Gene Symbol: Cybb
Description: cytochrome b-245 beta chain
Alias: Gp91-phox, Nox2, cytochrome b-245 beta chain, NADPH oxidase 2, cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide, endothelial type gp91-phox
Species: rat
Products:     Cybb

Top Publications

  1. Fukui T, Yoshiyama M, Hanatani A, Omura T, Yoshikawa J, Abe Y. Expression of p22-phox and gp91-phox, essential components of NADPH oxidase, increases after myocardial infarction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;281:1200-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the increased expression of NADPH oxidase may have an effect on left ventricular remodeling by increasing the redox-sensitive NF-kappaB DNA binding activity as well as the lipid peroxidation level. ..
  2. Vaziri N, Dicus M, Ho N, Boroujerdi Rad L, Sindhu R. Oxidative stress and dysregulation of superoxide dismutase and NADPH oxidase in renal insufficiency. Kidney Int. 2003;63:179-85 pubmed
    ..Immunodetectable superoxide dismutase isoforms (Cu Zn SOD and Mn SOD), as well as, NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox subunit) proteins and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in the kidney and liver of CRF (5/6 ..
  3. Yuan G, Khan S, Luo W, Nanduri J, Semenza G, Prabhakar N. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates increased expression of NADPH oxidase-2 in response to intermittent hypoxia. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2925-33 pubmed publisher increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pro-oxidant enzymes, especially NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2)...
  4. Prosser B, Ward C, Lederer W. X-ROS signaling: rapid mechano-chemo transduction in heart. Science. 2011;333:1440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..physiologic stretch rapidly activates reduced-form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a process dependent on microtubules (X-ROS signaling)...
  5. Hink U, Li H, Mollnau H, Oelze M, Matheis E, Hartmann M, et al. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Circ Res. 2001;88:E14-22 pubmed
    ..The full text of this article is available at ..
  6. Kim M, Shin K, Chung Y, Jung K, Cha C, Shin D. Immunohistochemical study of p47Phox and gp91Phox distributions in rat brain. Brain Res. 2005;1040:178-86 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the widespread observed distributions of p47Phox and gp91Phox subunits indicate that they are probably needed to maintain normal brain function. ..
  7. Lassegue B, Sorescu D, Szocs K, Yin Q, Akers M, Zhang Y, et al. Novel gp91(phox) homologues in vascular smooth muscle cells : nox1 mediates angiotensin II-induced superoxide formation and redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Circ Res. 2001;88:888-94 pubmed
    ..These data support a role for nox1 in redox signaling in VSMCs and provide insight into the molecular identity of the VSMC NAD(P)H oxidase and its potentially critical role in vascular disease. ..
  8. Wu G, Li L, Li H, Zeng Y, Wu W. Electroacupuncture ameliorates spatial learning and memory impairment via attenuating NOX2-related oxidative stress in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by Aβ1-42. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017;63:38-45 pubmed publisher determine the effects of EA treatment on spatial learning and memory impairment, and to elucidate the status of NOX2-related oxidative stress in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by Beta-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42)...
  9. Nisbet R, Graves A, Kleinhenz D, Rupnow H, Reed A, Fan T, et al. The role of NADPH oxidase in chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS contribute to the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension caused by CIH. ..

More Information


  1. Mollnau H, Wendt M, Szocs K, LASSEGUE B, Schulz E, Oelze M, et al. Effects of angiotensin II infusion on the expression and function of NAD(P)H oxidase and components of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling. Circ Res. 2002;90:E58-65 pubmed
    ..The full text of this article is available at ..
  2. Wang X, Skelley L, Wang B, Mejia A, Sapozhnikov V, Sun Z. AAV-based RNAi silencing of NADPH oxidase gp91(phox) attenuates cold-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. Hum Gene Ther. 2012;23:1016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The up-regulation of gp91(phox) may play a critical role in cold-induced cardiovascular dysfunction and organ damage. AAV delivery of gp91-shRNA may be a new and effective therapeutic approach for cold-related cardiovascular disorders. ..
  3. Djamali A, Reese S, Hafez O, Vidyasagar A, Jacobson L, Swain W, et al. Nox2 is a mediator of chronic CsA nephrotoxicity. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1997-2007 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that Nox2, the classical phagocytic NADPH oxidase, plays an important role in calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced renal fibrosis. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, in animal and in human studies...
  4. Kaneda M, Sakuraba H, Ohtake A, Nishida A, Kiryu C, Kakinuma K. Missense mutations in the gp91-phox gene encoding cytochrome b558 in patients with cytochrome b positive and negative X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Blood. 1999;93:2098-104 pubmed
    ..These results on four patients, including those with two variant CGD, are discussed with respect to the missense mutated sites and the heme binding ligands in gp91-phox. ..
  5. Parkos C, Allen R, Cochrane C, Jesaitis A. Purified cytochrome b from human granulocyte plasma membrane is comprised of two polypeptides with relative molecular weights of 91,000 and 22,000. J Clin Invest. 1987;80:732-42 pubmed
  6. Wagner S, Dantz C, Flebbe H, Azizian A, Sag C, Engels S, et al. NADPH oxidase 2 mediates angiotensin II-dependent cellular arrhythmias via PKA and CaMKII. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;75:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It was shown that Ang II can activate Ca/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) by oxidation via a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-dependent pathway leading to increased arrhythmic afterdepolarizations...
  7. Liu F, Yang L, Sun X, Zhang H, Pan W, Wang X, et al. NOX2 Mediated-Parvalbumin Interneuron Loss Might Contribute to Anxiety-Like and Enhanced Fear Learning Behavior in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:6680-6689 pubmed
    ..stress (SPS), we assessed the role of hippocampal nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the development of PTSD symptoms...
  8. Díaz Cruz A, Vilchis Landeros M, Guinzberg R, Villalobos Molina R, Piña E. NOX2 activated by ?1-adrenoceptors modulates hepatic metabolic routes stimulated by ?-adrenoceptors. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:1366-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The dormant NOX2 complex present in hepatocyte plasma membrane (HPM) contains gp91(phox), p22(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox) ..
  9. Li Y, Zhou Z, Chen M, Yang J, Leng J, Cao G, et al. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Fission and NOX2 Expression Prevent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in the Endothelium: The Role of Corosolic Acid Action in the Amelioration of Endothelial Dysfunction. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016;24:893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..and the overexpression of gp91(phox) induced by palmitate (PA), demonstrating its action in suppression of NOX2 activation...
  10. Yu B, Meng F, Yang Y, Liu D, Shi K. NOX2 Antisense Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocyte. Int J Med Sci. 2016;13:646-52 pubmed publisher
    Heart ischemia is a hypoxia related disease. NOX2 and HIF-1? proteins were increased in cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. However, the relationship of the hypoxia-induced HIF-1?...
  11. Zhang Y, He L, Liu B, Li N, Luo X, Hu C, et al. A novel pathway of NADPH oxidase/vascular peroxidase 1 in mediating oxidative injury following ischemia-reperfusion. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012;107:266 pubmed publisher
    ..In a rat model of myocardial IR, the infarct size, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, apoptosis, NOX activity, NOX2 and VPO1 expression were measured...
  12. Hahn N, Meischl C, Wijnker P, Musters R, Fornerod M, Janssen H, et al. NOX2, p22phox and p47phox are targeted to the nuclear pore complex in ischemic cardiomyocytes colocalizing with local reactive oxygen species. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;27:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have demonstrated that (peri)nuclear expression of the catalytic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 in stressed cardiomyocytes, e.g...
  13. Li X, Li Y, Shan L, Shen E, Chen R, Peng T. Over-expression of calpastatin inhibits calpain activation and attenuates myocardial dysfunction during endotoxaemia. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was to investigate the roles of calpain/calpastatin system in cardiomyocyte caspase-3 activation, TNF-alpha expression, and myocardial dysfunction during LPS stimulation...
  14. Huang B, Zheng H, Tan J, Patel K, Leenen F. Regulation of hypothalamic renin-angiotensin system and oxidative stress by aldosterone. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Aldosterone significantly increased mRNA and protein of AT(1)R, P22phox, P47phox, P67phox and Nox2, and decreased nNOS but not eNOS mRNA and protein in the PVN, as well as increased the angiotensin-converting ..
  15. Sadat M, Pech N, Saulnier S, Leroy B, Hossle J, Grez M, et al. Long-term high-level reconstitution of NADPH oxidase activity in murine X-linked chronic granulomatous disease using a bicistronic vector expressing gp91phox and a Delta LNGFR cell surface marker. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:651-66 pubmed
    ..No obvious adverse consequences of transgenic protein expression were observed. ..
  16. Shin H, Lee J, Kim K, Kim C, Lee W, Rhim B, et al. Impairment of autoregulatory vasodilation by NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent superoxide generation during acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat pial artery. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:869-77 pubmed
  17. Lim C, Vaziri N. Iron and oxidative stress in renal insufficiency. Am J Nephrol. 2004;24:569-75 pubmed
    ..CRF resulted in marked SOD, CAT and GPX deficiencies. A single i.v. administration of iron dextran in rats with CRF induced oxidative stress as measured by increased lipid peroxidation products and decreases in antioxidant enzymes. ..
  18. Loureiro A, do Rêgo Monteiro I, Louzada R, Ortenzi V, de Aguiar A, de Abreu E, et al. Differential Expression of NADPH Oxidases Depends on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:6738701 pubmed
    ..SOL showed higher NOX activity, as well as NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA levels, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and reactive protein thiol contents when compared to WG and ..
  19. Matsumoto T, Kobayashi T, Wachi H, Seyama Y, Kamata K. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidase mediates endothelial dysfunction in basilar arteries from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:15-24 pubmed
    ..Possibly, an impairment of NO-dependent relaxation responses and a basal impairment of NO signaling may be responsible for the increased risk of adverse cerebrovascular events in type 2 diabetes. ..
  20. Djamali A, Wilson N, Sadowski E, Zha W, Niles D, Hafez O, et al. Nox2 and Cyclosporine-Induced Renal Hypoxia. Transplantation. 2016;100:1198-210 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate oxidase 2 (Nox2) plays an important role in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced chronic hypoxia...
  21. Yang C, Hsieh H, Yu P, Lin C, Liu S. IL-1β Induces MMP-9-Dependent Brain Astrocytic Migration via Transactivation of PDGF Receptor/NADPH Oxidase 2-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Signals. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:303-17 pubmed publisher mediated through a c-Src-mediated transactivation of PDGFR/PI3K/Akt cascade linking to p47(phox)/NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)/ROS signaling pathway...
  22. Rabbani H, de Boer M, Ahlin A, Sundin U, Elinder G, Hammarstrom L, et al. A 40-base-pair duplication in the gp91-phox gene leading to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Haematol. 1993;51:218-22 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a patient suffering from X-linked CGD due to a 40-base-pair duplication in exon 7 of the CYBB gene coding for gp91-phox, predicting a frameshift, substitution of 22 amino acids and a premature stop codon at ..
  23. Savchenko V. Regulation of NADPH oxidase gene expression with PKA and cytokine IL-4 in neurons and microglia. Neurotox Res. 2013;23:201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of mRNA were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of NOX1, NOX2, and NCF2 was upregulated after IL-4 treatment for 4 h, but it was downregulated after 8-24 h...
  24. Yoshida L, Saruta F, Yoshikawa K, Tatsuzawa O, Tsunawaki S. Mutation at histidine 338 of gp91(phox) depletes FAD and affects expression of cytochrome b558 of the human NADPH oxidase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27879-86 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that His-338 is a very critical residue for FAD incorporation into the NADPH oxidase system. This is the first such mutation found in CGD. ..
  25. Chen J, Xia C, Wang J, Jiang M, Zhang H, Zhang C, et al. The effect of orexin-A on cardiac dysfunction mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion in ventrolateral medulla. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69840 pubmed publisher
  26. Biberstine Kinkade K, Yu L, Stull N, LeRoy B, Bennett S, Cross A, et al. Mutagenesis of p22(phox) histidine 94. A histidine in this position is not required for flavocytochrome b558 function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30368-74 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that His94 p22(phox) is not required for heme binding or function of flavocytochrome b558 in the NADPH oxidase. ..
  27. Peng Y, Pu J, Tang C, Wu Z. Curcumin Inhibits Heat-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing NADPH Oxidase 2 and Activating the Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:2091-2103 pubmed publisher
    ..of curcumin significantly inhibited apoptosis of 16HBE140 cells and suppressed the membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase 2 cytosolic components, as well as ROS production...
  28. Liao B, Zhang Y, Sun H, Ma B, Qian J. Ryanodine Receptor 2 Plays a Critical Role in Spinal Cord Injury via Induction of Oxidative Stress. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:1129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NOX4 and p66(shc) were increased in SCI rats...
  29. Vidal A, Sun Y, Bhattacharya S, Ahokas R, Gerling I, Weber K. Calcium paradox of aldosteronism and the role of the parathyroid glands. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H286-94 pubmed
    ..SHPT plays a permissive role in the proinflammatory vascular phenotype. ..
  30. Bondi C, Manickam N, Lee D, Block K, Gorin Y, Abboud H, et al. NAD(P)H oxidase mediates TGF-beta1-induced activation of kidney myofibroblasts. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TGF-beta1 increased both the activity of NADPH oxidase and expression of Nox2 and Nox4, homologs of the NAD(P)H oxidase family, indicating that this growth factor induces production of ROS...
  31. Kim D, You B, Jo E, Han S, Simon M, Lee S. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species in spinal cord microglia contribute to peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived ROS production plays a critical role in nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation ..
  32. Syed I, Szulc Z, Ogretmen B, Kowluru A. L- threo -C6-pyridinium-ceramide bromide, a novel cationic ceramide, induces NADPH oxidase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction and loss in cell viability in INS 832/13 ?-cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:1051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..glucolipotoxicity] results in excessive intracellular oxidative stress mediated by phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase [Nox2]...
  33. Shanmugam P, Valente A, Prabhu S, Venkatesan B, Yoshida T, Delafontaine P, et al. Angiotensin-II type 1 receptor and NOX2 mediate TCF/LEF and CREB dependent WISP1 induction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;50:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..induced WISP1 was superoxide-dependent, and inhibited by DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, and by knockdown of NOX2. AT1 was physically associated with NOX2 both in vitro and in vivo, and Ang-II increased this interaction in vivo...
  34. Hong H, Zeng J, Kreulen D, Kaufman D, Chen A. Atorvastatin protects against cerebral infarction via inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in ischemic stroke. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2210-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that atorvastatin protects against cerebral infarction via inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in transient focal ischemia. ..
  35. Prosser B, Ward C, Lederer W. X-ROS signalling is enhanced and graded by cyclic cardiomyocyte stretch. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;98:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..stretch of a cardiomyocyte activates a transient production of reactive oxygen species by membrane-located NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)...
  36. Zhang X, Cao X, Zhang C, Zhao Z. 17β-estradiol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats by regulating NADPH oxidase and apoptosis genes. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:2695-2702 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that E2 treatment may protect the heart against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in male rats potentially through the regulation of NOX2, NOX4 and apoptosis genes.
  37. Wang M, Zhang J, Walker S, Dworakowski R, Lakatta E, Shah A. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in age-associated cardiac remodeling. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..and cardiac fibrosis were associated with increased myocardial NADPH oxidase activity attributable to the Nox2 isoform...
  38. Downs C, KREINER L, Johnson N, Brown L, Helms M. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products regulates lung fluid balance via protein kinase C-gp91(phox) signaling to epithelial sodium channels. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;52:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, tracheal instillation of AGEs promoted clearance of lung fluid, whereas concomitant inhibition of RAGE, PKC, and gp91(phox) abrogated the response. ..
  39. Zhang Y, Liu B, Luo X, Li T, Zhang J, Peng J, et al. Nuclear cardiac myosin light chain 2 modulates NADPH oxidase 2 expression in myocardium: a novel function beyond muscle contraction. Basic Res Cardiol. 2015;110:38 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies demonstrated that NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression in myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is significantly upregulated. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
  40. Donoso P, Finkelstein J, Montecinos L, Said M, Sanchez G, Vittone L, et al. Stimulation of NOX2 in isolated hearts reversibly sensitizes RyR2 channels to activation by cytoplasmic calcium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;68:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A single episode of 5 min of global ischemia, followed by 1 min of reperfusion, enhanced 2.3-fold the activity of NOX2 compared to controls and changed the frequency distribution of the different responses of RyR2 channels to calcium, ..
  41. Choi S, Roh D, Yoon S, Kang S, Moon J, Kwon S, et al. Spinal sigma-1 receptors activate NADPH oxidase 2 leading to the induction of pain hypersensitivity in mice and mechanical allodynia in neuropathic rats. Pharmacol Res. 2013;74:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examine the role of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity and the induction of ..
  42. Wang P, Tang F, Li R, Zhang H, Chen S, Liu P, et al. Contribution of different Nox homologues to cardiac remodeling in two-kidney two-clip renovascular hypertensive rats: effect of valsartan. Pharmacol Res. 2007;55:408-17 pubmed
    ..b>Nox2 and Nox4 protein expression increased in heart, while Nox1 and Nox4 increased in aorta in 2K2C hypertensive rats, ..
  43. Weening R, de Boer M, Kuijpers T, Neefjes V, Hack W, Roos D. Point mutations in the promoter region of the CYBB gene leading to mild chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;122:410-7 pubmed
    ..four subunits, of which the beta-subunit of cytochrome b558, gp91-phox, is encoded by an X-linked gene (called CYBB)...
  44. Kraaij M, Koekkoek K, Gelderman K, van Kooten C. The NOX2-mediated ROS producing capacity of recipient cells is associated with reduced T cell infiltrate in an experimental model of chronic renal allograft inflammation. Transpl Immunol. 2014;30:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..As influx of Mph is an important characteristic of chronic inflammatory responses, we investigated the impact of NOX2-mediated ROS production by recipient cells in an experimental model of chronic allograft inflammation...
  45. Balteau M, Tajeddine N, de Meester C, Ginion A, Des Rosiers C, Brady N, et al. NADPH oxidase activation by hyperglycaemia in cardiomyocytes is independent of glucose metabolism but requires SGLT1. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;92:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..HG exposure activated Rac1GTP and induced p47phox translocation to the plasma membrane, resulting in NADPH oxidase (NOX2) activation, increased ROS production, insulin resistance, and eventually cell death...
  46. Arango Duque G, Fukuda M, Descoteaux A. Synaptotagmin XI regulates phagocytosis and cytokine secretion in macrophages. J Immunol. 2013;190:1737-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, knockdown of Syt XI ensued in enhanced bacterial survival. Our data reveal a novel role for Syt XI as a regulator of cytokine secretion, particle uptake, and macrophage microbicidal activity. ..
  47. Ambasta R, Kumar P, Griendling K, Schmidt H, Busse R, Brandes R. Direct interaction of the novel Nox proteins with p22phox is required for the formation of a functionally active NADPH oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45935-41 pubmed
    Nox1 and Nox4, homologues of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 (gp91phox) mediate superoxide anion formation in various cell types. However, their interactions with other components of the NADPH oxidase are poorly defined...
  48. Vaziri N, Lin C, Farmand F, Sindhu R. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and NADPH oxidase in lead-induced hypertension. Kidney Int. 2003;63:186-94 pubmed
    ..At the conclusion of the experiment, immunodetectable Cu Zn SOD, Mn SOD, CAT, GPX and gp91 phox subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase were determined by Western analysis in the kidney, brain and left ventricle of ..
  49. Olguín Albuerne M, Morán J. ROS produced by NOX2 control in vitro development of cerebellar granule neurons development. ASN Neuro. 2015;7: pubmed publisher
    ..During the first 3 DIV, NOX2 was upregulated and expressed in filopodia and growth cones, which correlated with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ..
  50. Prüfer S, Weber M, Stein P, Bosmann M, Stassen M, Kreft A, et al. Oxidative burst and neutrophil elastase contribute to clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia in mice. Immunobiology. 2014;219:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus infections in vitro and in vivo. While ELA contributes to clearance of A. fumigatus, the oxidative functions are essential for survival. ..
  51. Noubade R, Wong K, Ota N, Rutz S, Eidenschenk C, Valdez P, et al. NRROS negatively regulates reactive oxygen species during host defence and autoimmunity. Nature. 2014;509:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the endoplasmic reticulum, where it directly interacts with nascent NOX2 (also known as gp91(phox) and encoded by Cybb) monomer, one of the membrane-bound subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex, and facilitates the degradation of NOX2 ..
  52. He L, Liu X, Chen J, Dinger B, Stensaas L, Fidone S. Modulation of chronic hypoxia-induced chemoreceptor hypersensitivity by NADPH oxidase subunits in rat carotid body. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1304-10 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Evaluation of gene expression after 7 days of CH showed increases in the isoforms NOX2 (approximately 1.5-fold) and NOX4 (approximately 3...
  53. Li N, Li B, Brun T, Deffert Delbouille C, Mahiout Z, Daali Y, et al. NADPH oxidase NOX2 defines a new antagonistic role for reactive oxygen species and cAMP/PKA in the regulation of insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2012;61:2842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Both human and mouse ?-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform-specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform...
  54. Králová E, Doka G, Pivackova L, Srankova J, Kuracinova K, Janega P, et al. l-Arginine Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, But Further Down-Regulates α-Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiomyopathy. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;117:251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection of contractile performance might be related to increased capacity for nitric oxide production and the up-regulation of MYH7 which may compensate for the marked down-regulation of the major MYH6 isoform. ..
  55. Jaishy B, Zhang Q, Chung H, Riehle C, Soto J, Jenkins S, et al. Lipid-induced NOX2 activation inhibits autophagic flux by impairing lysosomal enzyme activity. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:546-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of Nox2 prevented superoxide overproduction, restored lysosome acidification and enzyme activity, and reduced autophagosome ..
  56. Nanduri J, Vaddi D, Khan S, Wang N, Makarenko V, Semenza G, et al. HIF-1α activation by intermittent hypoxia requires NADPH oxidase stimulation by xanthine oxidase. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119762 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis and stability are due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases, especially Nox2. However, the mechanisms by which IH activates Nox2 are not known...
  57. Zhang R, Harding P, Garvin J, Juncos R, Peterson E, Juncos L, et al. Isoforms and functions of NAD(P)H oxidase at the macula densa. Hypertension. 2009;53:556-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The captured cells expressed neuronal NOS (marker of macula densa), NOX2, and NOX4 but not NOX1. Expression of the NOXs and neuronal NOS was essentially identical in the MMDD1 cells...
  58. Pithon Curi T, Levada A, Lopes L, Doi S, Curi R. Glutamine plays a role in superoxide production and the expression of p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox in rat neutrophils. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103:403-8 pubmed
    ..We postulate that glutamine leads to O(2)(-) production in neutrophils, probably via the generation of ATP and regulation of the expression of components of NADPH oxidase. ..
  59. Rajakariar R, Newson J, Jackson E, Sawmynaden P, Smith A, Rahman F, et al. Nonresolving inflammation in gp91phox-/- mice, a model of human chronic granulomatous disease, has lower adenosine and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate. J Immunol. 2009;182:3262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we describe the biphasic profile of adenosine and cAMP throughout the time course of acute inflammation that is dysregulated in CGD. ..
  60. Han Y, Zhao H, Tang H, Li X, Tan J, Zeng Q, et al. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid mediates isolated heart ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species production. Circ J. 2013;77:1807-16 pubmed
    ..All of the results demonstrated that in isolated rat hearts 20-HETE stimulates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, which aggravates I/R-induced myocardial injury via a PKC-dependent mechanism. ..
  61. Newburger P, Skalnik D, Hopkins P, Eklund E, Curnutte J. Mutations in the promoter region of the gene for gp91-phox in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease with decreased expression of cytochrome b558. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:1205-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, these promoter region mutations appear to be causally related to the loss of association of a DNA-binding protein and lead to diminished gp91-phox expression, abnormal transcription initiation, and the development of CGD. ..
  62. Tang X, Zhong W, Tu Q, Ding B. NADPH oxidase mediates the expression of MMP-9 in cerebral tissue after ischemia-reperfusion damage. Neurol Res. 2014;36:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin reduced the increase in MMP-9. These results suggest that NADPH oxidase is a major precipitating factor for the expression of MMP-9 in the ischemic brain tissue. ..
  63. Li Z, Jiang W, Cui Z. An essential role of NAD(P)H oxidase 2 in UVA-induced calcium oscillations in mast cells. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2015;14:414-28 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that RBL-2H3 expressed high levels of gp91(phox) (NOX2), p22(phox), p67(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox), Rac1, Rac2, moderate levels of DUOX2, but did not express NOX1, NOX3, ..
  64. Shukla S, Jha R, Laloraya M, Kumar P. Identification of non-mitochondrial NADPH oxidase and the spatio-temporal organization of its components in mouse spermatozoa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:476-83 pubmed
  65. Sun C, Sellers K, Sumners C, Raizada M. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition attenuates neuronal chronotropic actions of angiotensin II. Circ Res. 2005;96:659-66 pubmed
    ..This signaling seems to be a critical cellular event in central Ang II regulation of cardiovascular function. ..
  66. Kazama K, Anrather J, Zhou P, Girouard H, Frys K, Milner T, et al. Angiotensin II impairs neurovascular coupling in neocortex through NADPH oxidase-derived radicals. Circ Res. 2004;95:1019-26 pubmed
    ..The data provide the mechanistic basis for the cerebrovascular dysregulation induced by Ang II and suggest novel therapeutic strategies to counteract the effects of hypertension on the brain. ..
  67. Dugan L, Ali S, Shekhtman G, Roberts A, Lucero J, Quick K, et al. IL-6 mediated degeneration of forebrain GABAergic interneurons and cognitive impairment in aged mice through activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5518 pubmed publisher
  68. Glass M, Huang J, Oselkin M, Tarsitano M, Wang G, Iadecola C, et al. Subcellular localization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in neurons and astroglia of the rat medial nucleus tractus solitarius: relationship with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Neuroscience. 2006;143:547-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in neurons and glia may directly or indirectly modulate catecholaminergic neuron activity in the mNTS. ..
  69. Espinosa A, Leiva A, Peña M, Müller M, Debandi A, Hidalgo C, et al. Myotube depolarization generates reactive oxygen species through NAD(P)H oxidase; ROS-elicited Ca2+ stimulates ERK, CREB, early genes. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:379-88 pubmed
    ..Activity-dependent ROS generation is likely to be involved in regulation of calcium-controlled intracellular signaling pathways in muscle cells. ..
  70. Briones A, Tabet F, Callera G, Montezano A, Yogi A, He Y, et al. Differential regulation of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 in vascular smooth muscle cells from WKY and SHR. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2011;5:137-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 (gene and protein) and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were increased in SHR...
  71. Schiavone S, Mhillaj E, Neri M, Morgese M, Tucci P, Bove M, et al. Early Loss of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Precedes NOX2 Elevation in the Prefrontal Cortex of an Animal Model of Psychosis. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:2031-2044 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that social isolation in rats leads to increased oxidative stress and to cerebral NOX2 elevations. Here, we investigated early alterations in mRNA expression leading to increased NOX2 in the brain...
  72. Zhang L, Li Z, Feng D, Shen H, Tian X, Li H, et al. Involvement of Nox2 and Nox4 NADPH oxidases in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Free Radic Res. 2017;51:316-328 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress is responsible for a poor prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Nox2 has been shown to participate in SAH-induced early brain injury (EBI)...
  73. Rosc Schlüter B, Häuselmann S, Lorenz V, Mochizuki M, Facciotti F, Pfister O, et al. NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species are crucial for CD29-induced pro-survival signalling in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:454-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A decisive source of cardiac ROS is the abundant NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform NOX2. Because understanding of NOX-derived ROS in the heart is still poor, we sought to test the role of ROS and NOX in ..
  74. Welak S, Rentea R, Teng R, Heinzerling N, Biesterveld B, LIEDEL J, et al. Intestinal NADPH oxidase 2 activity increases in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115317 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in superoxide levels on days 0-4 were measured. Inhibitors for nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME) and NOX2 (GP91-ds-tat) were utilized. RT-PCR for eNOS, NOX1, GP91phox expression was performed...
  75. Kimura K, Shirabe K, Yoshizumi T, Takeishi K, Itoh S, Harimoto N, et al. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Fatty Liver Is Mediated by Activated NADPH Oxidase 2 in Rats. Transplantation. 2016;100:791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Ischemia-reperfusion injury was associated with increased high-mobility group box 1, TLR4, and NOX2. Inhibition of NOX activity improved oxidative stress and may prevent I/R injury in fatty liver.
  76. Wongeakin N, Bhattarakosol P, Patumraj S. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin on diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunctions: Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 expressions. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:161346 pubmed publisher
    ..curcumin on preventing diabetes-induced vascular inflammation in association with its actions on Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 enzyme expressions...
  77. Roberts C, Barnard R, Sindhu R, Jurczak M, Ehdaie A, Vaziri N. Oxidative stress and dysregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase and antioxidant enzymes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2006;55:928-34 pubmed
  78. Distasi M, Unthank J, Miller S. Nox2 and p47(phox) modulate compensatory growth of primary collateral arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;306:H1435-43 pubmed publisher real-time PCR at 1, 3, and 7 days relative to same-animal control arteries suggested a role for Nox subunits Nox2 and p47(phox)...
  79. Kumar A, Singh B, Ahmad I, Shukla S, Patel D, Srivastava G, et al. Involvement of NADPH oxidase and glutathione in zinc-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats: similarity with paraquat neurotoxicity. Brain Res. 2012;1438:48-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained thus suggest that Zn induces oxidative stress via the activation of NADPH oxidase and depletion of GSH, which in turn activate the apoptotic machinery leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration similar to PQ. ..
  80. Li J, Newburger P, Gounis M, Dargon P, Zhang X, Messina L. Local arterial nanoparticle delivery of siRNA for NOX2 knockdown to prevent restenosis in an atherosclerotic rat model. Gene Ther. 2010;17:1279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..For small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of the NOX2 (Cybb) component of the NADPH oxidase to prevent restenosis, gene transfer with viral vectors is effective, but raises ..
  81. Adler A, Messina E, Sherman B, Wang Z, Huang H, Linke A, et al. NAD(P)H oxidase-generated superoxide anion accounts for reduced control of myocardial O2 consumption by NO in old Fischer 344 rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H1015-22 pubmed
    ..Increased oxidant stress in aging, by decreasing NO bioavailability, may contribute not only to changes in myocardial function but also to altered regulation of vascular tone and the progression of cardiac or vascular disease. ..
  82. Reinehr R, Becker S, Keitel V, Eberle A, Grether Beck S, Haussinger D. Bile salt-induced apoptosis involves NADPH oxidase isoform activation. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:2009-31 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that hydrophobic bile salts activate NADPH oxidase isoforms with the resulting oxidative stress response triggering activation of the CD95 system and apoptosis. ..