Gene Symbol: Cxcl1
Description: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1
Alias: CINC-1, Gro1, growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1, gro, platelet-derived growth factor-inducible protein KC
Species: rat
Products:     Cxcl1

Top Publications

  1. Kaibori M, Yanagida H, Nakanishi H, Ozaki T, Yoshida H, Matsui K, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor stimulates the induction of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant through the activation of NF-kappaB in rat hepatocytes. J Surg Res. 2006;130:88-93 pubmed
    ..Although CINC-1 seems to be not associated with the enhancement of DNA synthesis by rhHGF, it cannot negate the possibility that CINC-1 may contribute to liver repair and regeneration. ..
  2. Wang Y, Luo W, Reiser G. The role of calcium in protease-activated receptor-induced secretion of chemokine GRO/CINC-1 in rat brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2007;103:814-9 pubmed
    ..regulates the release of the chemokine growth-regulated oncogene/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (GRO/CINC-1), a counterpart of the human GRO...
  3. Soares D, Machado R, Yamashiro L, Melo M, Souza G. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 induces fever by a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism in rats. Brain Res. 2008;1233:79-88 pubmed publisher
  4. Tiesset H, Pierre M, Desseyn J, Guery B, Beermann C, Galabert C, et al. Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the kinetics of pro- and antiinflammatory responses in mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. J Nutr. 2009;139:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..enriched with EPA and DHA were infected intratracheally and we studied lung expression of proinflammatory markers [CXCL1, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha], antiinflammatory markers (IL-10, A20, and IkappaB alpha), and ..
  5. Wang J, Strong J, Xie W, Yang R, Coyle D, Wick D, et al. The chemokine CXCL1/growth related oncogene increases sodium currents and neuronal excitability in small diameter sensory neurons. Mol Pain. 2008;4:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine GRO/KC (growth related oncogene; CXCL1) shows strong, rapid upregulation in dorsal root ganglion in both nerve injury and inflammatory models...
  6. Watanabe K, Konishi K, Fujioka M, Kinoshita S, Nakagawa H. The neutrophil chemoattractant produced by the rat kidney epithelioid cell line NRK-52E is a protein related to the KC/gro protein. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:19559-63 pubmed
    ..CINC shows striking similarities to the sequences of the proteins encoded by the mouse platelet-derived growth factor-inducible KC gene and human and hamster gro genes, suggesting that CINC is the rat counterpart of the KC/gro protein.
  7. Cobelens P, Tiebosch I, Dijkhuizen R, van der Meide P, Zwartbol R, Heijnen C, et al. Interferon-? attenuates lung inflammation following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2010;14:R157 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? strongly reduces lung inflammation after experimental SAH and may therefore be an effective drug to prevent SAH-mediated lung injury. ..
  8. Stoner G, Wang L, Seguin C, Rocha C, Stoner K, Chiu S, et al. Multiple berry types prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats. Pharm Res. 2010;27:1138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reduced the levels of the serum cytokines, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and GRO/KC, the rat homologue for human interleukin-8 (IL-8), and this was associated with increased serum antioxidant ..
  9. Zhang Q, Mo Z, Liu X. [Reducing effect of curcumin on expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 in rats with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2010;16:84-8 pubmed
    ..01). Curcumin is efficacious for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats, and the action mechanism may be associated with its decreasing effect on the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the blood and tissues. ..

More Information


  1. Funk C, Manzer R, Miura T, Groshong S, Ito Y, Travanty E, et al. Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2956-64 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhu L, Li H, Tang J, Zhu J, Zhang Y. Hyperoxia arrests alveolar development through suppression of histone deacetylases in neonatal rats. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47:264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may be mediated by CINC-1. Attenuation of CINC-1-mediated inflammation by activating HDAC may have a protective effect in BPD. ..
  3. Hanzawa H, Haruyama H, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S. The three dimensional structure of rat cytokine CINC/Gro in solution by homonuclear 3D NMR. FEBS Lett. 1994;354:207-12 pubmed
    The solution conformation of rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/Gro), a small protein consisting of 72 amino acid residues with proinflammatory activities, and a member of the interleukin 8 family corresponding to a ..
  4. Wen J, Li C, Gu L, Yin S, Li W, Yang R. Aging reduces the expression of lung CINC and MCP-1 mRNA in a P. aeruginosa rat model of infection. Inflammation. 2014;37:933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This might lead to increased risk of pneumonia in elderly patients. ..
  5. Koyama Y, Baba A, Matsuda T. Production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 in rat brain is stimulated by intracerebroventricular administration of an endothelin ETB receptor agonist. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1275-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the activation of brain ETB receptors causes the production of MCP-1 and CINC-1, and suggest a pathophysiological role for brain ETB receptors in nervous system damage. ..
  6. Morimoto Y, Hirohashi M, Ogami A, Oyabu T, Myojo T, Nishi K, et al. Inflammogenic effect of well-characterized fullerenes in inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data in intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies suggested that well-dispersed fullerenes do not have strong potential of neutrophil inflammation. ..
  7. Jantaratnotai N, Choi H, McLarnon J. ATP stimulates chemokine production via a store-operated calcium entry pathway in C6 glioma cells. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:442 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated levels of MCP-1 and IL-8 are predicted to enhance the mobility of tumor cells and promote recruitment of microglia into developing tumors thereby supporting tumor growth. ..
  8. Guo R, Riedemann N, Sun L, Gao H, Shi K, Reuben J, et al. Divergent signaling pathways in phagocytic cells during sepsis. J Immunol. 2006;177:1306-13 pubmed
    ..As a result, CXC chemokines increase in lung, setting the stage for neutrophil accumulation in lung during sepsis. ..
  9. Bressan E, Cunha F, Tonussi C. Contribution of TNFalpha, IL-1beta and CINC-1 for articular incapacitation, edema and cell migration in a model of LPS-induced reactive arthritis. Cytokine. 2006;36:83-9 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the potent antiedematogenic effect, and principally the anti-migration effect of anti-CINC-1, raises the possibility of a better control of disease progression than with anti-IL-1beta therapies. ..
  10. Wang X, Xue X. [Anti-inflammatory effects of erythropoietin on hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn rats]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:446-51 pubmed
    ..The mechanism may be related with the inhibition of MCP-1 and CINC-1 gene expression by EPO. ..
  11. Michalak S, Wender M, Michalowska Wender G, Kozubski W. Blood-brain barrier breakdown and cerebellar degeneration in the course of experimental neoplastic disease. Are circulating Cytokine-Induced Neutrophil Chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) and -2alpha(CINC-2alpha) the involved mediators?. Folia Neuropathol. 2010;48:93-103 pubmed
    ..The decreased serum concentration of CINC-1 as neuroprotective agent and increased CINC-2alpha in late stage of MH may be considered for their contribution to cerebellar degeneration...
  12. Rosenthal L, Amineva S, Szakaly R, Lemanske R, Gern J, Sorkness R. A rat model of picornavirus-induced airway infection and inflammation. Virol J. 2009;6:122 pubmed publisher
    ..airway levels of neutrophil chemoattractant CXCR2 ligands [cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1; CXCL1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; CXCL2)] and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; CCL2) in ..
  13. Wislez M, Fujimoto N, Izzo J, Hanna A, Cody D, Langley R, et al. High expression of ligands for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in alveolar epithelial neoplasia induced by oncogenic kras. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4198-207 pubmed
    ..Thus, high expression of CXCR2 ligands may contribute to the expansion of early alveolar neoplastic lesions induced by oncogenic KRAS. ..
  14. Neumann B, Zantl N, Veihelmann A, Emmanuilidis K, Pfeffer K, Heidecke C, et al. Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. Int Immunol. 1999;11:217-27 pubmed
    ..Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC. ..
  15. Lorenzetti B, Veiga F, Canetti C, Poole S, Cunha F, Ferreira S. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) mediates the sympathetic component of inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivitiy in rats. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2002;13:456-61 pubmed
    The hyperalgesic effect of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1/CXCL1) was measured in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats...
  16. Yubero S, Ramudo L, Manso M, De Dios I. Mechanisms of dexamethasone-mediated chemokine down-regulation in mild and severe acute pancreatitis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:1205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, by targeting MAPKs, NF-kappaB and STAT3 pathways, Dex treatment down-regulated the chemokine expression in different cell sources during mild and severe AP, resulting in decreased severity of the disease. ..
  17. Lin C, Kang K, Lin T, Wu M, Liou H, Chuang W, et al. Role of spinal CXCL1 (GROα) in opioid tolerance: a human-to-rodent translational study. Anesthesiology. 2015;122:666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2, and CX3CL1 were assayed...
  18. Hoth J, Martin R, Yoza B, Wells J, Meredith J, McCall C. Pulmonary contusion primes systemic innate immunity responses. J Trauma. 2009;67:14-21; discussion 21-2 pubmed publisher lung injury histology and increased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase and serum IL-6, CXCL1, and MIP-2 levels when compared with injury + vehicle or LPS alone...
  19. Li Z, Huang Y, Yang Z, Wang J. [Effect of nuclear factor-kappaB activation on expression of proinflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissues in early stage of burn injury]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:1496-7 pubmed
    ..Severe burn injury may activate pulmonary NF-kappaB, which ultimately leads to secretion of cytokines in the lung tissues. ..
  20. van den Berg E, van Woensel J, Bos A, Bem R, Altemeier W, Gill S, et al. Role of the Fas/FasL system in a model of RSV infection in mechanically ventilated mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Fas/FasL system was partly required for the lung inflammatory response in ventilated mice infected with PVM, but attenuation of lung inflammation did not prevent subsequent mortality. ..
  21. Horio F, Kiyama K, Kobayashi M, Kawai K, Tsuda T. Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006;52:28-32 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid deficiency elevates the serum, liver and spleen concentrations of CINC-1 as seen in acute inflammation, and suggest that ascorbic acid deficiency stimulate the hepatic CINC-1 gene expression. ..
  22. Fierer J, Swancutt M, Heumann D, Golenbock D. The role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in resistance to Salmonella infections in mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:6396-403 pubmed
    ..This work confirms the importance of PMN in resistance to Salmonella infections and shows that this is facilitated by LBP. ..
  23. Burke S, Lu D, Sparer T, Masi T, Goff M, Karlstad M, et al. NF-?B and STAT1 control CXCL1 and CXCL2 gene transcription. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E131-49 pubmed publisher
    ..How this process is initiated is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the CXCL1 and CXCL2 genes, which encode proteins that promote migration of CXCR2(+) cells, such as neutrophils, toward ..
  24. Kilpatrick L, Standage S, Li H, Raj N, Korchak H, Wolfson M, et al. Protection against sepsis-induced lung injury by selective inhibition of protein kinase C-? (?-PKC). J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-PKC is an important regulator of proinflammatory events in the lung. Targeted inhibition of ?-PKC exerted a lung-protective effect 24 h after 2CLP. ..
  25. Yamada S, Iida T, Tabata T, Nomoto M, Kishikawa H, Kohno K, et al. Alcoholic fatty liver differentially induces a neutrophil-chemokine and hepatic necrosis after ischemia-reperfusion in rat. Hepatology. 2000;32:278-88 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that apoptosis per se does not always lead to necrosis in the liver following I/R. ..
  26. Tapuria N, Junnarkar S, Abu Amara M, Fuller B, Seifalian A, Davidson B. Haemoxygenase modulates cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant in hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:7518-35 pubmed publisher
    ..04). RIPC reduced CINC levels in the late phase of IR (467.46 ± 26.06), P < 0.05. RIPC protects hepatic microcirculation by induction of HO and modulation of CINC in hepatic IR. ..
  27. Tsai J, Liao E, Hsu J, Lee W, Lai Y. The differences of eosinophil- and neutrophil-related inflammation in elderly allergic and non-allergic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Asthma. 2010;47:1040-4 pubmed publisher
    ..adiponectin, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), growth-related oncogene-? (GRO-?), vitamin E, and glutathione (GSH) were determined...
  28. Mafra de Lima F, Villaverde A, Salgado M, Castro Faria Neto H, Munin E, Albertini R, et al. Low intensity laser therapy (LILT) in vivo acts on the neutrophils recruitment and chemokines/cytokines levels in a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by aerosol of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli in rat. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;101:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The rise of CINC-1 and MIP-2 protein levels in both lung and BALF, and the lung mRNA expressions for IL-10, were unaffected. Data suggest that the LILT effect is due to the inhibition of ICAM-1 via the inhibition of TNF-? and IL-1?. ..
  29. Hanzawa H, Haruyama H, Konishi K, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S. Solution structure of CINC/Gro investigated by heteronuclear NMR. J Biochem. 1998;123:62-70 pubmed
    Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/Gro) is a chemotactic factor for neutrophils in the rat and a member of the CXC chemokine family...
  30. Andres Hernando A, Altmann C, Ahuja N, Lanaspa M, Nemenoff R, He Z, et al. Splenectomy exacerbates lung injury after ischemic acute kidney injury in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, CXCL1, IL-1?, and TNF-? were increased in the kidney, spleen, and liver within 6 h of ischemic AKI...
  31. Kanemura H, Kusumoto K, Miyake H, Tashiro S, Rokutan K, Shimada M. Geranylgeranylacetone prevents acute liver damage after massive hepatectomy in rats through suppression of a CXC chemokine GRO1 and induction of heat shock proteins. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the ten cytokine genes, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, GRO1, was most rapidly and markedly upregulated after 90% hepatectomy...
  32. Schneider D, Ganesan S, Comstock A, Meldrum C, Mahidhara R, Goldsmith A, et al. Increased cytokine response of rhinovirus-infected airway epithelial cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..showed elevated baseline and RV-stimulated protein levels of IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, and growth-related oncogene-alpha/CXCL1. COPD cells demonstrated increased viral titer and copy number after RV infection, despite increased IL-29/IFN-..
  33. Amano H, Oishi K, Sonoda F, Senba M, Wada A, Nakagawa H, et al. Role of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2) alpha in a rat model of chronic bronchopulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cytokine. 2000;12:1662-8 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa. ..
  34. Holven K, Aukrust P, Holm T, Ose L, Nenseter M. Folic acid treatment reduces chemokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:699-703 pubmed
    ..05), and growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)alpha (P=0.088), and homocysteine was significantly correlated with ENA-78 and GROalpha...
  35. Rittner H, Mousa S, Labuz D, Beschmann K, Schafer M, Stein C, et al. Selective local PMN recruitment by CXCL1 or CXCL2/3 injection does not cause inflammatory pain. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:1022-32 pubmed
    ..PMN were recruited by intraplantar injection of CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1; keratinocyte-derived chemokine), CXCL2/3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2), or CFA, with or without preceding ..
  36. Liu F, Liu F, Yu H. Ondansetron attenuates hepatic injury via p38 MAPK-dependent pathway in a rat haemorrhagic shock model. Resuscitation. 2011;82:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Ondansetron attenuates hepatic injury following haemorrhagic shock, which is, at least in part, to be due to its anti-inflammatory effect via p38 MAPK signal pathway. ..
  37. Smith M, Schmidt J, Rehg J, Orihuela C, McCullers J. Induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza. Comp Med. 2007;57:82-9 pubmed
    ..Mortality correlated with the development of pneumonia and lung inflammation but not with bacteremia. This model has the potential to help us understand the pathogenesis of severe lung infections...
  38. Cui H, Hayasaka S, Zheng L, Hayasaka Y, Zhang X, Chi Z. Effect of berberine on monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 expression in rat lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis. Ophthalmic Res. 2007;39:32-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that berberine dose-dependently inhibited the expression of MCP-1 and CINC-1 induced by LPS and diminished the anterior uveitis. ..
  39. Al Alam D, Deslee G, Tournois C, Lamkhioued B, Lebargy F, Merten M, et al. Impaired interleukin-8 chemokine secretion by staphylococcus aureus-activated epithelium and T-cell chemotaxis in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that IL-8 and its receptor CXCR1 are key players in the chemotaxis of CF T cells and could be used as targets to develop therapies for CF. ..
  40. Lin Y, Leu S, Sun C, Yen C, Kao Y, Chang L, et al. Early combined treatment with sildenafil and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells preserves heart function in rat dilated cardiomyopathy. J Transl Med. 2010;8:88 pubmed publisher
    ..0003). The mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-10, Gro/IL-8, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and Bcl-2 were lowest in group 2, and lower in groups 3 and 4 compared ..
  41. Fitzpatrick A, Higgins M, Holguin F, Brown L, Teague W. The molecular phenotype of severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:851-857.e18 pubmed publisher
    ..the BAL fluid, IL-13 and IL-6 differentiated subjects with asthma from controls, whereas growth-related oncogene (CXCL1), RANTES (CCL5), IL-12, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 best characterized severe versus moderate asthma in children...
  42. Szmydynger Chodobska J, Strazielle N, Zink B, Ghersi Egea J, Chodobski A. The role of the choroid plexus in neutrophil invasion after traumatic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:1503-16 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the CP produces CXC chemokines, such as cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 or CXCL1, CINC-2alpha or CXCL3, and CINC-3 or CXCL2...
  43. Stolina M, Bolon B, Dwyer D, Middleton S, Duryea D, Kostenuik P, et al. The evolving systemic and local biomarker milieu at different stages of disease progression in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Biomarkers. 2008;13:692-712 pubmed
    ..Systemic increases in alpha1 acid glycoprotein and KC/GRO together with systemic and local enrichment of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, CCL2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-..
  44. Colletti L, Green M, Burdick M, Strieter R. The ratio of ELR+ to ELR- CXC chemokines affects the lung and liver injury following hepatic ischemia/ reperfusion in the rat. Hepatology. 2000;31:435-45 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the alteration in the balance of ELR+ to ELR- CXC chemokines results in a decrease in tissue injury through a mechanism other than through an alteration in tissue neutrophil levels. ..
  45. Vanderbilt J, Mager E, Allen L, Sawa T, Wiener Kronish J, Gonzalez R, et al. CXC chemokines and their receptors are expressed in type II cells and upregulated following lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:661-8 pubmed
    The proinflammatory CXC chemokines GRO, CINC-2alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 are a closely related family of neutrophil chemoattractants...
  46. Dong F, DU Y, Xie W, Strong J, He X, Zhang J. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC. Neurosci Bull. 2012;28:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC, systemic name: CXCL1), a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs...
  47. Ribaux P, Ehses J, Lin Marq N, Carrozzino F, Böni Schnetzler M, Hammar E, et al. Induction of CXCL1 by extracellular matrix and autocrine enhancement by interleukin-1 in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5582-90 pubmed
    ..Four cytokines were overexpressed on 804G-ECM compared with poly-L-lysine: C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, interferon-inducible protein-10, and IL-1beta...
  48. Nanji A, Jokelainen K, Rahemtulla A, Miao L, Fogt F, Matsumoto H, et al. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B and cytokine imbalance in experimental alcoholic liver disease in the rat. Hepatology. 1999;30:934-43 pubmed
    ..Downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines may additionally exacerbate liver injury. ..
  49. Yang L, Xu G, Wang Y. Up-regulation of CXCL1 and CXCR2 contributes to remifentanil-induced hypernociception via modulating spinal NMDA receptor expression and phosphorylation in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2016;626:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, chemokine CXCL1 is considered to be involved in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, simultaneously, CXCL1 might facilitate ..
  50. Shirakawa H, Katsumoto R, Iida S, Miyake T, Higuchi T, Nagashima T, et al. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces Ca2+ signaling and CXCL1 release via TRPC6 channel in astrocytes. Glia. 2017;65:1005-1016 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, S1P increased chemokine CXCL1 mRNA expression and release, which were suppressed by TRPC inhibitor, inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization, ..
  51. Sugimoto M, Oka M, Tsunemori H, Yamashita M, Kakehi Y. Effect of a phytotherapeutic agent, Eviprostat®, on prostatic and urinary cytokines/chemokines in a rat model of nonbacterial prostatitis. Prostate. 2011;71:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..the chemokines CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?), CXCL1/CINC-1, CXCL3/CINC-2, and CXCL5/LIX were elevated in both prostate and urine...
  52. Honjo T, Kuribayashi T, Seita T, Mokonuma Y, Yamaga A, Yamazaki S, et al. The effects of interleukin-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 on ??-macroglobulin production in rats. Exp Anim. 2010;59:589-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-6 and CINC-1 contribute to ?2M production in rats only when IL-6 and CINC-1 act synergistically. ..
  53. Raghavendran K, Davidson B, Huebschmann J, Helinski J, Hutson A, Dayton M, et al. Superimposed gastric aspiration increases the severity of inflammation and permeability injury in a rat model of lung contusion. J Surg Res. 2009;155:273-82 pubmed publisher
  54. Okayama T, Yoshida N, Uchiyama K, Takagi T, Ichikawa H, Yoshikawa T. Mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced rat enteritis. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44 Suppl 19:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of the intestinal mucosal damage induced by indomethacin. ..
  55. Gauglitz G, Song J, Herndon D, Finnerty C, Boehning D, Barral J, et al. Characterization of the inflammatory response during acute and post-acute phases after severe burn. Shock. 2008;30:503-7 pubmed publisher
  56. Huang S, Paulauskis J, Kobzik L. Rat KC cDNA cloning and mRNA expression in lung macrophages and fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184:922-9 pubmed
    ..of 288 nucleotides, and substantial sequence identity with the platelet-factor 4 family members mouse KC, hamster gro, and human gro...
  57. Huang S, Paulauskis J, Godleski J, Kobzik L. Expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and KC mRNA in pulmonary inflammation. Am J Pathol. 1992;141:981-8 pubmed
    ..The results support the hypothesis that MIP-2 and KC cytokines contribute to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation in this rat model of acute pulmonary inflammation. ..
  58. He R, Mao J, Wang G, Gao W. [Effects of advanced glycation end products on the secretion of proinflammatory chemokines in vascular smooth muscle cells]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;91:107-10 pubmed
    ..GSA promotes the secretion of MCP-1 and IL-8 in VSMCs. Such an effect is not dependent on cellular proliferation. It may be realized through an activation of NF-?B by p38MAPK-sensitive intracellular signaling pathway. ..
  59. Johnson E, Dao T, Guignet M, Geddes C, Koemeter Cox A, Kan R. Increased expression of the chemokines CXCL1 and MIP-1? by resident brain cells precedes neutrophil infiltration in the brain following prolonged soman-induced status epilepticus in rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:41 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed significant concentration increases for CXCL1 and MIP-1? after seizure onset...
  60. Chandrasekar B, Smith J, Freeman G. Ischemia-reperfusion of rat myocardium activates nuclear factor-KappaB and induces neutrophil infiltration via lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine. Circulation. 2001;103:2296-302 pubmed
    ..Although KC and MIP-2 are expressed by inflammatory cells infiltrating the myocardium during reperfusion after ischemia, neutrophil recruitment to reperfused rat myocardium is mainly due to cardiomyocyte expression of LIX. ..
  61. Renois F, Jacques J, Guillard T, Moret H, Pluot M, Andreoletti L, et al. Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia. ..
  62. Shibata F, Kato H, Konishi K, Okumora A, Ochiai H, Nakajima K, et al. Differential changes in the concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and CINC-2 in exudate during rat lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Cytokine. 1996;8:222-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CINC-2 as well as CINC-1 plays an important role in accumulation of neutrophils into the inflammatory lesion of LPS- induced inflammation in rats. ..
  63. Hanzawa H, Haruyama H, Konishi K, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S. Subunit association and monomer structure of CINC/Gro revealed by 1H-NMR. J Biochem. 1997;121:835-41 pubmed
    Rat CINC/Gro is a 72 residue chemotactic factor of neutrophils, and a member of the CXC chemokine family, that includes IL-8 and MGSA/GRO...
  64. King A, Johanson K, Frey C, Demarsh P, White J, McDevitt P, et al. Identification of unique truncated KC/GRO beta chemokines with potent hematopoietic and anti-infective activities. J Immunol. 2000;164:3774-82 pubmed
    ..of the CXC chemokine, KC, while human HSF was identified as an N-terminal 4-aa truncated form of the CXC chemokine, GRO beta...
  65. Knudsen E, Iversen P, Van Rooijen N, Benestad H. Macrophage-dependent regulation of neutrophil mobilization and chemotaxis during development of sterile peritonitis in the rat. Eur J Haematol. 2002;69:284-96 pubmed
    ..Macrophage-derived IL-1beta, MIP-2, and KC are possible mediators of neutrophil homing to inflamed tissues. ..
  66. Watts J, Gellar M, Stuart L, Obraztsova M, Kline J. Proinflammatory events in right ventricular damage during pulmonary embolism: effects of treatment with ketorolac in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009;54:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..PE converted cardiac tissue into a proinflammatory phenotype. Ketorolac reduced RV inflammatory genes, reduced neutrophil influx, and improved RV function in rat PE. ..
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    ..Our results show that CINC, in contrast to MIP-2, is selectively transported from the lung to the systemic circulation, where it promotes neutrophil migration into the lung in response to a chemotactic stimulus. ..
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    ..The results suggest that CINC-2alpha is produced by activated macrophages in vivo and plays an important role in the infiltration of neutrophils into inflammatory sites in rats ..
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    ..pneumophila pneumonia. We speculate that a decrease in the levels of the protective cytokine IL-12 may explain, at least in part, the high mortality in the setting of reduced neutrophil recruitment. ..
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    ..Hepatic CINC-1 synthesis following injury presents a novel focus for treatment of inflammation. ..
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    ..peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction...
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    ..Both of them may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP. NAC may have beneficial effects on AP through downregulation of the expression of MCP-1 and MIP-2. ..