cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV


Gene Symbol: cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV
Description: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4i1
Alias: Cox4, Cox4a, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrial, COX IV-1, cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide IV, cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 4a, cytochrome c oxidase, subunit IV, cytochrome c oxidase, subunit IVa
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Oswald C, Krause Buchholz U, Rödel G. Knockdown of human COX17 affects assembly and supramolecular organization of cytochrome c oxidase. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:470-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An interdependent assembly scenario for the formation of supercomplexes that rather requires the coordinated synthesis and association of individual complexes, is proposed. ..
  2. Zhou Z, Yon Toh S, Chen Z, Guo K, Ng C, Ponniah S, et al. Cidea-deficient mice have lean phenotype and are resistant to obesity. Nat Genet. 2003;35:49-56 pubmed
    ..Our data thus indicate a role for Cidea in regulating energy balance and adiposity. ..
  3. Stanelle J, Tu Rapp H, Pützer B. A novel mitochondrial protein DIP mediates E2F1-induced apoptosis independently of p53. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:347-57 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights to the incompletely understood regulatory mechanisms of E2F1-induced apoptosis. ..
  4. Isobe Y, Hida H, Nishino H. Circadian rhythm of metabolic oscillation in suprachiasmatic nucleus depends on the mitochondrial oxidation state, reflected by cytochrome C oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:929-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the glycolysis energy pathway in the SCN, which exhits higher metabolic activity during the day than at night, might be involved in the generation of circadian rhythm. ..
  5. Virbasius J, Scarpulla R. The rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene family: tissue-specific and hormonal differences in subunit IV and cytochrome c mRNA expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:6581-6 pubmed
    We have isolated three members of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene family: one functional gene and two processed pseudogenes. The pseudogenes appear to represent the only other closely related sequences in this family...
  6. Goto Y, Amuro N, Okazaki T. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for rat brain and liver cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:2851 pubmed
  7. Zuo X, Dong D, Sun M, Xie H, Kang Y. Homocysteine restricts copper availability leading to suppression of cytochrome C oxidase activity in phenylephrine-treated cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67549 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PE-induced elevation of homocysteine restricts Cu availability through its interaction with Cu and suppression of Cu chaperones, leading to the decrease in CCO enzyme activity. ..
  8. Arnandis T, Ferrer Vicens I, García Trevijano E, Miralles V, Garcia C, Torres L, et al. Calpains mediate epithelial-cell death during mammary gland involution: mitochondria and lysosomal destabilization. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1536-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CAPNs are responsible for mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane permeabilization, supporting the idea that lysosomal-mediated cell death is a new hallmark of mammary gland involution. ..
  9. Gopalan G, Droste M, Kadenbach B. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase from fetal rat liver. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:4376 pubmed

More Information


  1. Brookes P, Baggott J. Oxidation of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to 10-formyldihydrofolate by complex IV of rat mitochondria. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5633-6 pubmed
  2. Prior L, Velkoska E, Watts R, Cameron Smith D, Morris M. Undernutrition during suckling in rats elevates plasma adiponectin and its receptor in skeletal muscle regardless of diet composition: a protective effect?. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT-1), cytochrome c oxidase 4 (COX4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)...
  3. Tan X, Liu J, Cao L, Deng Z, Li Y. [Effects of hypoxic exposure on coordinative expression of cytochrome oxidase subunits I and IV in rat cerebral cortex]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2002;54:519-24 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the expression of COX I and COX IV proteins during hypoxic exposure is coordinately regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms. ..
  4. Yu Q, Nguyen T, Ogbi M, Caldwell R, Johnson J. Differential loss of cytochrome-c oxidase subunits in ischemia-reperfusion injury: exacerbation of COI subunit loss by PKC-epsilon inhibition. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that additional measures to protect CO subunits when coadministered with PC may improve its cardioprotection against I/R injury...
  5. Schagger H, Noack H, Halangk W, Brandt U, Von Jagow G. Cytochrome-c oxidase in developing rat heart. Enzymic properties and amino-terminal sequences suggest identity of the fetal heart and the adult liver isoform. Eur J Biochem. 1995;230:235-41 pubmed
    ..The fetal enzymes from heart and liver seem to be identical to the adult liver isoform, as deduced from their enzymic properties and identical aminoterminal sequences of subunits VIa and VIII. ..
  6. Amuro N, Yamada M, Goto Y, Okazaki T. Complete nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:3992 pubmed
  7. Bansal S, Srinivasan S, Anandasadagopan S, Chowdhury A, Selvaraj V, Kalyanaraman B, et al. Additive effects of mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome CYP2E1 and alcohol toxicity on cytochrome c oxidase function and stability of respirosome complexes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15284-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CcO is one of the direct and immediate targets of alcohol-induced toxicity causing respiratory dysfunction. ..
  8. Kar A, Vargas J, Chen C, Kowalak J, Gioio A, Kaplan B. Molecular determinants of cytochrome C oxidase IV mRNA axonal trafficking. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2017;80:32-43 pubmed publisher
    ..a putative 38-nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3' untranslated region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) mRNA that was necessary and sufficient for the axonal localization of the message in primary ..
  9. Wildman D, Wu W, Goodman M, Grossman L. Episodic positive selection in ape cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1812-5 pubmed
  10. Lombard D, Alt F, Cheng H, Bunkenborg J, Streeper R, Mostoslavsky R, et al. Mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT3 regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8807-14 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results extend the recent finding of lysine acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and demonstrate that SIRT3 has evolved to control reversible lysine acetylation in this organelle. ..
  11. Diaz F, Thomas C, Garcia S, Hernandez D, Moraes C. Mice lacking COX10 in skeletal muscle recapitulate the phenotype of progressive mitochondrial myopathies associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2737-48 pubmed
    ..This COX10 KO mouse allowed us to correlate the muscle function with residual COX activity, an estimate that can help predict the progression pattern of human mitochondrial myopathies...
  12. Takimoto M, Hamada T. Acute exercise increases brain region-specific expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014;116:1238-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute prolonged exercise induces the brain region-specific upregulation of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins. ..
  13. Yamada M, Amuro N, Goto Y, Okazaki T. Structural organization of the rat cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7687-92 pubmed
    ..An octanucleotide sequence, -TTCTTGGT-, which is very close to the yeast HAP2/HAP3 responsive element, is located in the 5'-upstream region of the present gene. ..
  14. Aschrafi A, Kar A, Natera Naranjo O, Macgibeny M, Gioio A, Kaplan B. MicroRNA-338 regulates the axonal expression of multiple nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs encoding subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:4017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to a mechanism by which miR-338 modulates local energy metabolism through the coordinate regulation of the expression of multiple nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs in the axon. ..