophysin-, PSD-95-, dystrophin-, and bassoon-immunopositive photoreceptor terminals, suggesting that VIAAT is localized in horizontal cell tips ..
  35. Chockalingam P, Cholera R, Oak S, Zheng Y, Jarrett H, Thomason D. Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and Ras and Rho GTPase signaling are altered in muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C500-11 pubmed
    The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) is a sarcolemmal complex whose defects cause muscular dystrophies. The normal function of this complex is not clear...
  36. Sheen S, Kim J, Ryu H, Yang Y, Choi K, Kang T. Decrease in dystrophin expression prior to disruption of brain-blood barrier within the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus. Brain Res. 2011;1369:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior to vasogenic edema formation (12 h after SE), dystrophin immunoreactivity disappeared within astrocytes, while the change in glial fibrillary acidic protein ..
  37. Aragón J, Martínez Herrera A, Romo Yáñez J, Ceja V, Azotla Vilchis C, Siqueiros Márquez L, et al. Identification of Dp71 Isoforms Expressed in PC12 Cells: Subcellular Localization and Colocalization with β-Dystroglycan and α1-Syntrophin. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;58:201-9 pubmed publisher
    Several dystrophin Dp71 messenger RNA (mRNA) alternative splice variants have been described...
  38. Blake D, Love D, Tinsley J, Morris G, Turley H, Gatter K, et al. Characterization of a 4.8kb transcript from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus expressed in Schwannoma cells. Hum Mol Genet. 1992;1:103-9 pubmed
    The 14kb dystrophin transcript from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus, which encodes a 427kDa protein, is differentially spliced at the amino terminal end giving rise to alternative transcripts expressed in muscle and brain...
  39. Miller G, Moore C, Terry R, La Riviere T, Mitchell A, Piggott R, et al. Preventing phosphorylation of dystroglycan ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4508-20 pubmed
    Loss of dystrophin protein due to mutations in the DMD gene causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
  40. Merrick D, Stadler L, Larner D, Smith J. Muscular dystrophy begins early in embryonic development deriving from stem cell loss and disrupted skeletal muscle formation. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:374-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of myogenesis occurs earlier in mdx mutants, which lack a functional form of dystrophin, than in cav-3(-/-) mutants, which lack the Cav3 gene that encodes the protein caveolin-3; this finding is ..
  41. Fauconnier J, Thireau J, Reiken S, Cassan C, Richard S, Matecki S, et al. Leaky RyR2 trigger ventricular arrhythmias in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1559-64 pubmed publisher
    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias...
  42. Kumar A, Khandelwal N, Malya R, Reid M, Boriek A. Loss of dystrophin causes aberrant mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle fibers. FASEB J. 2004;18:102-13 pubmed
    b>Dystrophin is a cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers. We hypothesize that deficiency of dystrophin increases muscle compliance and causes an aberrant mechanotransduction in muscle fibers...
  43. Benson M, Newey S, Martin Rendon E, Hawkes R, Blake D. Dysbindin, a novel coiled-coil-containing protein that interacts with the dystrobrevins in muscle and brain. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24232-41 pubmed
    The dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC) is required for the maintenance of muscle integrity during the mechanical stresses of contraction and relaxation...
  44. Wakayama Y, Inoue M, Kojima H, Murahashi M, Shibuya S, Yamashita S, et al. Aciculin and its relation to dystrophin: immunocytochemical studies in human normal and Duchenne dystrophy quadriceps muscles. Acta Neuropathol. 2000;99:654-62 pubmed
    ..junction antigen extracted from human uterine smooth muscle that is reported to associate biochemically with dystrophin. We attempted to determine (i) the immunostainability of anti-aciculin antibody for the 6 histochemically normal ..
  45. Aragón J, Romo Yáñez J, Martínez Herrera A, Ceja V, Rendon A, Montañez C. Characterization of Dp71?(78-79), a novel dystrophin mutant that stimulates PC12 cell differentiation. J Neurochem. 2011;119:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..understand the function of Dp71 domains in neuronal differentiation, PC12 cells were stably transfected with a dystrophin mutant, Dp71?(78-79) , which lacks exons 78 and 79...
  46. Suh J, Yamazaki A, Tomita T. Breeding of the gad-mdx mouse: influence of genetically induced denervation on dystrophic muscle fibers. Lab Anim Sci. 1994;44:42-6 pubmed
    ..This new strain was characterized by high creatine kinase activity in the plasma, lack of dystrophin in the muscle, and the presence of axonal swellings in the neural tissue...
  47. Villarreal Silva M, Centeno Cruz F, Suárez Sánchez R, Garrido E, Cisneros B. Knockdown of dystrophin Dp71 impairs PC12 cells cycle: localization in the spindle and cytokinesis structures implies a role for Dp71 in cell division. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23504 pubmed publisher
    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains to be established...
  48. Takami Y, Takeshima Y, Awano H, Okizuka Y, Yagi M, Matsuo M. High incidence of electrocardiogram abnormalities in young patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;39:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, electrocardiogram abnormalities were examined in Duchenne muscular dystrophy cases with dystrophin gene mutations. Sixty-nine patients, aged </=18 years, received 136 electrocardiogram examinations...
  49. Tinsley J, Blake D, Davies K. Apo-dystrophin-3: a 2.2kb transcript from the DMD locus encoding the dystrophin glycoprotein binding site. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:521-4 pubmed
    ..dystrophy is well established as being due to mutations at Xp21 which disrupt the normal synthesis of the 14kb dystrophin mRNA. More recently, several groups have identified a 4...
  50. Sharma P, Tran T, Stelmack G, McNeill K, Gosens R, Mutawe M, et al. Expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is a marker for human airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L57-68 pubmed
    ..The multimeric dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) spans the sarcolemma, linking the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix...
  51. Koh T, Escobedo J. Cytoskeletal disruption and small heat shock protein translocation immediately after lengthening contractions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C713-22 pubmed
    ..decreased concentrations of z-disk proteins alpha-actinin and plectin and membrane scaffolding proteins dystrophin and beta-spectrin in muscle exposed to lengthening contractions compared with contralateral control muscle...
  52. Kido M, Otani H, Kyoi S, Sumida T, Fujiwara H, Okada T, et al. Ischemic preconditioning-mediated restoration of membrane dystrophin during reperfusion correlates with protection against contraction-induced myocardial injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H81-90 pubmed
    b>Dystrophin is an integral membrane protein involved in the stabilization of the sarcolemmal membrane in cardiac muscle...
  53. Stone M, O Neill A, Catino D, Bloch R. Specific interaction of the actin-binding domain of dystrophin with intermediate filaments containing keratin 19. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4280-93 pubmed
    Cytokeratins 8 and 19 concentrate at costameres of striated muscle and copurify with the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, perhaps through the interaction of the cytokeratins with the actin-binding domain of dystrophin...