Gene Symbol: Dbh
Description: dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Alias: DOPBHY, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine beta hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase), dopamine beta-monooxygenase
Species: rat
Products:     Dbh

Top Publications

  1. Nelson K, Prohaska J. Copper deficiency in rodents alters dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase activity, mRNA and protein level. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:18-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate dietary Cu is essential to support DBM function in vivo but additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism for increased DBM transcription associated with Cu deficiency. ..
  2. Serova L, Nostramo R, Veerasirikul M, Cappell D, Sabban E. Varied mechanisms of oestradiol-mediated regulation of dopamine ?-hydroxylase transcription. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:168-76 pubmed publisher
    Experiments performed in vivo and in cell culture have demonstrated that oestradiol induces dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) gene transcription...
  3. Pohorecky L, Blakley G, Kubovcakova L, Krizanova O, Patterson Buckendahl P, Kvetnansky R. Social hierarchy affects gene expression for catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in rat adrenal glands. Neuroendocrinology. 2004;80:42-51 pubmed
    ..and individual housing of male rats on adrenal mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and on TH protein levels...
  4. Temel S, Lin W, Lakhlani S, Jennes L. Expression of estrogen receptor-alpha and cFos in norepinephrine and epinephrine neurons of young and middle-aged rats during the steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3974-83 pubmed
    ..cFos changes with age during the steroid-induced surge; and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanol-N-methyltransferase mRNA content in catecholaminergic neurons of the brain stem changes during ..
  5. Petrovic N, Cvijic G, Davidovic V. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of uncoupling protein-1 in the brown adipose tissue of hypothyroid rats: comparison with effects of iopanoic acid. Physiol Res. 2001;50:289-97 pubmed
    ..MAO) in the IBAT as well as the activity of the catecholamine synthesizing enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in rat serum were examined...
  6. Prohaska J, Brokate B. Copper deficiency alters rat dopamine beta-monooxygenase mRNA and activity. J Nutr. 1999;129:2147-53 pubmed
    ..The molecular signal may not be solely lower norepinephrine content because adrenal DBM mRNA changes were evident in both nutritional models, whereas the norepinephrine content was altered only in the postnatal model. ..
  7. Potes C, Turek V, Cole R, Vu C, Roland B, Roth J, et al. Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylin's hypophagic action. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of c-Fos protein was used as a marker for neuronal activation and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme-catalyzing noradrenaline synthesis, as a marker for noradrenergic neurons...
  8. SMITH K, Daly M, Fischer M, Yiannoutsos C, Bauer L, Barkley R, et al. Association of the dopamine beta hydroxylase gene with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: genetic analysis of the Milwaukee longitudinal study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;119B:77-85 pubmed
    ..ADHD and 68 age and ethnicity-matched controls for the DRD4 exon 3 VNTR, the SLC6A3 (DAT1) 3' UTR VNTR, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) TaqI A polymorphism, and the DBH GT microsatellite repeat polymorphism that has been ..
  9. Zhang Y, Kolli T, Hivley R, Jaber L, Zhao F, Yan J, et al. Characterization of the expression pattern of adrenergic receptors in rat taste buds. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1421-37 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Spasojevic N, Gavrilovic L, Dronjak S. Effects of repeated maprotiline and fluoxetine treatment on gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla of unstressed and stressed rats. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2010;30:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3 Fluoxetine increased gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH), but did not phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in both unstressed and chronic unpredictable mild stressed ..
  2. Fernandez F, Lea R, Colson N, Bellis C, Quinlan S, Griffiths L. Association between a 19 bp deletion polymorphism at the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) locus and migraine with aura. J Neurol Sci. 2006;251:118-23 pubmed
    ..association with migraine of a microsatellite localised to the promoter region of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene...
  3. Kato K, Fushuku S, Yamamoto Y. Age-related changes in immunoreactivity for dopamine β-hydroxylase in carotid body glomus cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Auton Neurosci. 2017;205:50-56 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate immunoreactivity for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in carotid body (CB) glomus cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm) at 4 (prehypertensive stage), ..
  4. Inouye K, Yue J, Chan O, Kim T, Akirav E, Park E, et al. Effects of insulin treatment without and with recurrent hypoglycemia on hypoglycemic counterregulation and adrenal catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in diabetic rats. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1860-70 pubmed
    ..Protection against epinephrine defects, both without and with antecedent hypoglycemia, is associated with enhancement of adrenal catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme levels. ..
  5. Kitayama I, Otani M, Murase S. Degeneration of the locus ceruleus noradrenergic neurons in the stress-induced depression of rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:95-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These indices increased in the model treated with imipramine. These findings suggest that the LC noradrenergic neurons degenerate in depression, but regenerate in remission. ..
  6. Guevara Guzman R, Arriaga V, Kendrick K, Bernal C, Vega X, Mercado Gómez O, et al. Estradiol prevents ozone-induced increases in brain lipid peroxidation and impaired social recognition memory in female rats. Neuroscience. 2009;159:940-50 pubmed publisher
    ..That these effects can be prevented by estradiol treatment suggests increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders in aging women may be contributed to by reduced estrogen levels post-menopause. ..
  7. Weinshenker D, Rust N, Miller N, Palmiter R. Ethanol-associated behaviors of mice lacking norepinephrine. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3157-64 pubmed
    ..to determine the effect of NE depletion on ethanol-mediated behaviors by using dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that specifically lack the ability to synthesize NE...
  8. Tong M, Dong M, de la Monte S. Brain insulin-like growth factor and neurotrophin resistance in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: potential role of manganese neurotoxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16:585-99 pubmed publisher
  9. Ste Marie L, Palmiter R. Norepinephrine and epinephrine-deficient mice are hyperinsulinemic and have lower blood glucose. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4427-32 pubmed
    ..The absence of NE and Epi in dopamine beta-hydroxylase-null (Dbh-/-) mice results in chronically low blood glucose levels, an impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia, and ..
  10. Swoap S, Weinshenker D, Palmiter R, Garber G. Dbh(-/-) mice are hypotensive, have altered circadian rhythms, and have abnormal responses to dieting and stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R108-13 pubmed
    We used mice deficient in dopamine beta-hydroxylase [Dbh(-/-)] and their littermate controls [Dbh(+/-)] to examine the role of epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in the maintenance of cardiovascular parameters during 7 days of ..
  11. Erdos B, Erdem S, Erdem A, Broxson C, Tumer N. Effect of age on angiotensin II-mediated downregulation of adrenomedullary catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43:806-9 pubmed publisher
    Expression of catecholamine biosynthesizing enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH) increase with age in the adrenal medulla, however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear...
  12. Patil J, Stucki S, Nussberger J, Schaffner T, Gygax S, Bohlender J, et al. Angiotensinergic and noradrenergic neurons in the rat and human heart. Regul Pept. 2011;167:31-41 pubmed publisher
  13. Marques Pereira P, Gruss M, Braun K, Foos N, Pannetier S, Hanauer A. Dopaminergic system dysregulation in the mrsk2_KO mouse, an animal model of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome. J Neurochem. 2008;107:1325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This cortical hyperdopaminergia may explain some non-cognitive but also cognitive alterations exhibited by mrsk2_KO mice...
  14. Coll M, Martell M, Raurell I, Ezkurdia N, Cuenca S, Hernandez Losa J, et al. Atrophy of mesenteric sympathetic innervation may contribute to splanchnic vasodilation in rat portal hypertension. Liver Int. 2010;30:593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Portal hypertension is associated with sympathetic nerve atrophy/regression in the mesenteric arterial vasculature that could contribute to the splanchnic vasodilation associated with portal hypertension. ..
  15. Freire M, Hutz M, Bau C. The DBH -1021 C/T polymorphism is not associated with alcoholism but possibly with patients' exposure to life events. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2005;112:1269-74 pubmed
    Two DBH polymorphisms were investigated in 114 Brazilian alcoholics of European descent and 233 controls. Personality and life events were also analyzed among alcoholics...
  16. Alaniz R, Thomas S, Perez Melgosa M, Mueller K, Farr A, Palmiter R, et al. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2274-8 pubmed
    ..We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead...
  17. Murchison C, Zhang X, Zhang W, Ouyang M, Lee A, Thomas S. A distinct role for norepinephrine in memory retrieval. Cell. 2004;117:131-43 pubmed
    ..These findings may be relevant to symptoms in several neuropsychiatric disorders as well as the treatment of cardiac failure with beta blockers. ..
  18. Healy D, Abou Sleiman P, Ozawa T, Lees A, Bhatia K, Ahmadi K, et al. A functional polymorphism regulating dopamine beta-hydroxylase influences against Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2004;55:443-6 pubmed
    ..1021C --> T polymorphism in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene has been demonstrated to regulate plasma DBH activity...
  19. Thomas S, Palmiter R. Thermoregulatory and metabolic phenotypes of mice lacking noradrenaline and adrenaline. Nature. 1997;387:94-7 pubmed
    ..The unexpected increase in basal metabolic rate is not due to hyperthyroidism, compensation by the widely expressed uncoupling protein UCP2, or shivering. ..
  20. Buller K, Wixey J, Pathipati P, Carty M, Colditz P, Williams C, et al. Selective losses of brainstem catecholamine neurons after hypoxia-ischemia in the immature rat pup. Pediatr Res. 2008;63:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest neonatal HI can affect specific neurochemically-defined neuronal populations in the brainstem and that noradrenergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to HI injury. ..
  21. Gavrilovic L, Spasojevic N, Dronjak S. Psychosocial stress-related changes in gene expression of norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia of adult rats. Auton Neurosci. 2009;150:144-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the changes in norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene expression in the stellate ganglia of naive controls and ..
  22. Fuzesi T, Wittmann G, Lechan R, Liposits Z, Fekete C. Noradrenergic innervation of hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in rats. Brain Res. 2009;1294:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..brainstem pathways, and are heavily innervated by catecholaminergic axons that contain dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), enzymes that generate noradrenaline and adrenaline, ..
  23. Gavrilovic L, Spasojevic N, Tanic N, Dronjak S. Chronic isolation of adult rats decreases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in adrenal medulla. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:1015-20 pubmed
    ..and protein levels of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the adrenal medulla of naive control and chronically (12 ..
  24. Weinshenker D, Miller N, Blizinsky K, Laughlin M, Palmiter R. Mice with chronic norepinephrine deficiency resemble amphetamine-sensitized animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13873-7 pubmed
    ..NE) signaling modulates psychostimulant responses by testing LRA in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE. Surprisingly, Dbh-/- animals were hypersensitive to the behavioral effects of amphetamine...
  25. Kobayashi K, Morita S, Mizuguchi T, Sawada H, Yamada K, Nagatsu I, et al. Functional and high level expression of human dopamine beta-hydroxylase in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29725-31 pubmed
    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; EC catalyzes the production of the neurotransmitter and hormone norepinephrine in the third step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway...
  26. Spasojevic N, Stanisavljevic D, Gavrilovic L, Jovanovic P, Cucakovic A, Dronjak S. Hippocampal asymmetry in expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme and transporters in socially isolated rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012;33:631-5 pubmed
    ..We examined changes in protein levels of dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2) in the right and left hippocampus ..
  27. Fan Y, Huang J, Duffourc M, Kao R, Ordway G, Huang R, et al. Transcription factor Phox2 upregulates expression of norepinephrine transporter and dopamine ?-hydroxylase in adult rat brains. Neuroscience. 2011;192:37-53 pubmed publisher
    ..vPhox2a and vPhox2b) were constructed to study the effects of Phox2a/2b over-expression on dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) levels in central noradrenergic neurons...
  28. Cubells J, Schroeder J, Barrie E, Manvich D, Sadee W, Berg T, et al. Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis Fully Rescues Noradrenergic Function in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154864 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic/adrenergic cells...
  29. Bianco L, Wiesinger J, Earley C, Jones B, Beard J. Iron deficiency alters dopamine uptake and response to L-DOPA injection in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Neurochem. 2008;106:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments provide new evidence that ID results in altered synthesis and functioning of DAT and perhaps suggests some compensatory changes in NE metabolism. ..
  30. Köhnke M, Kolb W, Köhnke A, Lutz U, Schick S, Batra A. DBH*444G/A polymorphism of the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene is associated with alcoholism but not with severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:869-76 pubmed
    ..to be involved in the pathology of alcoholism and severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms, the gene encoding DbetaH (DBH) was applied to explore the genetic background of alcoholism and severe withdrawal symptoms...
  31. Erami C, Zhang H, Tanoue A, Tsujimoto G, Thomas S, Faber J. Adrenergic catecholamine trophic activity contributes to flow-mediated arterial remodeling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H744-53 pubmed
    ..wild-type mice or mice deficient in norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis [dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (DBH-KO)], all distal branches of the left carotid artery (LC) except the thyroid artery were ligated to reduce flow in ..
  32. Thomas S, Matsumoto A, Palmiter R. Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development. Nature. 1995;374:643-6 pubmed
    ..Mutant embryos had a histological phenotype similar to that of embryos deficient in tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting that death might be due to cardiovascular failure. ..
  33. Coll M, Genesca J, Raurell I, Rodriguez Vilarrupla A, Mejias M, Otero T, et al. Down-regulation of genes related to the adrenergic system may contribute to splanchnic vasodilation in rat portal hypertension. J Hepatol. 2008;49:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis of Th, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) and synaptosome-associated protein (Snap-25) was performed in SMA and jejunum samples from the animal models...
  34. Serova L, Rivkin M, Nakashima A, Sabban E. Estradiol stimulates gene expression of norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes in rat locus coeruleus. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;75:193-200 pubmed
    ..Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) mRNA levels were also similarly increased...
  35. Jasmin L, Tien D, Weinshenker D, Palmiter R, Green P, Janni G, et al. The NK1 receptor mediates both the hyperalgesia and the resistance to morphine in mice lacking noradrenaline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1029-34 pubmed
    ..We conclude that when unopposed by NA, substance P acting at the NK1 receptor causes chronic thermal hyperalgesia, and that the reduced opioid efficacy associated with a lack of NA is due to increased NK1-receptor stimulation. ..
  36. Johnson D, Weise V, Hanbauer I, Silberstein S, Kopin I. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity during sympathetic reinnervation of rat iris in organ culture. Neurobiology. 1973;3:88-90 pubmed
  37. Zhang H, Cotecchia S, Thomas S, Tanoue A, Tsujimoto G, Faber J. Gene deletion of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and alpha1-adrenoceptors demonstrates involvement of catecholamines in vascular remodeling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H2106-14 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study, in which mice devoid of norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis [dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH-/-)] or deficient in alpha1-AR subtypes expressed in murine carotid (alpha1B-AR-/- and alpha1D-AR-/-) were used, ..
  38. Micutkova L, Kiss A, Filipenko M, Rychkova N, Krizanova O, Palkovits M, et al. Gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes in A5 cell group and modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA by immobilization stress. Endocr Regul. 2001;35:195-200 pubmed
    ..The gene expression of. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyl-transferase (PNMT) in A5 brain nuclei was estimated...
  39. Cherian A, Briski K. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses reveal acclimated A2 noradrenergic neuron substrate fuel transporter, glucokinase, phospho-AMPK, and dopamine-?-hydroxylase responses to hypoglycemia. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1114-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This research suggests that chronic hypoglycemia-associated adjustments in A2-sensory neurotransmission may reflect cellular energetic debilitation rather than adaptive attenuation of cellular metabolic imbalance. ..
  40. Takahashi S. Expression levels of mRNAs for catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes as markers of acute response to contusion stress during the early postmortem period. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;216:239-48 pubmed
    ..enzymes in the adrenals and the anterocervical ganglia: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)...
  41. Kvetnansky R, Sabban E, Palkovits M. Catecholaminergic systems in stress: structural and molecular genetic approaches. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:535-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Data summarized here indicate that catecholaminergic systems are activated in different ways following exposure to distinct stressful stimuli...
  42. Kaasinen S, Harvey L, Reynolds A, Hendry I. Autophagy generates retrogradely transported organelles: a hypothesis. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This sample of cytoplasmic contents relays a reliable snapshot of the totality of signalling events occurring in the nerve terminal at that instant in time. ..
  43. Cragg S, Baufreton J, Xue Y, Bolam J, Bevan M. Synaptic release of dopamine in the subthalamic nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:1788-802 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that SN DA neurons directly modulate the activity of STN neurons and their loss may contribute to the abnormal activity of STN neurons in PD. ..
  44. Lamouroux A, Vigny A, Faucon Biguet N, Darmon M, Franck R, Henry J, et al. The primary structure of human dopamine-beta-hydroxylase: insights into the relationship between the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of the enzyme. EMBO J. 1987;6:3931-7 pubmed
    A full length dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) cDNA clone was isolated from a human pheochromocytoma lambda gt11 library...
  45. Murtazina A, Nikishina Y, Bondarenko N, Sapronova A, Volina E, Ugrumov M. Gene expression and content of enzymes of noradrenaline synthesis in the rat organ of Zuckerkandl at the critical period of morphogenesis. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;474:200-203 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the synthesis of noradrenaline in the organ of Zuckerkandl is maximum during the critical period of morphogenesis and decreases during the involution of this paraganglion. ..
  46. Patterson Buckendahl P, Kubovcakova L, Krizanova O, Pohorecky L, Kvetnansky R. Ethanol consumption increases rat stress hormones and adrenomedullary gene expression. Alcohol. 2005;37:157-66 pubmed
    ..gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT); and TH protein levels were measured...
  47. Thomas S, Palmiter R. Impaired maternal behavior in mice lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine. Cell. 1997;91:583-92 pubmed
    ..NE) and epinephrine in behavior were investigated by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, thereby eliminating these compounds in vivo...
  48. Spasojevic N, Gavrilovic L, Dronjak S. Regulation of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes and beta-adrenoceptors gene expression in ventricles of stressed rats. Physiol Res. 2011;60 Suppl 1:S171-6 pubmed
  49. Li A, Wang Q, Dinh T, Ritter S. Simultaneous silencing of Npy and Dbh expression in hindbrain A1/C1 catecholamine cells suppresses glucoprivic feeding. J Neurosci. 2009;29:280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to produce a targeted gene knockdown of NPY and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), a catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme. Unilateral injection of NPY siRNA and DBH siRNA (0...
  50. Vendelboe T, Harris P, Zhao Y, Walter T, Harlos K, El Omari K, et al. The crystal structure of human dopamine β-hydroxylase at 2.9 Å resolution. Sci Adv. 2016;2:e1500980 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure provides new molecular insights into the numerous devastating disorders of both physiological and neurological origins associated with the dopamine system. ..
  51. Gajda M, Litwin J, Tabarowski Z, Zagolski O, Cichocki T, Timmermans J, et al. Development of rat tibia innervation: colocalization of autonomic nerve fiber markers with growth-associated protein 43. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;191:489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..5 as marker of growing nerve fibers, mostly due to its earlier appearance. The presence of specific nerve fibers may suggest possible involvement of autonomic innervation in regulation of bone development. ..
  52. Min M, Wu Y, Shih P, Lu H, Lin C, Wu Y, et al. Physiological and morphological properties of, and effect of substance P on, neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats. Neuroscience. 2008;153:1020-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the neurons were injected with biocytin and immunostained with antibody against dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). DBH-immunoreactive (ir) cells were presumed to be NAergic neurons...
  53. Pravenec M, Landa V, Zidek V, Mlejnek P, Silhavy J, Mir S, et al. Effects of transgenic expression of dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) gene on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physiol Res. 2016;65:1039-1044 pubmed
    ..Recently, we obtained evidence that the SHR harbors a variant in the gene for dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) that is associated with reduced adrenal expression of Dbh mRNA and reduced DBH enzymatic activity ..