Gene Symbol: Cxcl2
Description: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2
Alias: Mip-2, Scyb2, C-X-C motif chemokine 2, CINC-3, MIP2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, small inducible cytokine subfamily, member 2
Species: rat
Products:     Cxcl2

Top Publications

  1. Huang S, Paulauskis J, Godleski J, Kobzik L. Expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and KC mRNA in pulmonary inflammation. Am J Pathol. 1992;141:981-8 pubmed
    ..The results support the hypothesis that MIP-2 and KC cytokines contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation in this rat model of acute pulmonary inflammation. ..
  2. Thomas M, George N, Patterson T, Bowyer J. Amphetamine and environmentally induced hyperthermia differentially alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone and angiogenesis in the meninges and associated vasculature. Synapse. 2009;63:881-94 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammatory response at 3 h as indicated by an increased MAV expression of cytokines Il1b, Il6, Ccl-2, Cxcl1, and Cxcl2. Also, genes related to heat shock/stress and disruption of vascular homeostasis such as Icam1 and Hsp72 were also ..
  3. Lyadova I, Tsiganov E, Kapina M, Shepelkova G, Sosunov V, Radaeva T, et al. In mice, tuberculosis progression is associated with intensive inflammatory response and the accumulation of Gr-1 cells in the lungs. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10469 pubmed publisher
    ..0003); ccl3, ccl4, cxcl2 (p<0.002); mmp-8 (p<0.0001)...
  4. Rittner H, Mousa S, Labuz D, Beschmann K, Schafer M, Stein C, et al. Selective local PMN recruitment by CXCL1 or CXCL2/3 injection does not cause inflammatory pain. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:1022-32 pubmed
    ..PMN were recruited by intraplantar injection of CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1; keratinocyte-derived chemokine), CXCL2/3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), or CFA, with or without preceding systemic PMN depletion...
  5. Zhang P, Nelson S, Holmes M, Summer W, Bagby G. Compartmentalization of macrophage inflammatory protein-2, but not cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, in rats challenged with intratracheal endotoxin. Shock. 2002;17:104-8 pubmed
  6. Yao H, Yu J. [Dynamic changes of serum MCP-1 and MIP-2 chemokines after renal transplantation in rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:2512-3, 2516 pubmed
    ..MCP-1 and MIP-2 in involved not only in the ischemia-reperfusion injury but also in severe acute rejection. CsA has no significant effect on serum levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2 following renal transplantation in rats. ..
  7. Rhodes J, Sharkey J, Andrews P. The temporal expression, cellular localization, and inhibition of the chemokines MIP-2 and MCP-1 after traumatic brain injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:507-25 pubmed publisher
    The expression of the neutrophil chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2) and the monocyte chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) have been described in glial cells in vitro but their origin following TBI ..
  8. Knudsen E, Iversen P, Van Rooijen N, Benestad H. Macrophage-dependent regulation of neutrophil mobilization and chemotaxis during development of sterile peritonitis in the rat. Eur J Haematol. 2002;69:284-96 pubmed
    ..Macrophage-derived IL-1beta, MIP-2, and KC are possible mediators of neutrophil homing to inflamed tissues. ..
  9. Walley K, Lukacs N, Standiford T, Strieter R, Kunkel S. Elevated levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in severe murine peritonitis increase neutrophil recruitment and mortality. Infect Immun. 1997;65:3847-51 pubmed
    ..Concentrations of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein 2 [MIP-2] and ENA-78) and C-C (MIP-1alpha and JE) chemokines were measured (by enzyme-linked ..

More Information


  1. Manzer R, Wang J, Nishina K, McConville G, Mason R. Alveolar epithelial cells secrete chemokines in response to IL-1beta and lipopolysaccharide but not to ozone. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:158-66 pubmed
    ..It is likely that the inflammatory response to ozone in the alveolar compartment is not due to the direct effect of ozone on epithelial cells. ..
  2. Zhao X, Town J, Yang A, Zhang X, Paur N, Sawicki G, et al. A novel ELR-CXC chemokine antagonist reduces intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced mortality, and local and remote organ injury. J Surg Res. 2010;162:264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that full-spectrum ELR-CXC chemokine antagonism has significant protective effects against I/R-induced local and remote organ injury. ..
  3. Wolf R, Mascia F, Dharamsi A, Howard O, Cataisson C, Bliskovski V, et al. Gene from a psoriasis susceptibility locus primes the skin for inflammation. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:61ra90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a pathogenetic psoriasis model using a psoriasis candidate gene to link the epidermis and innate immune system in inflammation priming, highlighting the S100A7A15-RAGE axis as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  4. Sonego F, Castanheira F, Czaikoski P, Kanashiro A, Souto F, França R, et al. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103734 pubmed publisher
  5. Wissel H, Schulz C, Koehne P, Richter E, Maass M, Rudiger M. Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces expression of toll-like receptor 4 and release of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 via an NF-kappaB pathway in rat type II pneumocytes. Respir Res. 2005;6:51 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that type II pneumocytes play an important role in the innate pulmonary immune system and in inflammatory response mechanism of the alveolus. ..
  6. Marisa C, Lucci I, Di Giulio C, Bianchi G, Grilli A, Patruno A, et al. MCP-1 and MIP-2 expression and production in BB diabetic rat: effect of chronic hypoxia. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;276:105-11 pubmed
    ..Our data point to MCP-1 and MIP-2 as important components in the pathophysiology of diabetes, and hypoxia is an important and potent environmental stimulus capable of modulating the expression and production of these chemokines. ..
  7. Amano H, Oishi K, Sonoda F, Senba M, Wada A, Nakagawa H, et al. Role of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2) alpha in a rat model of chronic bronchopulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cytokine. 2000;12:1662-8 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa. ..
  8. van den Berg E, van Woensel J, Bos A, Bem R, Altemeier W, Gill S, et al. Role of the Fas/FasL system in a model of RSV infection in mechanically ventilated mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Fas/FasL system was partly required for the lung inflammatory response in ventilated mice infected with PVM, but attenuation of lung inflammation did not prevent subsequent mortality. ..
  9. Pucheu Haston C, Copeland L, Vallanat B, Boykin E, Ward M. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: screening for sensitization potential. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;244:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h...
  10. Fujita T, Kishimoto A, Shiba H, Hayashida K, Kajiya M, Uchida Y, et al. Irsogladine maleate regulates neutrophil migration and E-cadherin expression in gingival epithelium stimulated by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:1496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..actinomycetemcomitans. In conclusion, IM may control A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced gingival inflammation by regulating neutrophil migration and E-cadherin expression in gingival epithelium...
  11. Jeyaseelan S, Chu H, Young S, Worthen G. Transcriptional profiling of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Infect Immun. 2004;72:7247-56 pubmed
    ..The up-regulation of LIX, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 was confirmed at the protein level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
  12. Renois F, Jacques J, Guillard T, Moret H, Pluot M, Andreoletti L, et al. Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia. ..
  13. Raghavendran K, Davidson B, Huebschmann J, Helinski J, Hutson A, Dayton M, et al. Superimposed gastric aspiration increases the severity of inflammation and permeability injury in a rat model of lung contusion. J Surg Res. 2009;155:273-82 pubmed publisher
  14. James M, Ross A, Bulger A, Philips J, Ambalavanan N. Vitamin A and retinoic acid act synergistically to increase lung retinyl esters during normoxia and reduce hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice. Pediatr Res. 2010;67:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the VARA combination has synergistic effects on lung retinyl ester concentrations and on the attenuation of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in newborn mice, possibly by modulation of inflammatory mediators. ..
  15. Quinton L, Nelson S, Zhang P, Boé D, Happel K, Pan W, et al. Selective transport of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant from the lung to the blood facilitates pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L465-72 pubmed
    ..Our results show that CINC, in contrast to MIP-2, is selectively transported from the lung to the systemic circulation, where it promotes neutrophil migration into the lung in response to a chemotactic stimulus. ..
  16. Su X, Looney M, Su H, Lee J, Song Y, Matthay M. Role of CFTR expressed by neutrophils in modulating acute lung inflammation and injury in mice. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of functional CFTR in neutrophils can promote LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury. ..
  17. Feng L, Xia Y, Yoshimura T, Wilson C. Modulation of neutrophil influx in glomerulonephritis in the rat with anti-macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) antibody. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:1009-17 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that MIP-2 is a major neutrophil chemoattractant contributing to influx of neutrophils in Ab-induced glomerular inflammation in the rat. ..
  18. Fujita T, Yamabe H, Shimada M, Murakami R, Kumasaka R, Nakamura N, et al. Thrombin enhances the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in cultured rat glomerular epithelial cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:3412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clinically important that the inhibition of these chemokines leads to the improvement of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Anti-thrombin drugs and prednisolone may be useful in treating crescentic glomerulonephritis. ..
  19. Zavitz C, Bauer C, Gaschler G, Fraser K, Strieter R, Hogaboam C, et al. Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. J Immunol. 2010;184:2001-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To that end, neutralization of the ELR(+) inflammatory chemokine MIP-2 (CXCL2/GRO-beta) attenuated the inflammation, weight loss, and clinical presentation of heterologously infected mice ..
  20. Bauer C, Zavitz C, Botelho F, Lambert K, Brown E, Mossman K, et al. Treating viral exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: insights from a mouse model of cigarette smoke and H1N1 influenza infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13251 pubmed publisher
  21. Vanderbilt J, Mager E, Allen L, Sawa T, Wiener Kronish J, Gonzalez R, et al. CXC chemokines and their receptors are expressed in type II cells and upregulated following lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:661-8 pubmed
  22. Numahata K, Komagata T, Hirasawa N, Someya K, Xiao Y, Ohuchi K. Analysis of the mechanism regulating the stability of rat macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mRNA in RBL-2H3 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:976-86 pubmed
  23. Raykova V, Glibetic M, Ofenstein J, Aranda J. Nitric oxide-dependent regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in group B streptococcal inflammation of rat lung. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2003;33:62-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for the nitric oxide pathway in the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6 and MIP-2 during GBS-induced lung inflammation. This pathway may be responsible for the initiation of lung injury. ..
  24. Walpen S, Beck K, Schaefer L, Raslik I, Eberhardt W, Schaefer R, et al. Nitric oxide induces MIP-2 transcription in rat renal mesangial cells and in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. FASEB J. 2001;15:571-3 pubmed
    ..Each respective cDNA fragment was found to match with the cDNAs of rat macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and GRO/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 2b (CINC-2b)...
  25. Xu C, Wu A, Shen Y. [Effects of N-acetylcysteine on mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: experiment with rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:711-5 pubmed
    To explore the potential role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the pathogenesis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), and to study the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the ..
  26. Neumann B, Zantl N, Veihelmann A, Emmanuilidis K, Pfeffer K, Heidecke C, et al. Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. Int Immunol. 1999;11:217-27 pubmed
    ..Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC. ..
  27. Liu Y, Quinn M. Chemokine production by rat alveolar macrophages is inhibited by taurine chloramine. Immunol Lett. 2002;80:27-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Tau-Cl inhibits production of chemokines by activated NR8383 cells through a mechanism that involves, in part, the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. ..
  28. Malik I, Moriconi F, Sheikh N, Naz N, Khan S, Dudas J, et al. Single-dose gamma-irradiation induces up-regulation of chemokine gene expression and recruitment of granulocytes into the portal area but not into other regions of rat hepatic tissue. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1801-15 pubmed publisher
    ..CC-chemokine (MCP-1/CCL2 and MCP-3/CCL7) and CXC-chemokine (KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2, and LIX/CXCL5) gene expression was significantly induced in total RNA from irradiated livers...
  29. De Paola M, Buanne P, Biordi L, Bertini R, Ghezzi P, Mennini T. Chemokine MIP-2/CXCL2, acting on CXCR2, induces motor neuron death in primary cultures. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14:310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated the expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and investigated the effect of CXCR2 activation by the agonist MIP-2 (CXCL2) on primary cultured motor neurons...
  30. Chiang C, Chuang C, Liu S, Lee T, Kou Y, Zhang H. Apocynin attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury in an isolated and perfused rat lung model. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:1360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of apocynin at onset of mechanical ventilation attenuates inflammatory responses and VILI in the isolated, perfused rat lung model. ..
  31. Nakagawa H, Ikesue A, Hatakeyama S, Kato H, Gotoda T, Komorita N, et al. Production of an interleukin-8-like chemokine by cytokine-stimulated rat NRK-49F fibroblasts and its suppression by anti-inflammatory steroids. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993;45:1425-30 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin and piroxicam) at 10(-7)-10(-5) M showed no apparent inhibitory effect on rat gro/CINC production by NRK-49F cells stimulated with IL-1 beta. ..
  32. Han X, Liu X, Hsueh W, De Plaen I. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mediates the bowel injury induced by platelet-activating factor. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G1220-6 pubmed
    ..19 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.43, P < 0.05), hypotension, and leukopenia but did not reduce PAF-induced hemoconcentration. Thus we conclude that MIP-2 mediates PAF-induced intestinal injury. ..
  33. Nanji A, Jokelainen K, Rahemtulla A, Miao L, Fogt F, Matsumoto H, et al. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B and cytokine imbalance in experimental alcoholic liver disease in the rat. Hepatology. 1999;30:934-43 pubmed
    ..Downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines may additionally exacerbate liver injury. ..
  34. Yang S, Chen H, Hsieh C, Hsu J, Yeh C, Yeh T, et al. Akt pathway is required for oestrogen-mediated attenuation of lung injury in a rodent model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Injury. 2011;42:638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of E2 on the lung were abolished by co-administration of Wortmannin. These results collectively suggest evidences that the Akt pathway seems to be required for E2-mediated protection of lung injury after AP. ..
  35. Burke S, Lu D, Sparer T, Masi T, Goff M, Karlstad M, et al. NF-?B and STAT1 control CXCL1 and CXCL2 gene transcription. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E131-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the regulation of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes, which encode proteins that promote migration of CXCR2(+) cells, such as neutrophils, toward secreting ..
  36. Nakagawa H, Komorita N, Shibata F, Ikesue A, Konishi K, Fujioka M, et al. Identification of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINC), rat GRO/CINC-2 alpha and CINC-2 beta, produced by granulation tissue in culture: purification, complete amino acid sequences and characterization. Biochem J. 1994;301 ( Pt 2):545-50 pubmed
    ..Rat GRO/CINC-2 alpha is a major chemokine, and the four purified chemokines have similar chemotactic activity, suggesting that they contribute to neutrophil infiltration into inflammatory sites in rats...
  37. Zhang P, Ma X. Effect of rutin on spinal cord injury through inhibition of the expression of MIP-2 and activation of MMP-9, and downregulation of Akt phosphorylation. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7554-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, rutin was demonstrated as a potential protective agent in SCI and enhances the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting the expression of MIP-2 and activation of MMP-9, and downregulating the expression of p-Akt. ..
  38. Lee B, Lee T, Jung J, Oh D, Choi J, Shin J, et al. The role of keratinocyte-derived chemokine in hemorrhage-induced acute lung injury in mice. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..6 pg/mL/mg by ELISA) (P<0.05). By immunohistochemical staining, lung neutrophils stained positive for KC. Increased KC was also observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. KC plays an important role in hemorrhage-induced ALI. ..
  39. Hayashi T, Chaichoune K, Patchimasiri T, Hiromoto Y, Kawasaki Y, Wiriyarat W, et al. Differential host gene responses in mice infected with two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 isolated from wild birds in Thailand. Virology. 2011;412:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our study demonstrated that two HPAI viruses induced different host responses, despite having similar replications, resulting in lethal outcome in mice. ..
  40. Tateda K, Moore T, Newstead M, Tsai W, Zeng X, Deng J, et al. Chemokine-dependent neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of Legionella pneumonia: potential role of neutrophils as immunoregulatory cells. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2017-24 pubmed demonstrated the up-regulation of CXC chemokines, such as keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX)...
  41. Fine J, Rojas Triana A, Jackson J, Engstrom L, Deno G, Lundell D, et al. Impairment of leukocyte trafficking in a murine pleuritis model by IL-4 and IL-10. Inflammation. 2003;27:161-74 pubmed
  42. Miura T, Wang J, Holmes K, Mason R. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines. Virology. 2007;369:288-98 pubmed
    ..Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation. ..
  43. Fierer J, Swancutt M, Heumann D, Golenbock D. The role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in resistance to Salmonella infections in mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:6396-403 pubmed
    ..This work confirms the importance of PMN in resistance to Salmonella infections and shows that this is facilitated by LBP. ..
  44. Colletti L, Green M. Lung and liver injury following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in the rat is increased by exogenous lipopolysaccharide which also increases hepatic TNF production in vivo and in vitro. Shock. 2001;16:312-9 pubmed
    ..Portal endotoxemia related to mesenteric venous congestion or other systemic insults may have a significant impact on post-operative complications and recovery in the setting of a local or global hepatic I/R injury. ..
  45. Guo R, Riedemann N, Sun L, Gao H, Shi K, Reuben J, et al. Divergent signaling pathways in phagocytic cells during sepsis. J Immunol. 2006;177:1306-13 pubmed
    ..As a result, CXC chemokines increase in lung, setting the stage for neutrophil accumulation in lung during sepsis. ..
  46. Wu C, Lin L, Yeh H, Chan M, Yang C, Hsueh C. Delay of LPS-induced acute lung injury resolution by soluble immune complexes is neutrophil dependent. Shock. 2009;32:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that LPS-induced SICX was timely related to changes of tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (inflammatory cytokines) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
  47. Ding N, Xiao H, Wang F, Xu L, She S. A FQHPSFI peptide selectively binds to LPS-activated alveolar macrophages and inhibits LPS-induced MIP-2 production. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that phage display technology is a powerful tool for the identification of bioactive peptides. The identified FQHPSFI peptide may be used for the modulation of LPS-stimulated MIP-2 production in AMs. ..
  48. Wislez M, Fujimoto N, Izzo J, Hanna A, Cody D, Langley R, et al. High expression of ligands for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in alveolar epithelial neoplasia induced by oncogenic kras. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4198-207 pubmed
    ..Thus, high expression of CXCR2 ligands may contribute to the expansion of early alveolar neoplastic lesions induced by oncogenic KRAS. ..
  49. Rouse R, Murphy G, Boudreaux M, Paulsen D, Penn A. Soot nanoparticles promote biotransformation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in murine lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;39:198-207 pubmed publisher
    ..and glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2); and (3) pro-inflammatory genes: interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-X-C motif ligand 2 (Cxcl2; analog to human IL-8) and ligand 3 (Cxcl3), and granulocyte chemotactic protein (Cxcl6)...
  50. Kilpatrick L, Standage S, Li H, Raj N, Korchak H, Wolfson M, et al. Protection against sepsis-induced lung injury by selective inhibition of protein kinase C-? (?-PKC). J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-PKC is an important regulator of proinflammatory events in the lung. Targeted inhibition of ?-PKC exerted a lung-protective effect 24 h after 2CLP. ..
  51. Kielian T, Haney A, Mayes P, Garg S, Esen N. Toll-like receptor 2 modulates the proinflammatory milieu in Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7428-35 pubmed
    ..aureus detection in the CNS. ..
  52. Uchida Y, Freitas M, Zhao D, Busuttil R, Kupiec Weglinski J. The protective function of neutrophil elastase inhibitor in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 2010;89:1050-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION.: Sivelestat-mediated NE inhibition may represent an effective therapeutic option in liver transplantation and other inflammation disease states. ..
  53. Moser C, Van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen P, Lee B, Hougen H, et al. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS. 2009;117:95-107 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF is reflected by changed ability to establish lung infection and results in distinct host responses to mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes. ..
  54. Meng L, Lv Z, Yu Z, Xu D, Yan X. Protective effect of quercetin on acute lung injury in rats with sepsis and its influence on ICAM-1 and MIP-2 expression. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..Serum intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) levels were detected and ICAM-1 and MIP-2 mRNA expression in lung tissue was determined...
  55. Wu H, Cong Y, Wang D, Zhao R, Qi J. Correlation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 expression and brain edema in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2009;2:83-90 pubmed
    ..The expression of MIP-2 correlates with NF-kappaB activation and brain water content. These results suggest that MIP-2 expression may play an important role in the development of brain edema after ICH in rats. ..
  56. Hahn P, Limper A. Pneumocystis carinii beta-glucan induces release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from primary rat alveolar epithelial cells via a receptor distinct from CD11b/CD18. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;Suppl:157S pubmed
  57. Colletti L, Green M, Burdick M, Strieter R. The ratio of ELR+ to ELR- CXC chemokines affects the lung and liver injury following hepatic ischemia/ reperfusion in the rat. Hepatology. 2000;31:435-45 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the alteration in the balance of ELR+ to ELR- CXC chemokines results in a decrease in tissue injury through a mechanism other than through an alteration in tissue neutrophil levels. ..
  58. Gauglitz G, Song J, Herndon D, Finnerty C, Boehning D, Barral J, et al. Characterization of the inflammatory response during acute and post-acute phases after severe burn. Shock. 2008;30:503-7 pubmed publisher
  59. Oshima N, Ishihara S, Rumi M, Aziz M, Mishima Y, Kadota C, et al. A20 is an early responding negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 5 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the negative feedback regulation of TLR-5 signalling that maintains the innate immune system in the gut. ..
  60. Oh S, Woo J, Lim D, Moon S. ERK2-dependent activation of c-Jun is required for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced CXCL2 upregulation in inner ear fibrocytes. J Immunol. 2012;188:3496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The rat spiral ligament fibrocytes were found to release CXCL2 in response to nontypeable H...
  61. Li Z, Hu J, Sun M, Ji H, Zhao M, Wu D, et al. Effect of compound IMMLG5521, a novel coumarin derivative, on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;661:118-23 pubmed publisher
  62. Mafra de Lima F, Villaverde A, Salgado M, Castro Faria Neto H, Munin E, Albertini R, et al. Low intensity laser therapy (LILT) in vivo acts on the neutrophils recruitment and chemokines/cytokines levels in a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by aerosol of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli in rat. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;101:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The rise of CINC-1 and MIP-2 protein levels in both lung and BALF, and the lung mRNA expressions for IL-10, were unaffected. Data suggest that the LILT effect is due to the inhibition of ICAM-1 via the inhibition of TNF-? and IL-1?. ..
  63. Nakagawa H, Shiota S, Takano K, Shibata F, Kato H. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-2 alpha, a novel member of rat GRO/CINCs, is a predominant chemokine produced by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat macrophages in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;220:945-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CINC-2alpha is produced by activated macrophages in vivo and plays an important role in the infiltration of neutrophils into inflammatory sites in rats ..
  64. Hsu K, Tsai P, Lee J, Wang T, Huang C. Platonin mitigates acute lung injury induced by bilateral lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. J Surg Res. 2011;167:e255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Platonin mitigates acute lung injury induced by bilateral lower limb I/R in rats. ..
  65. Shibata F, Konishi K, Nakagawa H. Identification of a common receptor for three types of rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs). Cytokine. 2000;12:1368-73 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that rat CXCR2 on neutrophils is the unique receptor for all three types of CINCs, and CINC-1/-2 and CINC-3 exert different biological activities through the common receptor. ..
  66. Chandrasekar B, Smith J, Freeman G. Ischemia-reperfusion of rat myocardium activates nuclear factor-KappaB and induces neutrophil infiltration via lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine. Circulation. 2001;103:2296-302 pubmed
    ..Although KC and MIP-2 are expressed by inflammatory cells infiltrating the myocardium during reperfusion after ischemia, neutrophil recruitment to reperfused rat myocardium is mainly due to cardiomyocyte expression of LIX. ..
  67. Annamalai P, Thangam E. Local and Systemic Profiles of Inflammatory Cytokines in Carrageenan-induced Paw Inflammation in Rats. Immunol Invest. 2017;46:274-283 pubmed publisher