Cst3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cst3
Description: cystatin C
Alias: CYSC, cystatin-C, Cystatin C (cysteine proteinase inhibitor), cystatin-3
Species: rat
Products:     Cst3

Top Publications

  1. Kaeser S, Herzig M, Coomaraswamy J, Kilger E, Selenica M, Winkler D, et al. Cystatin C modulates cerebral beta-amyloidosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1437-9 pubmed
    The CST3 Thr25 allele of CST3, which encodes cystatin C, leads to reduced cystatin C secretion and conveys susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease...
  2. Abrahamson M, Barrett A, Salvesen G, Grubb A. Isolation of six cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human urine. Their physicochemical and enzyme kinetic properties and concentrations in biological fluids. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:11282-9 pubmed
    ..Physicochemical and immunochemical measurements identified one as cystatin A, one as cystatin B, one as cystatin C, one as cystatin S, and one as low molecular weight kininogen...
  3. Taupin P, Ray J, Fischer W, Suhr S, Hakansson K, Grubb A, et al. FGF-2-responsive neural stem cell proliferation requires CCg, a novel autocrine/paracrine cofactor. Neuron. 2000;28:385-97 pubmed
    ..This autocrine/paracrine cofactor is a glycosylated form of cystatin C (CCg), whose N-glycosylation is required for its activity...
  4. Hall A, Hakansson K, Mason R, Grubb A, Abrahamson M. Structural basis for the biological specificity of cystatin C. Identification of leucine 9 in the N-terminal binding region as a selectivity-conferring residue in the inhibition of mammalian cysteine peptidases. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:5115-21 pubmed
    The structural basis for the biological specificity of human cystatin C has been investigated...
  5. Tavera C, Leung Tack J, Prevot D, Gensac M, Martinez J, Fulcrand P, et al. Cystatin C secretion by rat glomerular mesangial cells: autocrine loop for in vitro growth-promoting activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;182:1082-8 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C, the major inhibitor of the cysteine proteinases found in human and rat body fluids, is particularly abundant in seminal plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
  6. Ghiso J, Jensson O, Frangione B. Amyloid fibrils in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of Icelandic type is a variant of gamma-trace basic protein (cystatin C). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:2974-8 pubmed
    ..The protein consists of 110 residues and is similar to human urinary gamma-trace basic protein (or cystatin C) beginning at its 11th amino-terminal residue...
  7. Thomas T, Schreiber G, Jaworowski A. Developmental patterns of gene expression of secreted proteins in brain and choroid plexus. Dev Biol. 1989;134:38-47 pubmed
    ..plexus, whereas the secretion of several other proteins including transferrin and proteins comigrating with cystatin C and alpha 2-macroglobulin increased only after birth...
  8. Palm D, Knuckey N, Primiano M, Spangenberger A, Johanson C. Cystatin C, a protease inhibitor, in degenerating rat hippocampal neurons following transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res. 1995;691:1-8 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C, a cysteine protease inhibitor produced by the choroid plexus and found in CSF at high concentrations, may have an important role in brain injury...
  9. Tavera C, Guillemot J, Capdevielle J, Ferrara P, Leung Tack J, Colle A. A rapid two-step purification of rat cystatin C, one major inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. Prep Biochem. 1989;19:279-91 pubmed
    Rat cystatin C was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat urine after induction of a tubular dysfunction with sodium chromate. Twentyfold concentrated urine was chromatographed by a rapid purification procedure...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wasselius J, Hakansson K, Johansson K, Abrahamson M, Ehinger B. Identification and localization of retinal cystatin C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1901-6 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C is a mammalian cysteine protease inhibitor, synthesized in various amounts by many kinds of cells and appearing in most body fluids...
  2. Shi G, Sukhova G, Grubb A, Ducharme A, Rhode L, Lee R, et al. Cystatin C deficiency in human atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1191-7 pubmed
    ..We show here that, whereas cystatin C is normally expressed in vascular wall smooth muscle cells (SMCs), this cysteine protease inhibitor is severely ..
  3. Katakai K, Shinoda M, Kabeya K, Watanabe M, Ohe Y, Mori M, et al. Changes in distribution of cystatin C, apolipoprotein E and ferritin in rat hypothalamus after hypophysectomy. J Neuroendocrinol. 1997;9:247-53 pubmed
    ..the process of degeneration of injured CNS neurons, we have immunohistochemically examined the distribution of cystatin C, apolipoprotein E, IgG, transferrin and ferritin in the hypophysectomized rat hypothalamus...
  4. Engelsberg K, Ehinger B, Wassélius J, Johansson K. Apoptotic cell death and microglial cell responses in cultured rat retina. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;242:229-39 pubmed
    ..GCL also included an upregulated expression for the lysosomal protein ED-1 and the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C. After 1 week of culture, immunolabeling for ED-1 demonstrated the presence of activated microglial cells also ..
  5. Ma J, Tanaka K, Yamada G, Ikenaka K. Induced expression of cathepsins and cystatin C in a murine model of demyelination. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:311-20 pubmed
    ..Analysis revealed upregulated expression of cathepsins L, H and B and their inhibitor, cystatin C. By in situ hybridization, the induction of cathepsins was primarily limited to microglia/macrophages of the ..
  6. Tsuruta J, O Brien D, Griswold M. Sertoli cell and germ cell cystatin C: stage-dependent expression of two distinct messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts in rat testes. Biol Reprod. 1993;49:1045-54 pubmed
    Sertoli cells were shown to synthesize and secrete cystatin C, a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases. The evidence for this observation was obtained from protein sequencing...
  7. Parikh N, Hwang S, Yang Q, Larson M, Guo C, Robins S, et al. Clinical correlates and heritability of cystatin C (from the Framingham Offspring Study). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:1194-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (CysC) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
  8. Muntner P, Winston J, Uribarri J, Mann D, Fox C. Overweight, obesity, and elevated serum cystatin C levels in adults in the United States. Am J Med. 2008;121:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..without micro- or macroalbuminuria were analyzed to determine the association between BMI and elevated serum cystatin C. Normal weight, overweight, class I obesity, and class II to III obesity were defined as a BMI of 18.5 to 24...
  9. Manzano Fernandez S, Boronat Garcia M, Albaladejo Otón M, Pastor P, Garrido I, Pastor Pérez F, et al. Complementary prognostic value of cystatin C, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic Peptide and cardiac troponin T in patients with acute heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103:1753-9 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to compare the prognostic value of cystatin C over creatinine and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and to evaluate whether it provides complementary information to cardiac biomarkers in ..
  10. Yang H, Wilkening S, Iadarola M. Spinal cord genes enriched in rat dorsal horn and induced by noxious stimulation identified by subtraction cloning and differential hybridization. Neuroscience. 2001;103:493-502 pubmed
    ..The known gene codes for the secreted cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, suggesting that modulation of extracellular proteolytic activity occurs...
  11. Lee D, Mason C, Goodman C, Holder M, Kirksey O, Womble T, et al. Hydrogen peroxide induces lysosomal protease alterations in PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:1499-510 pubmed
    ..current study demonstrates a concentration-dependent decrease in PC12 cell viability and transient changes in cystatin C (CYSC), cathepsin B (CATB), cathepsin D (CATD) and caspase-3 following exposure to H2O2...
  12. Sant Anna R, Navarro S, Ventura S, Paraoan L, Foguel D. Amyloid properties of the leader peptide of variant B cystatin C: implications for Alzheimer and macular degeneration. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:644-54 pubmed publisher
    Variant B (VB) of cystatin C has a mutation in its signal peptide (A25T), which interferes with its processing leading to reduced secretion and partial retention in the vicinity of the mitochondria...
  13. Nishikawa S. Presence of anti-cystatin C-positive dendritic cells or macrophages and localization of cysteine proteases in the apical bud of the enamel organ in the rat incisor. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:643-51 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C, a cysteine protease inhibitor, was examined in the apical buds of rat incisors by immunohistochemistry, because in transition and maturation zones most of the dendritic cells in the papillary layer are anti-cystatin C-positive...
  14. Nishiyama K, Konishi A, Nishio C, Araki Yoshida K, Hatanaka H, Kojima M, et al. Expression of cystatin C prevents oxidative stress-induced death in PC12 cells. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67:94-9 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, is suggested to be involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cultured CNS neurons and various neuronal diseases in vivo; however, little is known about its mechanism of action...
  15. Lee D, Womble T, Mason C, Jackson I, Lamango N, Severs W, et al. 6-Hydroxydopamine induces cystatin C-mediated cysteine protease suppression and cathepsin D activation. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:607-18 pubmed
    ..Cells exposed to 6-OHDA increased expression and release of cystatin C (CC) and suppressed cathepsin B (CB)...
  16. Kaseda R, Iino N, Hosojima M, Takeda T, Hosaka K, Kobayashi A, et al. Megalin-mediated endocytosis of cystatin C in proximal tubule cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:1130-4 pubmed
    Serum levels of cystatin C, an endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitor, are often used as an indicator of glomerular filtration rate...
  17. Hakansson K, Huh C, Grubb A, Karlsson S, Abrahamson M. Mouse and rat cystatin C: Escherichia coli production, characterization and tissue distribution. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;114:303-11 pubmed
    Recombinant mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) cystatin C were produced by expression in Escherichia coli, isolated and functionally characterized. The mouse and rat inhibitors were both fully active in titrations of papain...
  18. González Rivera R, Navarro L, Martínez Vargas M, Guzman Vasquez K, León Rosario P, Landa A, et al. Potential participation of cystatin C in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) modulation. Neurosci Lett. 2006;408:178-82 pubmed
    ..In this study, we found that Cystatin C (CC), an endogenous protease inhibitor, diminishes wakefulness and increases REMS...
  19. Esnard A, Esnard F, Guillou F, Gauthier F. Production of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C by rat Sertoli cells. FEBS Lett. 1992;300:131-5 pubmed
    The Sertoli cells of the rat testis produce cystatin C, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Primary culture of Sertoli cells secreted both unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of rat cystatin C...
  20. Lee S, Park S, Ko S, Yim H, Ahn Y, Yoon K, et al. Insulin resistance and inflammation may have an additional role in the link between cystatin C and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Metabolism. 2010;59:241-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that serum cystatin C level is not only a sensitive marker for renal dysfunction but also a predictive marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanism of this connection is not fully understood...
  21. Niccoli G, Conte M, Della Bona R, Altamura L, Siviglia M, Dato I, et al. Cystatin C is associated with an increased coronary atherosclerotic burden and a stable plaque phenotype in patients with ischemic heart disease and normal glomerular filtration rate. Atherosclerosis. 2008;198:373-80 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C (Cys-C) is an accurate marker of renal function. Recent studies have shown that serum Cys-C levels predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The causes of this association, however, are largely unknown...
  22. Ix J, Katz R, De Boer I, Kestenbaum B, Allison M, Siscovick D, et al. Association of chronic kidney disease with the spectrum of ankle brachial index the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using equations that incorporated either cystatin C or creatinine, and CKD was defined by estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)...
  23. Wassélius J, Hakansson K, Abrahamson M, Ehinger B. Cystatin C in the anterior segment of rat and mouse eyes. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004;82:68-75 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C is a mammalian cysteine protease inhibitor. This study describes the localization of cystatin C in the anterior segment of normal rat and mouse eyes. Cysteine proteases play an important role in protein degradation (e.g...
  24. Cole T, Dickson P, Esnard F, Averill S, Risbridger G, Gauthier F, et al. The cDNA structure and expression analysis of the genes for the cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C and for beta 2-microglobulin in rat brain. Eur J Biochem. 1989;186:35-42 pubmed
    ..of gene expression were analyzed by measuring mRNA levels and incorporation of radioactive amino acids for cystatin C and beta 2-microglobulin, the two extracellular proteins in the brain with the highest ratio of concentration in ..
  25. Huaux F, Lasfargues G, Lauwerys R, Lison D. Lung toxicity of hard metal particles and production of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, fibronectin, and cystatin-c by lung phagocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995;132:53-62 pubmed
  26. CARLSON E, Magid R, Petryk A, Georgieff M. Iron deficiency alters expression of genes implicated in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Brain Res. 2008;1237:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative PCR confirmed altered regulation in 6 of 7 Alzheimer-related genes (Apbb1, C1qa, Clu, App, Cst3, Fn1, Htatip) in iron-deficient rats relative to iron-sufficient controls at P15...
  27. Quinn C, Simmons D, Kennedy T. Expression of Cystatin C in the rat endometrium during the peri-implantation period. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:236-44 pubmed
    ..An interesting pattern for Cystatin C (Cst3) expression was discovered with a peak in abundance just prior to embryo implantation (day 4 of pregnancy) ..
  28. Moroi R, Yamaza T, Nishiura T, Nishimura Y, Terada Y, Abe K, et al. Immunocytochemical study of cathepsin L and rat salivary cystatin-3 in rat osteoclasts treated with E-64 in vivo. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:305-15 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that RSC-3 is associated with the inhibition of cathepsin L in both the lysosomes (in the osteoclasts) and bone matrix. ..
  29. Esnard F, Esnard A, Faucher D, Capony J, Derancourt J, Brillard M, et al. Rat cystatin C: the complete amino acid sequence reveals a site for N-glycosylation. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1990;371 Suppl:161-6 pubmed
  30. Umegae N, Nagai A, Terashima M, Watanabe T, Shimode K, Kobayashi S, et al. Cystatin C expression in ischemic white matter lesions. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;118:60-7 pubmed publisher
    To study the involvement of cystatin C in the progression of ischemic white matter lesions (WMLs)...
  31. Mruk D, Zhu L, Silvestrini B, Lee W, Cheng C. Interactions of proteases and protease inhibitors in Sertoli-germ cell cocultures preceding the formation of specialized Sertoli-germ cell junctions in vitro. J Androl. 1997;18:612-22 pubmed
    ..reduction in cathepsin L expression after this transient increase was accompanied by a concomitant increase in cystatin C expression...
  32. Franceschini N, Qiu C, Barrow D, Williams M. Cystatin C and preeclampsia: a case control study. Ren Fail. 2008;30:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Pregnancy increases plasma cystatin C, but levels are much higher in preeclampsia. Previous studies have not quantified preeclampsia risk with varying cystatin C concentrations or adjusted for confounders...
  33. Nishiura T, Abe K. Postnatal changes of gene expression for tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 and cystatins S and C, in rat submandibular gland demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Arch Oral Biol. 1999;44:15-26 pubmed
    ..The gene-expression patterns of TIMP-1 and -2 relative to G3PDH were similar to each other. The TIMP-2 and cystatin C genes were more highly expressed than those of TIMP-1 and cystatin S at all stages...
  34. Barka T, van Der Noen H. Expression of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C gene in rat heart: use of digoxigenin-labeled probes generated by polymerase chain reaction directly for in situ and northern blot hybridizations. J Histochem Cytochem. 1993;41:1863-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of the cystatin C gene, belonging to the family 2 of cystatins, in the hearts of female rats...
  35. Miyake T, Gahara Y, Nakayama M, Yamada H, Uwabe K, Kitamura T. Up-regulation of cystatin C by microglia in the rat facial nucleus following axotomy. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;37:273-82 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as many other organs of mammals...
  36. Schmid C, Ghirlanda Keller C, Zwimpfer C, Zoidis E. Triiodothyronine stimulates cystatin C production in bone cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:425-30 pubmed publisher
    Thyroid hormones increase cystatin C levels in vivo...
  37. Sundelof J, Arnlov J, Ingelsson E, Sundstrom J, Basu S, Zethelius B, et al. Serum cystatin C and the risk of Alzheimer disease in elderly men. Neurology. 2008;71:1072-9 pubmed publisher
    Multiple lines of research suggest that increased cystatin C activity in the brain protects against the development of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  38. Favis R, Sun Y, van de Velde H, Broderick E, Levey L, Meyers M, et al. Genetic variation associated with bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..048). Genes associated with immune function (CTLA4, CTSS), reflexive coupling within Schwann cells (GJE1), drug binding (PSMB1), and neuron function (TCF4, DYNC1I1) associated with bortezomib-induced PN in this study. ..
  39. Nishio C, Yoshida K, Nishiyama K, Hatanaka H, Yamada M. Involvement of cystatin C in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cultured rat CNS neurons. Brain Res. 2000;873:252-62 pubmed
    ..We found that cystatin C and HuC mRNA, the products of which are an inhibitor of cysteine proteases and an RNA binding protein, ..
  40. McNamara N, Chen R, Janu M, Bwititi P, Car G, Seibel M. Early renal failure detection by cystatin C in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: varying patterns of renal analyte expression. Pathology. 2009;41:269-75 pubmed publisher
    The early stages of renal failure are poorly diagnosed by current routine tests. We studied cystatin C and routine renal analyte patterns in Type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  41. Xie L, Terrand J, Xu B, Tsaprailis G, Boyer J, Chen Q. Cystatin C increases in cardiac injury: a role in extracellular matrix protein modulation. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:628-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison between the two cell types leads to the finding that H(2)O(2) caused an elevated cystatin C protein in the conditioned medium from cardiomyocytes...
  42. van t Hof W, Blankenvoorde M, Veerman E, Amerongen A. The salivary lipocalin von Ebner's gland protein is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1837-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, synthetic peptides derived from VEGh and cystatin C, comprising these three motifs, inhibited papain, too...
  43. Tsiolaki P, Hamodrakas S, Iconomidou V. The pentapeptide LQVVR plays a pivotal role in human cystatin C fibrillization. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:159-64 pubmed publisher
    Human cystatin C (HCC) is a low molecular weight member of the cystatin family (type2). HCC consists of 120 amino acids...
  44. Barrett A, Davies M, Grubb A. The place of human gamma-trace (cystatin C) amongst the cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984;120:631-6 pubmed
    ..It proves to be the tightest -binding protein inhibitor of cathepsin B so far discovered. The name cystatin C is proposed for gamma-trace to reflect the many similarities in activity and structure to chicken egg-white ..
  45. Bedi G. Amino acid sequence of an inducible cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) from submandibular glands of isoproterenol-treated rats. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;273:245-53 pubmed
    ..40-50% sequence identity between inducible cysteine proteinase inhibitor and cystatins from human saliva, human cystatin C, bovine cystatins, and chicken cystatins, all members of Family 2 cystatins...
  46. Brguljan P, Turk V, Nina C, Brzin J, Krizaj I, Popovic T. Human brain cathepsin H as a neuropeptide and bradykinin metabolizing enzyme. Peptides. 2003;24:1977-84 pubmed
    ..Further on, it was shown that human brain cathepsin H activity could be controlled in vivo by cystatin C in its full-length form or its [delta1-10] variant, already known to be co-localized in astrocytes, since the Ki ..
  47. Ying G, Huang C, Jiang Z, Liu X, Jing N, Zhou C. Up-regulation of cystatin C expression in the murine hippocampus following perforant path transections. Neuroscience. 2002;112:289-98 pubmed
    ..Here we report the expression of cystatin C, a major cysteine protease inhibitor of mammalian animals, in the murine hippocampus at 3, 7, 15 and 30 days ..
  48. Derzhko R, Plaksej R, Przewlocka Kosmala M, Kosmala W. Prediction of left ventricular dysfunction progression in patients with a first ST-elevation myocardial infarction--contribution of cystatin C assessment. Coron Artery Dis. 2009;20:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..that might contribute to the prediction of postinfarct LV dysfunction progression, and whether the addition of cystatin C (CystC) to this assessment might be useful...
  49. James A, Conway A, Morris B. Genomic profiling of the neuronal target genes of the plasticity-related transcription factor -- Zif268. J Neurochem. 2005;95:796-810 pubmed
    ..In particular, altered expression of the protease inhibitor Cystatin C and the chemokine Cxcl10 was observed in striatal tissue after haloperidol administration...
  50. Aoki T, Kataoka H, Ishibashi R, Nozaki K, Hashimoto N. Cathepsin B, K, and S are expressed in cerebral aneurysms and promote the progression of cerebral aneurysms. Stroke. 2008;39:2603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of cathepsin B, K, S, and cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, in aneurysmal walls was examined in quantitative RT-PCR and ..
  51. Nishikawa S, Sasaki F. Detection of immature dendritic cells in the enamel organ of rat incisors by using anti-cystatin C and anti-MHC class II immunocytochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1243-55 pubmed
    Dendritic cells in the enamel organ of rat incisors were examined with immunocytochemistry using an anti-cystatin C antibody for immature dendritic cells and macrophages, OX6 for MHC Class II, ED1 for macrophages and dendritic cells, and ..
  52. Pirttilä T, Pitkanen A. Cystatin C expression is increased in the hippocampus following photothrombotic stroke in rat. Neurosci Lett. 2006;395:108-13 pubmed
    ..The expression of cystatin C, a cysteine protease inhibitor, is increased in the hippocampus during status epilepticus (SE)-induced ..
  53. Prozialeck W, VanDreel A, Ackerman C, Stock I, Papaeliou A, Yasmine C, et al. Evaluation of cystatin C as an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity in the rat. Biometals. 2016;29:131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein that is being evaluated as a serum and urinary biomarker for various types of ..