Gene Symbol: Cycs
Description: cytochrome c, somatic
Alias: CYCSA, cytochrome c, somatic, Cytochrome C, expressed in somatic tissues
Species: rat
Products:     Cycs

Top Publications

  1. Ogneva I, Birjukov N, Veselova O, Larina I. [Cytochrome C content and mitochondrial activity in rat's cardiac and skeletal muscle cells in the course of 3-day gravitational unloading]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2014;48:23-9 pubmed
    ..6% (p < 0.05) after 18 hours of suspension relative the control. Cycs and gapdh expression was not altered, while parameters of the cardiomyocyte cellular respiration were increased...
  2. Virbasius J, Scarpulla R. Structure and expression of rodent genes encoding the testis-specific cytochrome c. Differences in gene structure and evolution between somatic and testicular variants. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:6791-6 pubmed
  3. Pu H, Wang X, Su L, Ma C, Zhang Y, Zhang L, et al. Heroin activates ATF3 and CytC via c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways to mediate neuronal apoptosis. Med Sci Monit Basic Res. 2015;21:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSIONS The present study analyzes our understanding of the critical role of the JNK pathway in the process of neuronal apoptosis induced by heroin, and suggests a new and effective strategy to treat SLE. ..
  4. Penney D, Zak R, Aschenbrenner V. Carbon monoxide inhalation: effect on heart cytochrome c in the neonatal and adult rat. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1983;12:395-406 pubmed
    ..These also showed the increase in myocardial cytochrome c content and compromise of cytochrome c concentration, and both changes were greater with longer exposure. ..
  5. Garber E, Margoliash E. Circular dichroism studies of the binding of mammalian and non-mammalian cytochromes c to cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and polyanions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1187:289-95 pubmed
    ..According to this model, the exclusion of solvent changes the relative asymmetry of the environment of the electronic transitions of the heme prosthetic group of cytochrome c, resulting in observed circular dichroic effects. ..
  6. Gao G, Yu Z, Yan J, Li J, Shen S, Jia B, et al. Poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase‑ and cytochrome c‑mediated apoptosis induces hepatocyte injury in a rat model of hyperammonia‑induced hepatic failure. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:4211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, downregulation of CaMK may be associated with the apoptosis observed in hepatocyte injury. ..
  7. Cleland M, Norris K, Karbowski M, Wang C, Suen D, Jiao S, et al. Bcl-2 family interaction with the mitochondrial morphogenesis machinery. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:235-47 pubmed publisher
  8. Cao L, Xue P, Lu H, Zheng Q, Wen Z, Shao Z. Hematoporphyrin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy inhibits tumor growth in human cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Hepatol Res. 2009;39:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HPD-PDT inhibits tumor growth of human cholangiocarcinoma, suggesting that HPD-PDT is useful in cholangiocarcinoma therapy. ..
  9. Song Y, Liang X, Hu Y, Wang Y, Yu H, Yang K. p,p'-DDE induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of cultured rat Sertoli cells. Toxicology. 2008;253:53-61 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Miller T, Knapton A, Adeyemo O, Noory L, Weaver J, Hanig J. Cytochrome c: a non-invasive biomarker of drug-induced liver injury. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:815-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate cyt c to be a useful indicator of hepatic injury in rodents and support its utility as a non-invasive predictor of drug-induced hepatotoxicity, when utilized as a potential urinary biomarker. ..
  2. Ye L, Yang S. [Sirtuin 3 inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C release in myocardiac H9c2 cells with calcium overload]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;31:1031-5 pubmed
    ..Sirtuin 3 could inhibit cell apoptosis by reducing CytC release and inhibiting caspase-3 activation in cardiomyocyte models with calcium overload. ..
  3. Pasdois P, Parker J, Griffiths E, Halestrap A. The role of oxidized cytochrome c in regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and its perturbation in ischaemia. Biochem J. 2011;436:493-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We further suggest that in hypoxia, production of H?O? to activate signalling pathways may be also mediated by decreased oxidized cytochrome c and less superoxide scavenging. ..
  4. Ju W, Kim K, Lindsey J, Angert M, Patel A, Scott R, et al. Elevated hydrostatic pressure triggers release of OPA1 and cytochrome C, and induces apoptotic cell death in differentiated RGC-5 cells. Mol Vis. 2009;15:120-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sustained moderate pressure elevation may directly damage RGC integrity by injuring mitochondria. ..
  5. La Piana G, Marzulli D, Consalvo M, Lofrumento N. Cytochrome c-induced cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation, mitochondrial permeability transition, and apoptosis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;410:201-11 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is not in contrast with available data in the literature showing that cyto-c is present in the cytosol of both control and apoptosis-induced cultured cell lines. ..
  6. Liu X, Kim C, Yang J, Jemmerson R, Wang X. Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c. Cell. 1996;86:147-57 pubmed
    ..Cells undergoing apoptosis in vivo showed increased release of cytochrome c to their cytosol, suggesting that mitochondria may function in apoptosis by releasing cytochrome c. ..
  7. Lin T, Cheng C, Chen S, Liou C, Huang C, Chuang Y. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress promote apoptotic cell death in the striatum via cytochrome c/caspase-3 signaling cascade following chronic rotenone intoxication in rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:8722-39 pubmed publisher
  8. Inoki Y, Miura T, Kajimoto T, Kawase M, Kawase Y, Yoshida Y, et al. Ganglioside GD3 and its mimetics induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:1210-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 did not induce cytochrome c release. These results indicate that two sialo residues must play an important role in the induction of cytochrome c release by gangliosides. ..
  9. Russell J, Whiting H, Szuflita N, Hossain M. Nuclear translocation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) determines cell fate after hypoxia ischemia in neonatal brain. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is evidenced by the enhanced caspase 3 activity and neuronal death. Our findings implicate XIAP nuclear translocation in neuronal death and point to a novel mechanism in the regulation of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. ..
  10. Sakai T, Liu L, Teng X, Mukai Sakai R, Shimada H, Kaji R, et al. Nucling recruits Apaf-1/pro-caspase-9 complex for the induction of stress-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41131-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Nucling recruits and transports the apoptosome complex during stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  11. Kuznetsov A, Schneeberger S, Seiler R, Brandacher G, Mark W, Steurer W, et al. Mitochondrial defects and heterogeneous cytochrome c release after cardiac cold ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1633-41 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a complex pattern of multiple mitochondrial damage as determinants of CIR injury of the heart. ..
  12. Scarpulla R, Wu R. Nonallelic members of the cytochrome c multigene family of the rat may arise through different messenger RNAs. Cell. 1983;32:473-82 pubmed
    ..The observations suggest that these members of the cytochrome c multigene family may arise through insertion into the genome of DNA copies of cytochrome c mRNAs. ..
  13. Tan Z, Sun X, Hou F, Oh H, Hilgenberg L, Hol E, et al. Mutant ubiquitin found in Alzheimer's disease causes neuritic beading of mitochondria in association with neuronal degeneration. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1721-32 pubmed
  14. Zaccagnino P, D Oria S, Romano L, Di Venere A, Sardanelli A, Lorusso M. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglicerol decreases calcium induced cytochrome c release from liver mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..All these effects are apparently associated with 2-AG dependent alteration in the fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes, which was measured as generalized polarization of laurdan fluorescence. ..
  15. Gillick K, Crompton M. Evaluating cytochrome c diffusion in the intermembrane spaces of mitochondria during cytochrome c release. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:618-26 pubmed publisher
  16. Oswald C, Krause Buchholz U, Rödel G. Knockdown of human COX17 affects assembly and supramolecular organization of cytochrome c oxidase. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:470-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An interdependent assembly scenario for the formation of supercomplexes that rather requires the coordinated synthesis and association of individual complexes, is proposed. ..
  17. Rajpal A, Cho Y, Yelent B, Koza Taylor P, Li D, Chen E, et al. Transcriptional activation of known and novel apoptotic pathways by Nur77 orphan steroid receptor. EMBO J. 2003;22:6526-36 pubmed
    ..Thus Nur77-mediated apoptosis in T cells involves Bcl-2 independent transcriptional activation of several known and novel apoptotic pathways. ..
  18. Petrosillo G, Ruggiero F, Pistolese M, Paradies G. Ca2+-induced reactive oxygen species production promotes cytochrome c release from rat liver mitochondria via mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent and MPT-independent mechanisms: role of cardiolipin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53103-8 pubmed
    ..The data may help to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the Ca(2+)-induced release of cytochrome c from rat liver mitochondria and the role played by ROS and cardiolipin in this process. ..
  19. Lakhani S, Masud A, Kuida K, Porter G, Booth C, Mehal W, et al. Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. Science. 2006;311:847-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the early apoptotic events of Bax translocation and cytochrome c release were also delayed. We conclude that caspases 3 and 7 are critical mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. ..
  20. Carlson S, Mross G, Wilson A, Mead R, Wolin L, Bowers S, et al. Primary structure of mouse, rat, and guinea pig cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 1977;16:1437-42 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that rodent cytochromes c are evolutionarily conservative and that there is no evidence for a generation-time effect in cytochrome c evolution. ..
  21. Gybina A, Prohaska J. Increased rat brain cytochrome c correlates with degree of perinatal copper deficiency rather than apoptosis. J Nutr. 2003;133:3361-8 pubmed
    ..The biochemical mechanisms for elevated cytochrome c are not known nor are the physiological consequences. ..
  22. Kanno T, Nishizaki T. Sphingosine induces apoptosis in hippocampal neurons and astrocytes by activating caspase-3/-9 via a mitochondrial pathway linked to SDK/14-3-3 protein/Bax/cytochrome c. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2329-37 pubmed publisher
  23. Guo L, Sun M, Xu P, Xu Y, Lu H, Si H, et al. [Effects of melatonin on nerve cell apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 & cytochrome C genes in rat cerebrum with deltamethrin induction]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2008;26:215-8 pubmed
    ..05). MT can protect nerve cell against deltamethrin induced brain injury by inhibiting nerve cell apoptosis, downregulate the protein expression of cytochrome C gene and upregulate the protein expression of bcl-2 gene. ..
  24. Hao Z, Duncan G, Chang C, Elia A, Fang M, Wakeham A, et al. Specific ablation of the apoptotic functions of cytochrome C reveals a differential requirement for cytochrome C and Apaf-1 in apoptosis. Cell. 2005;121:579-591 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate the existence of a Cyt c- and apoptosome-independent but Apaf-1-dependent mechanism(s) for caspase activation. ..
  25. Liu Z, Lin H, Ye S, Liu Q, Meng Z, Zhang C, et al. Remarkably high activities of testicular cytochrome c in destroying reactive oxygen species and in triggering apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8965-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is very likely that T-Cc has evolved to guarantee the biological integrity of sperm produced in mammalian testis. ..
  26. Mouria M, Gukovskaya A, Jung Y, Buechler P, Hines O, Reber H, et al. Food-derived polyphenols inhibit pancreatic cancer growth through mitochondrial cytochrome C release and apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:761-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that food-derived polyphenols inhibit pancreatic cancer growth and prevent metastasis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in cytochrome c release, caspase activation and apoptosis. ..
  27. Potts P, Singh S, Knezek M, Thompson C, Deshmukh M. Critical function of endogenous XIAP in regulating caspase activation during sympathetic neuronal apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:789-99 pubmed
    ..These data identify a critical function of endogenous XIAP in regulating apoptosis in mammalian cells. ..
  28. Atlante A, Calissano P, Bobba A, Azzariti A, Marra E, Passarella S. Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent fashion and can operate as a ROS scavenger and as a respiratory substrate in cerebellar neurons undergoing excitotoxic death. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37159-66 pubmed
    ..In the light of these findings, we propose that in the early phase of neurotoxicity, cytochrome c release can be part of a cellular and mitochondrial defense mechanism against oxidative stress. ..
  29. Ott M, Robertson J, Gogvadze V, Zhivotovsky B, Orrenius S. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria proceeds by a two-step process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1259-63 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the release of cytochrome c involves a distinct two-step process that is undermined when either step is compromised. ..
  30. Bhattacharjee M, Acharya S, Ghosh A, Sarkar P, Chatterjee S, Kumar P, et al. Bax and Bid act in synergy to bring about T11TS-mediated glioma apoptosis via the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and subsequent caspase activation. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1489-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work focuses on the mechanistic approach of how T11TS mediates apoptosis and hence is the first approach of its kind in the field of immunology where the immunotherapeutic molecule's mode of action has been worked out. ..
  31. Li K, Li Y, Shelton J, Richardson J, Spencer E, Chen Z, et al. Cytochrome c deficiency causes embryonic lethality and attenuates stress-induced apoptosis. Cell. 2000;101:389-99 pubmed
    ..In contrast, cells lacking cytochrome c demonstrate increased sensitivity to cell death signals triggered by TNFalpha. These results define the role of cytochrome c in different apoptotic signaling cascades. ..
  32. Zhao Y, Jin X, Wang J, Tan L, Li S, Luo A. Isoflurane enhances the expression of cytochrome C by facilitation of NMDA receptor in developing rat hippocampal neurons in vitro. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:779-783 pubmed publisher
    ..5 MAC isoflurane stimulation for 6 h (P<0.05). It was concluded that isoflurane enhances the expression of cytochrome C in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, which may be mediated by facilitation of NMDA receptor. ..
  33. Cione E, Tucci P, Senatore V, Perri M, Trombino S, Iemma F, et al. Synthesized esters of ferulic acid induce release of cytochrome c from rat testes mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2008;40:19-26 pubmed
    ..The apoptosis induced by ferulic acid is therefore associated with the mitochondrial pathway involving cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. ..
  34. Piccotti L, Marchetti C, Migliorati G, Roberti R, Corazzi L. Exogenous phospholipids specifically affect transmembrane potential of brain mitochondria and cytochrome C release. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12075-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover, enrichment with CL and PG brought the low energy mitochondrial population to high Deltapsi(m) values and prevented phosphate-dependent cytochrome c release. ..
  35. Morrone A, Malvagia S, Donati M, Funghini S, Ciani F, Pela I, et al. Clinical findings and biochemical and molecular analysis of four patients with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Am J Med Genet. 2002;111:10-8 pubmed
  36. Scarpulla R, Agne K, Wu R. Isolation and structure of a rat cytochrome c gene. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:6480-6 pubmed
    ..39 M Na+. These results establish that cytochrome c genes may be isolated by interspecies hybridization between widely divergent organisms. ..
  37. Lu M, Tzang B, Kuo W, Wu F, Chen Y, Tsai C, et al. More activated cardiac mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in obese Zucker rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2634-42 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the key components of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in excised heart from obese Zucker rats...
  38. Huang R, Zhang M, Rwere F, Waskell L, Ramamoorthy A. Kinetic and structural characterization of the interaction between the FMN binding domain of cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome c. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4843-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings provide insights into the function of CPR and CPR-cyt c interaction on a structural basis. ..
  39. Diaz F, Thomas C, Garcia S, Hernandez D, Moraes C. Mice lacking COX10 in skeletal muscle recapitulate the phenotype of progressive mitochondrial myopathies associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2737-48 pubmed
    ..This COX10 KO mouse allowed us to correlate the muscle function with residual COX activity, an estimate that can help predict the progression pattern of human mitochondrial myopathies...