Gene Symbol: Csf2
Description: colony stimulating factor 2
Alias: Gm-csf, Gmcsf, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF, colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage), colony-stimulating factor
Species: rat
Products:     Csf2

Top Publications

  1. Schäbitz W, Krüger C, Pitzer C, Weber D, Laage R, Gassler N, et al. A neuroprotective function for the hematopoietic protein granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:29-43 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of cells of the myeloid lineage, which was cloned more than 20 years ago...
  2. Iversen P, Lewis I, Turczynowicz S, Hasle H, Niemeyer C, Schmiegelow K, et al. Inhibition of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor prevents dissemination and induces remission of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in engrafted immunodeficient mice. Blood. 1997;90:4910-7 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the fatal childhood disease termed juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)...
  3. Shiraishi M, Hirasawa N, Mue S, Ohuchi K. Identification of histamine-production-increasing factor produced by stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1403:273-80 pubmed
    ..was identical to the internal amino acid sequence of rat granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In addition, GM-CSF mRNA levels in RBL-2H3 cells were increased by A23187 with a peak at 4 h...
  4. Wolf R, Mascia F, Dharamsi A, Howard O, Cataisson C, Bliskovski V, et al. Gene from a psoriasis susceptibility locus primes the skin for inflammation. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:61ra90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a pathogenetic psoriasis model using a psoriasis candidate gene to link the epidermis and innate immune system in inflammation priming, highlighting the S100A7A15-RAGE axis as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  5. Li M, Wang B, Wu Z, Zhang J, Shi X, Cheng W, et al. A novel recombinant protein of ephrinA1-PE38/GM-CSF activate dendritic cells vaccine in rats with glioma. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:5497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the adenovirus-mediated ephrinA1-PE38/GM-CSF was successfully constructed using the overlap extension method, and verified with sequencing analysis...
  6. Lee F, Yokota T, Otsuka T, Gemmell L, Larson N, Luh J, et al. Isolation of cDNA for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by functional expression in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:4360-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that identification of full-length cDNAs for many colony-stimulating factors may be achieved entirely on the basis of detecting the functional polypeptide produced in mammalian cells. ..
  7. Schallenberg M, Charalambous P, Thanos S. GM-CSF regulates the ERK1/2 pathways and protects injured retinal ganglion cells from induced death. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:665-77 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) is a potent hematopoietic cytokine. In the present study, we examined whether GM-CSF is neuroprotective in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  8. Kellar R, Lancaster J, Thai H, Juneman E, Johnson N, Byrne H, et al. Antibody to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor reduces the number of activated tissue macrophages and improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction in a rat coronary artery ligation model. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;57:568-74 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes infarct expansion and inappropriate collagen synthesis in a myocardial infarction (MI)...
  9. Ha Y, Kim Y, Cho J, Yoon S, Park S, Yoon D, et al. Role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in preventing apoptosis and improving functional outcome in experimental spinal cord contusion injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;2:55-61 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a potent hemopoietic cytokine that stimulates stem cell proliferation in the bone marrow and inhibits apoptotic cell death in leukocytes...

More Information


  1. Lasbury M, Durant P, Liao C, Lee C. Effects of decreased calmodulin protein on the survival mechanisms of alveolar macrophages during Pneumocystis pneumonia. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..lavage fluids from infected rats and mice showed low levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and reduced activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)...
  2. Persson J, Nilsson J, Lindholm M. Interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha impede neutral lipid turnover in macrophage-derived foam cells. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:70 pubmed publisher
    ..If present in vivo, these mechanisms will further augment the pro-atherogenic properties of the two cytokines. ..
  3. Scheuerer B, Ernst M, Dürrbaum Landmann I, Fleischer J, Grage Griebenow E, Brandt E, et al. The CXC-chemokine platelet factor 4 promotes monocyte survival and induces monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Blood. 2000;95:1158-66 pubmed
    ..neutralizing antibodies directed against TNF-alpha or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) did not revert PF4-induced rescue from programmed cell death, suggesting that PF4 exerts its antiapoptotic effects ..
  4. Kobayashi Y, Kubo A, Iwano M, Sakaguchi Y, Samejima K, Kyoda Y, et al. Levels of MCP-1 and GM-CSF mRNA correlated with inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats. Autoimmunity. 2002;35:97-104 pubmed
    ..Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were shown to mediate the migration of monocytes and T cells into inflammatory sites and to proliferate monocytes...
  5. Dai S, Nakagawa R, Itoh A, Murakami H, Kashio Y, Abe H, et al. Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:2974-81 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Gal-9 plays a role not only in innate immunity but also in acquired immunity by inducing DC maturation and promoting Th1 immune responses. ..
  6. Sears B, Volkmer D, Yong S, Himes R, Lauing K, Morgan M, et al. Correlation of measurable serum markers of inflammation with lung levels following bilateral femur fracture in a rat model. J Inflamm Res. 2010;2010:105-114 pubmed
    ..femur fracture significantly increased serum markers of inflammation including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, KC/GRO, MCP-1, and WBC...
  7. Danielyan L, SchAfer R, von Ameln Mayerhofer A, Bernhard F, Verleysdonk S, Buadze M, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of intranasally delivered mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Rejuvenation Res. 2011;14:3-16 pubmed publisher
    ..6, -12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-? (IFN-?, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-in the lesioned side to their levels in the intact hemisphere...
  8. Birnbaum R, O Marcaigh A, Wardak Z, Zhang Y, Dranoff G, Jacks T, et al. Nf1 and Gmcsf interact in myeloid leukemogenesis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:189-95 pubmed
    ..We generated hematopoietic cells deficient in both Nf1 and Gmcsf to test whether GM-CSF is required to drive excessive proliferation of Nf1-/- cells in vivo...
  9. Naito K, Anzai T, Sugano Y, Maekawa Y, Kohno T, Yoshikawa T, et al. Differential effects of GM-CSF and G-CSF on infiltration of dendritic cells during early left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. J Immunol. 2008;181:5691-701 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effect of DC modulation by CSF on left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI...
  10. Li B, Hartwig M, Appel J, Bush E, Balsara K, Holzknecht Z, et al. Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid induces the development of obliterative bronchiolitis in rat lung transplants. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:1614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in BAL and of IL-1 alpha, IL-4 and GM-CSF in serum...
  11. Ray M, Mukhopadhyay K, Narang A. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in neonatal neutropenia. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67:67-8 pubmed
    ..We describe two neonates with neutropenia treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor. The total and absolute neutrophil counts showed a marked response and led to a favourable ..
  12. Gao H, Rong Xue -, Peng Ding -, Chen N, Bing Meng -, Zhao H, et al. Cross-talk of the related bioactivity mediators in serum after injection of soluble TNF-? receptor on silicosis model of rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:607-16 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), TNF-?, interferon-Y (IFN-Y) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The area percentages of type I and III collagens in intervention group were lower than those in silica group...
  13. Reed J, Clegg D, Smith K, Tolod Richer E, Matter E, Picard L, et al. GM-CSF action in the CNS decreases food intake and body weight. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3035-44 pubmed
    ..The present work tested a role for the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF. Central but not peripheral administration of GM-CSF to adult rats significantly decreased food intake and body ..
  14. Traver D, Akashi K, Weissman I, Lagasse E. Mice defective in two apoptosis pathways in the myeloid lineage develop acute myeloblastic leukemia. Immunity. 1998;9:47-57 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Fas has a novel role in the regulation of myelopoiesis and that Fas may act as a tumor suppressor to control leukemogenic transformation in myeloid progenitor cells. ..
  15. Bermudez L, Martinelli J, Gascon R, Wu M, Young L. Protection against gram-negative bacteremia in neutropenic mice with recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokine. 1990;2:287-93 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates production of neutrophils in bone marrow and may decrease the incidence of infection during neutropenia...
  16. Andreutti D, Gabbiani G, Neuville P. Early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression by alveolar inflammatory cells during bleomycin-induced rat lung fibrosis. Lab Invest. 1998;78:1493-502 pubmed
    Topical administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) into the subcutaneous tissue or in the pulmonary alveoli of the rat induces a fibrotic reaction characterized by the presence of alpha-smooth muscle ..
  17. Jawan B, Kao Y, Goto S, Pan M, Lin Y, Hsu L, et al. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-kappaB translocation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;229:362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression...
  18. Kryczek I, Zou L, Rodriguez P, Zhu G, Wei S, Mottram P, et al. B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma. J Exp Med. 2006;203:871-81 pubmed
    ..Blocking B7-H4 or depleting B7-H4+ tumor macrophages may represent novel strategies to enhance T cell tumor immunity in cancer. ..
  19. Sho E, Sho M, Hoshina K, Kimura H, Nakahashi T, Dalman R. Hemodynamic forces regulate mural macrophage infiltration in experimental aortic aneurysms. Exp Mol Pathol. 2004;76:108-16 pubmed
    ..Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression correlated with observed macrophage densities in the media and adventitia...
  20. Ganesan R, Rasool M. Interleukin 17 regulates SHP-2 and IL-17RA/STAT-3 dependent Cyr61, IL-23 and GM-CSF expression and RANKL mediated osteoclastogenesis by fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Immunol. 2017;91:134-144 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that RA-FLS produces SHP-2, Cyr61, IL-23, GM-CSF and RANKL which results in worsening of the disease...
  21. Gibson P, Zlatic K, Scott J, Sewell W, Woolley K, Saltos N. Chronic cough resembles asthma with IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in bronchoalveolar cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:320-6 pubmed
    ..eosinophilia is believed to be mediated by cytokines such as interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The role of these cytokines in chronic cough is unclear...
  22. Fukuzawa H, Sawada M, Kayahara T, Morita Fujisawa Y, Suzuki K, Seno H, et al. Identification of GM-CSF in Paneth cells using single-cell RT-PCR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312:897-902 pubmed
    ..We identified the exclusive expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in Paneth cells using single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cDNA array...
  23. Choi J, Callaway Z, Kim H, Fujisawa T, Kim C. The role of TNF-alpha in eosinophilic inflammation associated with RSV bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-5), proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-8), eosinophil-active cytokine [granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-gamma], and eosinophil-active chemokine (eotaxin, regulated on activation normal T cell ..
  24. Okajima Y, Matsumura I, Nishiura T, Hashimoto K, Yoshida H, Ishikawa J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I augments erythropoietin-induced proliferation through enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22877-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IGF-I may augment EPO-induced proliferation by enhancing tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 and raise the possibility that Ras may be involved in the augmentation of STAT5 tyrosyl phosphorylation. ..
  25. Krüger C, Laage R, Pitzer C, Schäbitz W, Schneider A. The hematopoietic factor GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) promotes neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vitro. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:88 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells...
  26. Okada S, Nakauchi H, Nagayoshi K, Nakamura M, Miura Y, Suda T. Synergistic effect of IL-3 and IL-6 on highly enriched murine hemopoietic progenitors. Exp Hematol. 1992;20:546-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is concluded that IL-6 acts directly on hemopoietic stem cells to enhance their proliferation. ..
  27. Katz S, Zsiros V, Dóczi N, Szabó A, Biczó Á, Kiss A. GM-CSF and GM-CSF receptor have regulatory role in transforming rat mesenteric mesothelial cells into macrophage-like cells. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:827-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro primary mesenteric culture was treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 1 ng/ml). Blocking internalization of receptor-ligand complex, Dynasore (80 µM) was used...
  28. Frenck R, Sarman G, Harper T, Buescher E. The ability of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to protect neonatal rats from septic death due to Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis. 1990;162:109-14 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates in vitro and in vivo production of granulocytes. Also, recombinant human GM-CSF in vitro enhances functional capabilities of human granulocytes...
  29. Meng F, Francis H, Glaser S, Han Y, Demorrow S, Stokes A, et al. Role of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in remodeling during liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2012;55:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant, stable increase in SCF and GM-CSF levels until 7 days after PH...
  30. Seymour J, Begley C, Dirksen U, Presneill J, Nicola N, Moore P, et al. Attenuated hematopoietic response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Blood. 1998;92:2657-67 pubmed
    ..Gene-targeted mice lacking the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or the signal-transducing beta-common chain of the GM-CSF receptor have impaired surfactant clearance and ..
  31. Tao M, Levy R. Idiotype/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fusion protein as a vaccine for B-cell lymphoma. Nature. 1993;362:755-8 pubmed
    ..Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) augments antigen presentation in a variety of cells...
  32. Quintero M, Riera H, Colantuoni G, Khatib A, Attalah H, Moldovan F, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor is anabolic and interleukin-1beta is catabolic for rat articular chondrocytes. Cytokine. 2008;44:366-72 pubmed publisher
    To study the effects of GM-CSF and IL-1beta, both implicated in tissue damage in arthritis, on articular chondrocyte proliferation and metabolism, and to explore their agonist/antagonist effects...
  33. Zhen A, Krutzik S, Levin B, Kasparian S, Zack J, Kitchen S. CD4 ligation on human blood monocytes triggers macrophage differentiation and enhances HIV infection. J Virol. 2014;88:9934-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies have identified a novel function for the CD4 molecule on peripheral monocytes in triggering macrophage development that has direct consequences for HIV infection. ..
  34. Dougan M, Li D, Neuberg D, Mihm M, Googe P, WONG K, et al. A dual role for the immune response in a mouse model of inflammation-associated lung cancer. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..the development of lung cancer, we generated mice with combined loss of IFN-γ and the β-common cytokines GM-CSF and IL-3. These immunodeficient mice develop chronic pulmonary inflammation and lung tumors at a high frequency...
  35. Joshi P, Applewhite L, Mitchell P, Fernainy K, Roman J, Eaton D, et al. GM-CSF receptor expression and signaling is decreased in lungs of ethanol-fed rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L1150-8 pubmed
    ..of ethanol-mediated susceptibility to lung injury, recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) restored alveolar epithelial barrier function both in vitro and in vivo, even during acute endotoxemia...
  36. Baytur Y, Ozbilgin K, Yuksel H, Kose C. Antenatal administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases fetal lung maturation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the fetal rat lung. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;136:171-7 pubmed
    We investigated how maternal administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced fetal lung maturation compared with dexamethasone and whether maternal administration of GM-CSF and dexamethasone influenced ..
  37. Chang C, Limanni A, Baker W, Dobson M, Kalinich J, Jackson W, et al. Bone marrow and splenic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and transforming growth factor-beta mRNA levels in irradiated mice. Blood. 1995;86:2130-6 pubmed
    ..radiation exposure on endogenous bone marrow (BM) and splenic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA levels were assayed in B6D2F1 female mice...
  38. Kimura M, Inoue S. Involvement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in pregnancy-enhanced sleep. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;56:337-8 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a crucial cytokine for establishing pregnancy...
  39. van de Wetering D, de Paus R, van Dissel J, van de Vosse E. Salmonella induced IL-23 and IL-1beta allow for IL-12 production by monocytes and Mphi1 through induction of IFN-gamma in CD56 NK/NK-like T cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8396 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, type 1 pro-inflammatory macrophages (Mphi1) differentiated in the presence of GM-CSF and infected with live Salmonella produce IL-23, IL-1beta and IL-18, but not IL-12...
  40. Chen J, Olsen J, Ford S, Mirza S, Walker A, Murphy J, et al. A new isoform of interleukin-3 receptor {alpha} with novel differentiation activity and high affinity binding mode. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the SP1 and SP2 isoforms activated the Jak2/STAT5, Akt, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways in M1 cells, although the activation was more prolonged for the SP2 isoform. ..
  41. Tai K, Chen P, Chen D, Hwang L. Concurrent delivery of GM-CSF and endostatin genes by a single adenoviral vector provides a synergistic effect on the treatment of orthotopic liver tumors. J Gene Med. 2003;5:386-98 pubmed
    ..therapeutic effect of combination gene therapy using a murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) gene and a human endostatin (hED) gene on a rat orthotopic liver tumor model...
  42. Lukashenko P, Lukashenko T, Savanovich I, Sandakov D, Gerein V. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulates activity of the nervous system. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2004;11:36-40 pubmed
    The peripheral administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), widely used for the treatment of cytopenias, is often associated with neurological effects [Lieschke et al., N Engl J Med 1992;327:28-34]...
  43. Ploemacher R, van Soest P, Boudewijn A, Neben S. Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor. Leukemia. 1993;7:1374-80 pubmed
    ..The observed activity of IL-12, however, required the presence of a least two factors, i.e. either IL-3 + IL-11, or IL-3 + SF. ..
  44. Johansson M, Lye M, Barthel S, Duffy A, Annis D, Mosher D. Eosinophils adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via podosomes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;31:413-22 pubmed
    ..Podosome-mediated VCAM-1 clearance may be a mechanism to regulate eosinophil arrest and extravasation in allergic conditions such as asthma...
  45. Holowachuk E, Ruhoff M. Biologically active recombinant rat granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 1995;6:588-96 pubmed
    Rat granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) cDNA was amplified and cloned, and recombinant-rGM-CSF (R-rGM-CSF) was expressed and isolated from Escherichia coli...
  46. Jin D, Shido K, Kopp H, Petit I, Shmelkov S, Young L, et al. Cytokine-mediated deployment of SDF-1 induces revascularization through recruitment of CXCR4+ hemangiocytes. Nat Med. 2006;12:557-67 pubmed
    ..revascularization of ischemic hindlimbs was partially diminished in mice deficient in both GM-CSF and G-CSF (Csf2-/- Csf3-/-), profound impairment in neovascularization was detected in sKitL-deficient Mmp9-/- as well as ..
  47. Wang H, Wen Y, Polan M, Boostanfar R, Feinman M, Behr B. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor promotes follicular development in the newborn rat in vivo. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2749-56 pubmed
    Expression and selective cellular localization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and its receptor in ovarian tissue imply an autocrine/paracrine role in ovarian function...
  48. Orphanos V, Andonopoulos A, Kourakli A, Zoumbos N. Cytokine gene expression in the marrow stromal cells of patients with giant cell arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998;16:683-8 pubmed
    ..significance in this process, we decided to examine the role of stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and ..
  49. Smaldone M, Vodovotz Y, Tyagi V, Barclay D, Philips B, Yoshimura N, et al. Multiplex analysis of urinary cytokine levels in rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Urology. 2009;73:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional delineation of urine and bladder tissue cytokine expression might yield biomarkers for cystitis. ..
  50. Lechanteur C, Moutschen M, Princen F, Lopez M, Franzen E, Gielen J, et al. Antitumoral vaccination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-12-expressing DHD/K12 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Gene Ther. 2000;7:676-82 pubmed
    ..immune response with murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) and murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor cells in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis...
  51. Kieslinger M, Woldman I, Moriggl R, Hofmann J, Marine J, Ihle J, et al. Antiapoptotic activity of Stat5 required during terminal stages of myeloid differentiation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:232-44 pubmed
    ..Bone marrow cells from these animals displayed a strong increase in apoptotic cell death during GM-CSF-dependent functional maturation in vitro...
  52. Luo X, Ding Q, Wang M, Li Z, Mao K, Sun B, et al. In vivo disruption of TGF-beta signaling by Smad7 in airway epithelium alleviates allergic asthma but aggravates lung carcinogenesis in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10149 pubmed publisher
    ..the Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, as well as other cytokines including IL-17, IL-1, IL-6, IP10, G-CSF, and GM-CSF were significantly reduced in the transgenic mice upon OVA induction...
  53. Bosnar M, Bosnjak B, Cuzic S, Hrvacic B, Marjanovic N, Glojnaric I, et al. Azithromycin and clarithromycin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced murine pulmonary neutrophilia mainly through effects on macrophage-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-1beta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, concentrations of several inflammatory mediators, including CCL2, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and sE-selectin in lung homogenates ..
  54. Nishihara T, Ochi M, Sugimoto K, Takahashi H, Yano H, Kumon Y, et al. Subcutaneous injection containing IL-3 and GM-CSF ameliorates stab wound-induced brain injury in rats. Exp Neurol. 2011;229:507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNAs encoding receptors for interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
  55. Huang F, Barnes P, Feng Y, Donis R, Chroneos Z, Idell S, et al. GM-CSF in the lung protects against lethal influenza infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if increased expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the lung increases resistance to influenza...
  56. Kavuru M, Malur A, Marshall I, Barna B, Meziane M, Huizar I, et al. An open-label trial of rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:1361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..is an autoimmune disorder characterised by autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). An open-label, proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial was conducted in 10 PAP patients...
  57. Seymour J, Presneill J, Schoch O, Downie G, Moore P, Doyle I, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with idiopathic acquired alveolar proteinosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:524-31 pubmed
    ..Because the hematopoietic cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is required for normal surfactant homeostasis, we evaluated the therapeutic activity of GM-CSF in patients with ..
  58. Kantar M, Kultursay N, Kutukculer N, Akisu M, Cetingul N, Caglayan S. Plasma concentrations of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 in septic and healthy preterms. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159:156-7 pubmed
    Plasma granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were determined in 21 preterm infants with sepsis and nine healthy preterm neonates of the same postnatal age at sampling...
  59. Klimchenko O, Di Stefano A, Geoerger B, Hamidi S, Opolon P, Robert T, et al. Monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal liver share common differentiation pathways and homeostatic functions. Blood. 2011;117:3065-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Trophic and immunosuppressive functions of M2-polarized macrophages link fetus and tumor development, and hESCs offer a valuable experimental model for in vitro studies of mechanisms sustaining these processes. ..
  60. Zorzi P, Aplin A, Smith K, Nicosia R. Technical Advance: The rat aorta contains resident mononuclear phagocytes with proliferative capacity and proangiogenic properties. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:1051-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of aortic cultures with M-CSF induced extensive periaortic outgrowth of CD45(+) CD68(+) mononuclear cells with ultrastructural features of ..
  61. Smith L, Lundeen K, Dively J, Carlo D, Brostoff S. Nucleotide sequence of the Lewis rat granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Immunogenetics. 1994;39:80 pubmed
  62. Sterpetti A, Borrelli V, Ventura M, Cucina A. Cross talk between inflammatory cytokines and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in transplant vasculopathy. J Surg Res. 2017;212:114-121 pubmed publisher
    ..001) in allografts. GM-CSF and TNF-?, at concentrations in the allograft organ cultures, stimulated significantly the growth of smooth muscle ..
  63. Ujike A, Takeda K, Nakamura A, Ebihara S, Akiyama K, Takai T. Impaired dendritic cell maturation and increased T(H)2 responses in PIR-B(-/-) mice. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:542-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, PIR-B is critical for B cell suppression, DC maturation and for balancing T(H)1 and T(H)2 immune responses. ..
  64. Pelaez A, Bechara R, Joshi P, Brown L, Guidot D. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment improves alveolar epithelial barrier function in alcoholic rat lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L106-11 pubmed
    ..Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a trophic factor for the alveolar epithelium, and a recent phase II clinical study suggests that GM-CSF therapy ..
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    To investigate the role of GM-CSF in asthmatic airways inflammation, we have targeted GM-CSF transgene to the airway cells in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation, a model in which there is marked ..
  66. Cannistra S, DiCarlo J, Groshek P, Kanakura Y, Berg D, Mayer R, et al. Simultaneous administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and cytosine arabinoside for the treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 1991;5:230-8 pubmed
    ..be accelerated in vitro through the use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), resulting in enhancement of ara-C-mediated cytotoxicity...
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    Protective effects of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) on H1N1 influenza virus infection was studied in vivo and in vitro...