Gene Symbol: Csnk1d
Description: casein kinase 1, delta
Alias: casein kinase I isoform delta, casein kinase I, CKI-delta, tau-protein kinase CSNK1D
Species: rat
Products:     Csnk1d

Top Publications

  1. Bischof J, Müller A, Fänder M, Knippschild U, Fischer D. Neurite outgrowth of mature retinal ganglion cells and PC12 cells requires activity of CK1? and CK1?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20857 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence for a so far unknown, but essential role of CK1 isoforms in neurite growth. ..
  2. Wolff S, Stöter M, Giamas G, Piesche M, Henne Bruns D, Banting G, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) interacts with the SNARE associated protein snapin. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6477-84 pubmed
    ..The identification of snapin as a new substrate of CK1delta points towards a possible function for CK1delta in modulating snapin specific functions. ..
  3. Graves P, Haas D, Hagedorn C, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a 49-kilodalton casein kinase I isoform from rat testis. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:6394-401 pubmed
    We report the molecular cloning and characterization of a 49-kDa form of casein kinase I from rat testis...
  4. Etchegaray J, Machida K, Noton E, Constance C, Dallmann R, Di Napoli M, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3853-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and CK1epsilon in the circadian clock mechanism, we generated mice in which the genes encoding these proteins (Csnk1d and Csnk1e, respectively) could be disrupted using the Cre-loxP system...
  5. Greer Y, Rubin J. Casein kinase 1 delta functions at the centrosome to mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the centrosomal localization of CK1? is required for Wnt-3a-dependent neuritogenesis. ..
  6. Giamas G, Hirner H, Shoshiashvili L, Grothey A, Gessert S, Kuhl M, et al. Phosphorylation of CK1delta: identification of Ser370 as the major phosphorylation site targeted by PKA in vitro and in vivo. Biochem J. 2007;406:389-98 pubmed
    ..In summary, we conclude that PKA phosphorylates CK1delta, predominantly at Ser370 in vitro and in vivo, and that site-specific phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA plays an important role in modulating CK1delta-dependent processes. ..
  7. Bryja V, Schulte G, Rawal N, Grahn A, Arenas E. Wnt-5a induces Dishevelled phosphorylation and dopaminergic differentiation via a CK1-dependent mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:586-95 pubmed
  8. Behrend L, Stöter M, Kurth M, Rutter G, Heukeshoven J, Deppert W, et al. Interaction of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) with post-Golgi structures, microtubules and the spindle apparatus. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:240-51 pubmed
    ..The high affinity of CK1delta to the spindle apparatus in DNA-damaged cells and its ability to phosphorylate several microtubule-associated proteins points to a regulatory role of CK1delta at mitosis...
  9. Stöter M, Bamberger A, Aslan B, Kurth M, Speidel D, Löning T, et al. Inhibition of casein kinase I delta alters mitotic spindle formation and induces apoptosis in trophoblast cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:7964-75 pubmed
    The serine/threonine-specific casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta) is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, is p53 dependently induced in stress situations and plays an important role in various cellular processes...

More Information


  1. Graves P, Roach P. Role of COOH-terminal phosphorylation in the regulation of casein kinase I delta. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21689-94 pubmed
    b>Casein kinase I delta is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) family, a group of second messenger independent protein kinases. We present evidence that the COOH-terminal domain of CKI delta has regulatory properties...
  2. Sillibourne J, Milne D, Takahashi M, Ono Y, Meek D. Centrosomal anchoring of the protein kinase CK1delta mediated by attachment to the large, coiled-coil scaffolding protein CG-NAP/AKAP450. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:785-97 pubmed
    Protein kinase CK1 (formerly termed casein kinase I) is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and comprises a family of as many as 14 isoforms (including splice variants) in mammalian cells...
  3. Camacho F, Cilio M, Guo Y, Virshup D, Patel K, Khorkova O, et al. Human casein kinase Idelta phosphorylation of human circadian clock proteins period 1 and 2. FEBS Lett. 2001;489:159-65 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CKIdelta may play a role similar to CKIepsilon, suggesting that it may also be involved in regulating circadian rhythmicity by post-translation modification of mammalian clock proteins hPER1 and 2. ..
  4. Wolff S, Xiao Z, Wittau M, Süssner N, Stöter M, Knippschild U. Interaction of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1 delta) with the light chain LC2 of microtubule associated protein 1A (MAP1A). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1745:196-206 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, LC2 has been identified as a new substrate of CK1delta. We therefore propose a model in which CK1delta could modulate microtubule dynamics by changing the phosphorylation status of the light chain LC2 of MAP1A. ..
  5. Hanger D, Byers H, Wray S, Leung K, Saxton M, Seereeram A, et al. Novel phosphorylation sites in tau from Alzheimer brain support a role for casein kinase 1 in disease pathogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23645-54 pubmed
  6. Bryja V, Schulte G, Arenas E. Wnt-3a utilizes a novel low dose and rapid pathway that does not require casein kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of Dvl to activate beta-catenin. Cell Signal. 2007;19:610-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results show that Wnt-3a rapidly induce a partial activation of beta-catenin in the absence of PS-Dvl at low doses, while at high doses induce a full activation of beta-catenin in a PS-Dvl-dependent manner. ..
  7. Yasojima K, Kuret J, DeMaggio A, McGeer E, McGeer P. Casein kinase 1 delta mRNA is upregulated in Alzheimer disease brain. Brain Res. 2000;865:116-20 pubmed
    ..Since Alzheimer-like phosphoepitopes of tau can be generated by Ck1, the Ckidelta isoform may play an important role in this fundamental aspect of AD pathology. ..
  8. Yin H, Laguna K, Li G, Kuret J. Dysbindin structural homologue CK1BP is an isoform-selective binding partner of human casein kinase-1. Biochemistry. 2006;45:5297-308 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the acidic domain of dysbindin and its paralogs in humans may function to recruit casein kinase-1 isoforms to protein complexes involved in multiple biological functions. ..
  9. Yamamoto A, Friedlein A, Imai Y, Takahashi R, Kahle P, Haass C. Parkin phosphorylation and modulation of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3390-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, complex regulation of the phosphorylation state of parkin may contribute to the unfolded protein response in stressed cells. ..
  10. Ghoshal N, Smiley J, DeMaggio A, Hoekstra M, Cochran E, Binder L, et al. A new molecular link between the fibrillar and granulovacuolar lesions of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:1163-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that overexpression of this protein kinase family plays a key role in the hyperphosphorylation of tau and in the formation of AD-related pathology. ..
  11. Johnson A, Chen J, Gould K. CK1 is required for a mitotic checkpoint that delays cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1920-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Like Dma1, CK1 accumulates at SPBs during a mitotic arrest and associates stably with SPB components, including Sid4. Our results establish CK1 as an integral component of a mitotic, ubiquitin-mediated checkpoint pathway. ..
  12. Greer Y, Westlake C, Gao B, Bharti K, Shiba Y, Xavier C, et al. Casein kinase 1? functions at the centrosome and Golgi to promote ciliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and retinal cells from Csnk1d (CK1?)-null mice also exhibit ciliogenesis defects...
  13. Inuzuka H, Tseng A, Gao D, Zhai B, Zhang Q, Shaik S, et al. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I promotes the turnover of the Mdm2 oncoprotein via the SCF(beta-TRCP) ubiquitin ligase. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Mdm2 is rapidly degraded after DNA damage and that phosphorylation of Mdm2 by casein kinase I (CKI) at multiple sites triggers its interaction with, and subsequent ubiquitination and destruction, by SCF(..
  14. Lee H, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray J, Weaver D, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide clear insights into the molecular basis of how the period and phase of our daily rhythms are determined. ..
  15. Longenecker K, Roach P, Hurley T. Three-dimensional structure of mammalian casein kinase I: molecular basis for phosphate recognition. J Mol Biol. 1996;257:618-31 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure for the catalytic region of the mammalian protein kinase, casein kinase I delta (CKI delta), has been solved by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.3 A...
  16. Chia R, Haddock S, Beilina A, Rudenko I, Mamais A, Kaganovich A, et al. Phosphorylation of LRRK2 by casein kinase 1α regulates trans-Golgi clustering via differential interaction with ARHGEF7. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5827 pubmed publisher
    ..These pathways are therefore likely involved in the physiological maintenance of the Golgi in cells, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. ..
  17. Bischof J, Randoll S, Süßner N, Henne Bruns D, Pinna L, Knippschild U. CK1? kinase activity is modulated by Chk1-mediated phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68803 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data point towards a possible regulatory relationship between Chk1 and CK1?. ..
  18. Zemp I, Wandrey F, Rao S, Ashiono C, Wyler E, Montellese C, et al. CK1? and CK1? are components of human 40S subunit precursors required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that CK1? and CK1? play a decisive role in triggering late steps of pre-40S maturation that are required for acquisition of functionality of 40S ribosomal subunits in protein translation. ..
  19. Perreau Lenz S, Vengeliene V, Noori H, Merlo Pich E, Corsi M, Corti C, et al. Inhibition of the casein-kinase-1-?/?/ prevents relapse-like alcohol drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that CK1 inhibitors may be candidates for drug treatment development for alcoholism. ..
  20. Kennaway D, Varcoe T, Voultsios A, Salkeld M, Rattanatray L, Boden M. Acute inhibition of casein kinase 1δ/ε rapidly delays peripheral clock gene rhythms. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;398:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..are generated through a transcription-translation feedback loop involving clock genes and the casein kinases CSNK1D and CSNK1E...
  21. Li D, Herrera S, Bubula N, Nikitina E, Palmer A, Hanck D, et al. Casein kinase 1 enables nucleus accumbens amphetamine-induced locomotion by regulating AMPA receptor phosphorylation. J Neurochem. 2011;118:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, Csnk1 may be a critical target for intervention in the treatment of drug use disorders...