Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Ctnnb1
Description: catenin beta 1
Alias: Catnb, catenin beta-1, beta-catenin, catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
- Huber A, Stewart D, Laurents D, Nelson W, Weis W. The cadherin cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in the absence of beta-catenin. A possible mechanism for regulating cadherin turnover. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12301-9 pubmed
- Brault V, Moore R, Kutsch S, Ishibashi M, Rowitch D, McMahon A, et al. Inactivation of the beta-catenin gene by Wnt1-Cre-mediated deletion results in dramatic brain malformation and failure of craniofacial development. Development. 2001;128:1253-64 pubmed..Our results demonstrate the pivotal role of beta-catenin in morphogenetic processes during brain and craniofacial development...
- Korinek V, Barker N, Morin P, van Wichen D, de Weger R, Kinzler K, et al. Constitutive transcriptional activation by a beta-catenin-Tcf complex in APC-/- colon carcinoma. Science. 1997;275:1784-7 pubmed..Constitutive transcription of Tcf target genes, caused by loss of APC function, may be a crucial event in the early transformation of colonic epithelium. ..
- Tutter A, Fryer C, Jones K. Chromatin-specific regulation of LEF-1-beta-catenin transcription activation and inhibition in vitro. Genes Dev. 2001;15:3342-54 pubmed..We conclude that the CT-ARM region of beta-catenin functions as a chromatin-specific activation domain, and that several inhibitors of the Wnt/Wg pathway directly modulate LEF-1-beta-cat activity on chromatin. ..
- Wang L, Shao Y, Ballock R. Thyroid hormone interacts with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in the terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1988-95 pubmed..These data suggest that thyroid hormone regulates terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in part through modulating canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
- Kimura T, Nakamura T, Murayama K, Umehara H, Yamano N, Watanabe S, et al. The stabilization of beta-catenin leads to impaired primordial germ cell development via aberrant cell cycle progression. Dev Biol. 2006;300:545-53 pubmed..Our results show that the suppression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a prerequisite for the normal development of PGCs. ..
- L Episcopo F, Serapide M, Tirolo C, Testa N, Caniglia S, Morale M, et al. A Wnt1 regulated Frizzled-1/?-Catenin signaling pathway as a candidate regulatory circuit controlling mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron-astrocyte crosstalk: Therapeutical relevance for neuron survival and neuroprotection. Mol Neurodegener. 2011;6:49 pubmed publisher
- Mucenski M, Wert S, Nation J, Loudy D, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, et al. beta-Catenin is required for specification of proximal/distal cell fate during lung morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40231-8 pubmed..These observations establish, for the first time, both the sites and timing of specification of the proximal and peripheral airways in the developing lung, and that beta-catenin is one of the essential components of this specification. ..
- Haegel H, Larue L, Ohsugi M, Fedorov L, Herrenknecht K, Kemler R. Lack of beta-catenin affects mouse development at gastrulation. Development. 1995;121:3529-37 pubmed..Our results demonstrate that, although beta-catenin is expressed rather ubiquitously, it is specifically required in the ectodermal cell layer. ..
- Boerboom D, White L, Dalle S, Courty J, Richards J. Dominant-stable beta-catenin expression causes cell fate alterations and Wnt signaling antagonist expression in a murine granulosa cell tumor model. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1964-73 pubmed..that misregulated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling occurs in ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and have created the Catnb(flox(ex3)/+);Amhr2(cre/+) mouse model, which expresses a dominant-stable mutant of beta-catenin in granulosa cells ..
- Torban E, Wang H, Patenaude A, Riccomagno M, Daniels E, Epstein D, et al. Tissue, cellular and sub-cellular localization of the Vangl2 protein during embryonic development: effect of the Lp mutation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:346-54 pubmed
- Hülsken J, Birchmeier W, Behrens J. E-cadherin and APC compete for the interaction with beta-catenin and the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:2061-9 pubmed
- Okuda T, Yu L, Cingolani L, Kemler R, Goda Y. beta-Catenin regulates excitatory postsynaptic strength at hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13479-84 pubmed..Collectively, these findings suggest that the cadherin-beta-catenin complex is an integral component of synaptic strength regulation and plays a basic role in coupling synapse function and spine morphology. ..
- Murase S, Mosser E, Schuman E. Depolarization drives beta-Catenin into neuronal spines promoting changes in synaptic structure and function. Neuron. 2002;35:91-105 pubmed..Y654F-expressing neurons exhibited a higher minifrequency. Thus, neural activity induces beta-catenin's redistribution into spines, where it interacts with cadherin to influence synaptic size and strength. ..
- Park J, Valerius M, McMahon A. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates nephron induction during mouse kidney development. Development. 2007;134:2533-9 pubmed..However, the failure of induced mesenchyme with high levels of beta-catenin activity to form epithelial structures suggests that modulating canonical signaling may be crucial for the cellular transition to the renal vesicle. ..
- Bamji S, Shimazu K, Kimes N, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, Lu B, et al. Role of beta-catenin in synaptic vesicle localization and presynaptic assembly. Neuron. 2003;40:719-31 pubmed..This study defines a specific role for cadherins and catenins in synapse organization beyond their roles in mediating cell adhesion. ..
- Kouzmenko A, Takeyama K, Ito S, Furutani T, Sawatsubashi S, Maki A, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin and estrogen signaling converge in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40255-8 pubmed..Thus, we present here the first direct evidence of cross-talk between Wnt and estrogen signaling pathways via functional interaction between beta-catenin and ERalpha. ..
- Wisniewska M, Misztal K, Michowski W, Szczot M, Purta E, Lesniak W, et al. LEF1/beta-catenin complex regulates transcription of the Cav3.1 calcium channel gene (Cacna1g) in thalamic neurons of the adult brain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4957-69 pubmed publisher..We propose that beta-catenin contributes to neuronal excitability not only by a local action at the synapse but also by activating gene expression in thalamic neurons. ..
- Backman M, Machon O, Mygland L, van den Bout C, Zhong W, Taketo M, et al. Effects of canonical Wnt signaling on dorso-ventral specification of the mouse telencephalon. Dev Biol. 2005;279:155-68 pubmed..Thus, our data suggest that canonical Wnt signals are involved in maintaining the identity of the pallium by controlling expression of dorsal markers and by suppressing ventral programs from being activated in pallial progenitor cells. ..
- Nair V, Olanow C. Differential modulation of Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway regulates apoptotic and cytoprotective signaling responses. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15469-78 pubmed publisher..Inhibition of GSK-3beta activity by inhibitor VIII protects cells from H2O2 similar to ropinirole. These results indicate that GSK-3beta downstream of Akt plays a critical role in cell death and survival in these models. ..
- Votin V, Nelson W, Barth A. Neurite outgrowth involves adenomatous polyposis coli protein and beta-catenin. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5699-708 pubmed..These results indicate that APC is involved in both early neurite outgrowth and increased growth of the future axon, and that beta-catenin has a structural role in inhibiting APC function in neurite growth. ..
- Nishimura W, Yao I, Iida J, Tanaka N, Hata Y. Interaction of synaptic scaffolding molecule and Beta -catenin. J Neurosci. 2002;22:757-65 pubmed..In the presence of overexpressed beta-catenin, the C-terminal region of S-SCAM forms more clusters at synapses. These data suggest that the synaptic targeting of S-SCAM is mediated by the interaction with beta-catenin. ..
- Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105:533-45 pubmed..Further analysis demonstrates that beta-catenin is essential for fate decisions of skin stem cells: in the absence of beta-catenin, stem cells fail to differentiate into follicular keratinocytes, but instead adopt an epidermal fate. ..
- Dunah A, Hueske E, Wyszynski M, Hoogenraad C, Jaworski J, Pak D, et al. LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the development and maintenance of excitatory synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:458-67 pubmed..We propose that the cadherin-beta-catenin complex is cotransported with AMPA receptors to synapses and dendritic spines by a mechanism that involves binding of liprin-alpha to LAR-RPTP and tyrosine dephosphorylation by LAR-RPTP. ..
- Tanoue T, Takeichi M. Mammalian Fat1 cadherin regulates actin dynamics and cell-cell contact. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:517-28 pubmed..These results suggest that Fat1 regulates actin cytoskeletal organization at cell peripheries, thereby modulating cell contacts and polarity. ..
- Korinek V, Barker N, Willert K, Molenaar M, Roose J, Wagenaar G, et al. Two members of the Tcf family implicated in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during embryogenesis in the mouse. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1248-56 pubmed..These data demonstrate a direct link between Wnt stimulation and beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activation and imply a role for mTcf-3 and -4 in early Wnt-driven developmental decisions in the mouse embryo. ..
- Bennett C, Ross S, Longo K, Bajnok L, Hemati N, Johnson K, et al. Regulation of Wnt signaling during adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30998-1004 pubmed..Finally, we demonstrate that disruption of extracellular Wnt signaling by expression of secreted Frizzled related proteins causes spontaneous adipocyte conversion. ..
- Sodhi D, Micsenyi A, Bowen W, Monga D, Talavera J, Monga S. Morpholino oligonucleotide-triggered beta-catenin knockdown compromises normal liver regeneration. J Hepatol. 2005;43:132-41 pubmed..We demonstrate the importance of beta-catenin in early liver regeneration especially in hepatocyte proliferation. Also, c-myc and uPAR might be crucial downstream effectors of beta-catenin during liver regeneration. ..
- Schmeisser M, Grabrucker A, Bockmann J, Boeckers T. Synaptic cross-talk between N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and LAPSER1-beta-catenin at excitatory synapses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29146-57 pubmed publisher..This calls for a novel role of Tcfe2a and c-Myc in plastic changes of neural tissue. ..
- Zeng L, Fagotto F, Zhang T, Hsu W, Vasicek T, Perry W, et al. The mouse Fused locus encodes Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation. Cell. 1997;90:181-92 pubmed..Thus, Axin is a novel inhibitor of Wnt signaling and regulates an early step in embryonic axis formation in mammals and amphibians. ..
- Longo K, Kennell J, Ochocinska M, Ross S, Wright W, MacDougald O. Wnt signaling protects 3T3-L1 preadipocytes from apoptosis through induction of insulin-like growth factors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38239-44 pubmed..Thus, we demonstrated that Wnt-1 induces expression of antiapoptotic genes in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes such as IGF-I and IGF-II, which allows these cells to resist apoptosis in response to serum deprivation. ..
- De Langhe S, Carraro G, Warburton D, Hajihosseini M, Bellusci S. Levels of mesenchymal FGFR2 signaling modulate smooth muscle progenitor cell commitment in the lung. Dev Biol. 2006;299:52-62 pubmed..Our work unravels part of the complex interactions that govern normal lung development and may be pertinent to understanding the basis of respiratory defects in Apert syndrome. ..
- Klaus A, Birchmeier W. Wnt signalling and its impact on development and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:387-98 pubmed publisher..Since then, further components of the Wnt pathway have been identified and their epistatic relationships have been defined. This article is a Timeline of crucial discoveries about the components and functions of this essential pathway. ..
- Kioussi C, Briata P, Baek S, Rose D, Hamblet N, Herman T, et al. Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development. Cell. 2002;111:673-85 pubmed
- Figeac F, Uzan B, Faro M, Chelali N, Portha B, Movassat J. Neonatal growth and regeneration of beta-cells are regulated by the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in normal and diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E245-56 pubmed publisher..These findings might have potential clinical applications in the regenerative therapy of diabetes. ..
- Cattelino A, Liebner S, Gallini R, Zanetti A, Balconi G, Corsi A, et al. The conditional inactivation of the beta-catenin gene in endothelial cells causes a defective vascular pattern and increased vascular fragility. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1111-22 pubmed..This may become more marked when the vessels are exposed to high or turbulent flow, such as at bifurcations or in the beating heart, leading to fluid leakage or hemorrhages. ..
- Slater S, Koutsouki E, Jackson C, Bush R, Angelini G, Newby A, et al. R-cadherin:beta-catenin complex and its association with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1204-10 pubmed..These results suggest that R-cadherin expression and beta-catenin signaling may be associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and VSMC proliferation and may therefore play an important role in vascular disease. ..
- Vertino A, Taylor Jones J, Longo K, Bearden E, Lane T, McGehee R, et al. Wnt10b deficiency promotes coexpression of myogenic and adipogenic programs in myoblasts. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2039-48 pubmed..Thus, alteration in Wnt signaling in myoblasts with age may contribute to impaired muscle regenerative capacity and to increased muscle adiposity, both characteristic of aged muscle. ..
- Hahn J, Cho H, Bae J, Yuk H, Kim K, Park K, et al. Beta-catenin overexpression reduces myocardial infarct size through differential effects on cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30979-89 pubmed..beta-Catenin may play an important role in the healing process after MI by promoting survival and cell cycle not only in cardiomyocytes but also in cardiac fibroblasts with its differentiation into myofibroblasts. ..
- Saha B, Arase A, Imam S, Tsao Wei D, Naritoku W, Groshen S, et al. Overexpression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone. Prostate. 2008;68:78-84 pubmed
- Rawal N, Corti O, Sacchetti P, Ardilla Osorio H, Sehat B, Brice A, et al. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:473-8 pubmed publisher..These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and beta-catenin-induced cell death. ..
- Morin P, Sparks A, Korinek V, Barker N, Clevers H, Vogelstein B, et al. Activation of beta-catenin-Tcf signaling in colon cancer by mutations in beta-catenin or APC. Science. 1997;275:1787-90 pubmed..These results indicate that regulation of beta-catenin is critical to APC's tumor suppressive effect and that this regulation can be circumvented by mutations in either APC or beta-catenin. ..
- Igarashi M, Yoshida M, Watanabe M, Yamada T, Sakurai T, Endo Y, et al. Involvement of mutation-based inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation at Ser33 in the malignant progression of lung (pre)neoplastic lesions induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in male Fischer 344 rats. Lung. 2007;185:271-278 pubmed publisher..These phenomena might contribute to the malignant progression of the lung (pre)neoplastic lesions, which start from the relatively early stage in lung carcinogenesis. ..
- Wu M, Zhu Y, Pan X, Lin N, Zhang J, Chen X. [Involvement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in tripchlorolide protecting against oligomeric beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced neuronal apoptosis]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010;45:853-9 pubmed..These results indicate that tripchlorolide protects against the neurotoxicity of Abeta by regulating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. This may provide insight into the clinical application of tripchlorolide to Alzheimer's disease. ..
- Dashwood R, Suzui M, Nakagama H, Sugimura T, Nagao M. High frequency of beta-catenin (ctnnb1) mutations in the colon tumors induced by two heterocyclic amines in the F344 rat. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1127-9 pubmedActivating mutations in the beta-catenin (CTNNB1) gene corresponding to N-terminal phosphorylation sites in the protein have been implicated in the development of human colon cancer...
- Finnson K, Kontogiannea M, Li X, Farookhi R. Characterization of Wnt2 overexpression in a rat granulosa cell line (DC3): effects on CTNNB1 activation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:12, 1-8 pubmed publisher..results demonstrate that Wnt2 overexpression in DC3 promotes cytosolic and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin (CTNNB1), but does not stimulate CTNNB1/TCF-dependent (pGL3-OT) transcriptional activity...
- Nakamura I, Fernández Barrena M, Ortiz Ruiz M, Almada L, Hu C, Elsawa S, et al. Activation of the transcription factor GLI1 by WNT signaling underlies the role of SULFATASE 2 as a regulator of tissue regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21389-98 pubmed publisher..Thus, together these findings define a novel pathway in which SULF2 regulates tissue regeneration in part via the activation of a novel WNT-GLI1-CYCLIN D1 pathway. ..
- Strovel E, Wu D, Sussman D. Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent transcription. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2399-403 pubmed..PP2C utilizes Axin as a substrate both in vitro and in vivo and decreases its half-life. These results indicate that PP2C is a positive regulator of Wnt signal transduction and mediates its effects through the dephosphorylation of Axin. ..
- Hashimoto M, Sagara Y, Langford D, Everall I, Mallory M, Everson A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 1 regulates signaling via the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway. Implications for neuroprotection. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32985-91 pubmed..Taken together these results suggest that neuroprotective effects of FGF1 might involve inactivation of GSK3beta by a pathway involving activation of the PI3K-Akt cascades. ..
- De Langhe S, Carraro G, Tefft D, Li C, Xu X, Chai Y, et al. Formation and differentiation of multiple mesenchymal lineages during lung development is regulated by beta-catenin signaling. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1516 pubmed publisher..Taken together these findings reveal a hierarchy of gene activity involving ss-catenin and PITX, as important regulators of mesenchymal cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
- Yao L, Sun Y, Sun W, Xu T, Ren C, Fan X, et al. High phosphorus level leads to aortic calcification via Î²-catenin in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2015;41:28-36 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Î²-catenin is an important player in high phosphorus level-induced aortic calcification in CKD. ..
- Jeong B, Kim T, Kim H, Lee S, Choi Y. Transmembrane protein 64 reciprocally regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation by modulating Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling. Bone. 2015;78:165-73 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that Tmem64 plays an important role in the regulation of mesenchymal lineage allocation by modulating Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling. ..
- Zhurinsky J, Shtutman M, Ben Ze ev A. Differential mechanisms of LEF/TCF family-dependent transcriptional activation by beta-catenin and plakoglobin. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4238-52 pubmed..These results suggest that overexpression of plakoglobin does not directly activate transcription and that formation of catenin-LEF-DNA complexes is negatively regulated by the catenin N- and C-terminal domains. ..
- Lallemand D, Curto M, Saotome I, Giovannini M, McClatchey A. NF2 deficiency promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis by destabilizing adherens junctions. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1090-100 pubmed..Our studies indicate that merlin functions as a tumor and metastasis suppressor by controlling cadherin-mediated cell:cell contact. ..
- Jordan B, Shen J, Olaso R, Ingraham H, Vilain E. Wnt4 overexpression disrupts normal testicular vasculature and inhibits testosterone synthesis by repressing steroidogenic factor 1/beta-catenin synergy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10866-71 pubmed..Our findings suggest a model in which Wnt4 acts as an anti-male factor by disrupting recruitment of beta-catenin at or near steroidogenic factor 1 binding sites present in multiple steroidogenic genes. ..
- Liu F, Thirumangalathu S, Gallant N, Yang S, Stoick Cooper C, Reddy S, et al. Wnt-beta-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development. Nat Genet. 2007;39:106-12 pubmed..Thus, Wnt-beta-catenin signaling is critical for fungiform papilla and taste bud development. Altered regulation of this pathway may underlie evolutionary changes in taste papilla patterning. ..
- Kinjo T, Suzui M, Morioka T, Inamine M, Kaneshiro T, Arakaki J, et al. Reduced expression level of mgmt mRNA and beta-catenin gene mutation in rat colon tumors. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2829-32 pubmed..02). These results suggest that the reduced expression of Mgmt mRNA and beta-catenin gene mutation may contribute to the development of rat colon tumors. ..
- Chen H, Lin C, Lin C, Perez Olle R, Leung C, Liem R. The role of microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) in the Wnt signaling pathway. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1933-45 pubmed..These results suggest a new role of MACF1 in the Wnt signaling pathway. ..