Gene Symbol: Crhr1
Description: corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1
Alias: CRFR1, CRH-R 1, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1, CRF-R, CRF-R-1, CRF-R1, CRF1, CRFR-1, CRH-R-1, CRH-R1, corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor 1, corticotropin releasing hormone 1
Species: rat
Products:     Crhr1

Top Publications

  1. Larauche M, Gourcerol G, Wang L, Pambukchian K, Brunnhuber S, Adelson D, et al. Cortagine, a CRF1 agonist, induces stresslike alterations of colonic function and visceral hypersensitivity in rodents primarily through peripheral pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Stresslike colonic alterations induced by ip cortagine in rats and mice through restricted activation of peripheral CRF(1) receptors support a role for peripheral CRF(1) signaling as the local arm of the colonic response to stress. ..
  2. Fu Y, Neugebauer V. Differential mechanisms of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor functions in the amygdala in pain-related synaptic facilitation and behavior. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3861-76 pubmed publisher
    A major site of extrahypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its G-protein-coupled CRF1 and CRF2 receptors is the amygdala, a key player in emotions and affective disorders...
  3. Hillhouse E, Grammatopoulos D. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:260-86 pubmed
    ..The type of activating agonist, receptor, and target cell appears to play a major role in determining the overall signaling and biological responses in health and disease. ..
  4. Licinio J, O Kirwan F, Irizarry K, Merriman B, Thakur S, Jepson R, et al. Association of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 haplotype and antidepressant treatment response in Mexican-Americans. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:1075-82 pubmed
    ..CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), which we first mapped in the brain in 1994, has been implicated in the treatment of depression and anxiety...
  5. Lowery E, Spanos M, Navarro M, Lyons A, Hodge C, Thiele T. CRF-1 antagonist and CRF-2 agonist decrease binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice independent of the HPA axis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, normal HPA axis signaling is not necessary to achieve binge-like drinking behavior. ..
  6. Smith G, Aubry J, Dellu F, Contarino A, Bilezikjian L, Gold L, et al. Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1-deficient mice display decreased anxiety, impaired stress response, and aberrant neuroendocrine development. Neuron. 1998;20:1093-102 pubmed
    ..Two biochemically and pharmacologically distinct CRF receptor subtypes (CRFR1 and CRFR2) have been described...
  7. Ji G, Fu Y, Ruppert K, Neugebauer V. Pain-related anxiety-like behavior requires CRF1 receptors in the amygdala. Mol Pain. 2007;3:13 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor CRF1 has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety and depression. The amygdala plays an important role in affective states and disorders such as anxiety and depression...
  8. Tao J, Hildebrand M, Liao P, Liang M, Tan G, Li S, et al. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 selectively inhibits CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:1596-609 pubmed publisher which CRF receptors mediate their widespread effects, and here we report that the native CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) endogenous to the human embryonic kidney 293 cells can functionally couple to mammalian Ca(V)3...
  9. George O, Ghozland S, Azar M, Cottone P, Zorrilla E, Parsons L, et al. CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17198-203 pubmed
    ..Overactivation of the CRF-CRF(1) system may contribute to nicotine dependence and may represent a prominent target for investigating the vulnerability to tobacco addiction. ..

More Information


  1. Lu L, Liu Z, Huang M, Zhang Z. Dopamine-dependent responses to cocaine depend on corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtypes. J Neurochem. 2003;84:1378-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the CRF receptor antagonist, particularly the CRF receptor subtype 1 antagonist, might be of some value in the treatment of cocaine addiction and cocaine-related behavioral disorders. ..
  2. Heinrichs S, Lapsansky J, Lovenberg T, De Souza E, Chalmers D. Corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1, but not CRF2, receptors mediate anxiogenic-like behavior. Regul Pept. 1997;71:15-21 pubmed
    ..differential localization in brain of three binding sites for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like peptides (CRF1 and CRF2 receptors as well as CRF-binding protein) suggest the existence of functionally distinct neurobiological ..
  3. Wang X, Meng F, Liu Z, Fan J, Hao K, Chen X, et al. Gestational hypoxia induces sex-differential methylation of Crhr1 linked to anxiety-like behavior. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;48:544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..behavior in male P90 offspring and activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH type-1 receptor (CRHR1) mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in male E19 hypothalamus...
  4. Ahnaou A, Steckler T, Heylen A, Kennis L, Nakazato A, Chaki S, et al. R278995/CRA0450, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist modulates REM sleep measures in rats: Implication for therapeutic indication. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;680:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristic changes found in the sleep EEG model further support the hypothesis that R278995/CRA0450 could exert a non-sedative, antidepressant-like action. ..
  5. Dong C, Wong M, Licinio J. Sequence variations of ABCB1, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, CREB1, CRHR1 and NTRK2: association with major depression and antidepressant response in Mexican-Americans. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:1105-18 pubmed publisher
    ..and SLC6A4), cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase type 2 receptor (NTRK2)...
  6. Sillaber I, Rammes G, Zimmermann S, Mahal B, Zieglgänsberger W, Wurst W, et al. Enhanced and delayed stress-induced alcohol drinking in mice lacking functional CRH1 receptors. Science. 2002;296:931-3 pubmed
    ..Alterations in the CRH1 receptor gene and adaptional changes in NR2B subunits may constitute a genetic risk factor for stress-induced alcohol drinking and alcoholism. ..
  7. Xu G, Rabadan Diehl C, Nikodemova M, Wynn P, Spiess J, Aguilera G. Inhibition of corticotropin releasing hormone type-1 receptor translation by an upstream AUG triplet in the 5' untranslated region. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:485-92 pubmed
    ..frame (ORF) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA on corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) translation was studied in constructs containing the 5'-UTR of CRHR1, with or without an ATG-to-ATA mutation in ..
  8. Tjong Y, Ip S, Lao L, Wu J, Fong H, Sung J, et al. Neonatal maternal separation elevates thalamic corticotrophin releasing factor type 1 receptor expression response to colonic distension in rat. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:215-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, an increased expression of CRF type 1 receptor (CRF-R1) was observed in the thalamus of NMS rats. These results suggested an up-regulation of thalamus CRF-R1 is associated with visceral hyperalgesia in the rat model of NMS. ..
  9. Klenerova V, Sery O, Hynie S. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes in the rat anterior pituitary after two types of restraint stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrated that these stressors did not change CRH-R2alpha mRNA, unlike the very significant response of CRH-R1 to IMO. ..
  10. Wu Z, Ji H, Hassan A, Aguilera G, Sandberg K. Regulation of pituitary corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor mRNA binding proteins by modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:214-20 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that CRF-R1 translation is regulated by modulation of the HPA axis through pituitary cytosolic proteins binding to the CRF-R1 5'LS. ..
  11. Wang W, Ji P, Riopelle R, Dow K. Functional expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor 1 in cultured rat microglia. J Neurochem. 2002;80:287-94 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest the functional expression of CRH-R1 receptor in rat microglia, indicating an important mechanism of interaction between immune and neuroendocrine systems in brain physiological and pathological conditions. ..
  12. Ji G, Fu Y, Adwanikar H, Neugebauer V. Non-pain-related CRF1 activation in the amygdala facilitates synaptic transmission and pain responses. Mol Pain. 2013;9:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies showed that endogenous activation of CRF1 receptors in an arthritis pain model contributes to amygdala hyperactivity and pain-related behaviors...
  13. Fan J, Chen X, Jin H, Du J. Gestational hypoxia alone or combined with restraint sensitizes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induces anxiety-like behavior in adult male rat offspring. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..the stressors significantly and differentially increased CRH and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRHR1) expression but decreased corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRHR2) in the paraventricular nucleus of ..
  14. Chen X, Xu N, Du J, Wang Y, Duan C. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 and somatostatin modulating hypoxia-caused downregulated mRNA of pituitary growth hormone and upregulated mRNA of hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I of rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;242:50-8 pubmed
    ..mRNA and its protein in rats, and the potential involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 (CRFR1) and SS in mediating the effects of continual hypoxia. Continual or intermittent hypoxia of 5 km (10...
  15. Moriyama T, Kageyama K, Kasagi Y, Iwasaki Y, Nigawara T, Sakihara S, et al. Differential regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1 receptor) mRNA via protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in rat anterior pituitary cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;243:74-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that in the rat AP, down-regulation of CRF(1) receptor mRNA levels is caused by mRNA degradation via PKA, but not by the MAP kinase pathway. ..
  16. Fu Y, Pollandt S, Liu J, Krishnan B, Genzer K, Orozco Cabal L, et al. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the central amygdala (CeA) is enhanced after prolonged withdrawal from chronic cocaine and requires CRF1 receptors. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:937-41 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these signaling mechanisms may provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of cocaine cravings. ..
  17. Million M, Zhao J, Luckey A, Czimmer J, Maynard G, Kehne J, et al. The newly developed CRF1-receptor antagonists, NGD 98-2 and NGD 9002, suppress acute stress-induced stimulation of colonic motor function and visceral hypersensitivity in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73749 pubmed publisher
    b>Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) is the key receptor that mediates stress-related body responses. However to date there are no CRF1 antagonists that have shown clinical efficacy in stress-related diseases...
  18. Lodge D, Lawrence A. The effect of chronic CRF1 receptor blockade on the central CCK systems of Fawn-Hooded rats. Regul Pept. 2003;116:27-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these data provide clear evidence of the ability of chronic CRF(1) receptor blockade to significantly influence the central CCK systems of the rat. ..
  19. Mano Otagiri A, Nemoto T, Yamauchi N, Kakinuma Y, Shibasaki T. Distribution of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptor-Like Immunoreactivity in the Rat Pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol. 2016;28: pubmed publisher
  20. Cippitelli A, Ayanwuyi L, Barbier E, Domi E, Lerma Cabrera J, Carvajal F, et al. Polymorphism in the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1-R) gene plays a role in shaping the high anxious phenotype of Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015;232:1083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..these animals, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in position -1,836 and -2,097 from the first start codon of the CRF1-R transcript have been found...
  21. Molander A, Vengeliene V, Heilig M, Wurst W, Deussing J, Spanagel R. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism...
  22. Veenit V, Riccio O, Sandi C. CRHR1 links peripuberty stress with deficits in social and stress-coping behaviors. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;53:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) have been implicated in the link between early life adversity and adult anxiety and depression, with rodent ..
  23. Porcher C, Sinniger V, Juhem A, Mouchet P, Bonaz B. Neuronal activity and CRF receptor gene transcription in the brains of rats with colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G803-14 pubmed
    ..Coronal frozen sections of the brain were cut and mRNAs encoding the rat c-fos, CRF1 receptor, and CRF2alpha,beta receptors were assayed by in situ hybridization histochemistry...
  24. Kim W, Sheen S, Kim T, Huh J, Lee J, Kim E, et al. Association between CRHR1 polymorphism and improved lung function in response to inhaled corticosteroid in patients with COPD. Respirology. 2009;14:260-3 pubmed publisher
    ..An association between sequence variants in the corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene and improved lung function in asthmatics treated with inhaled corticosteroids was reported recently...
  25. Treweek J, Jaferi A, Colago E, Zhou P, Pickel V. Electron microscopic localization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptor in rat and mouse central nucleus of the amygdala. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:323-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings have important implications for understanding CRF mediation of rapid responses to stress. ..
  26. McKenzie I, Pang T, Blanden R. The use of H-2 mutants as models for the study of T cell activation. Immunol Rev. 1977;35:179-230 pubmed
  27. Oliveira L, Almeida J, Gomes de Souza L, Benini R, Crestani C. CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis differently modulate the baroreflex function in unanesthetized rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;46:1805-1812 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, data indicate that local CRF1 and CRF2 receptors differently modulate the baroreflex control of heart rate. ..
  28. Sheng H, Xu Y, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Xu X, He C, et al. CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 differentially modulate dendritic outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. Endocrine. 2012;41:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects can be reversed by the CRH-R2 antagonist astressin 2B. Our results suggest that CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 differentially modulate the dendritic growth of hippocampal neurons in culture. ..
  29. Day H, Greenwood B, Hammack S, Watkins L, Fleshner M, Maier S, et al. Differential expression of 5HT-1A, alpha 1b adrenergic, CRF-R1, and CRF-R2 receptor mRNA in serotonergic, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic, and catecholaminergic cells of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:364-78 pubmed
    ..The differential distribution of distinct neurochemical phenotypes lends support to the idea of functional differentiation of the DR. ..
  30. Bowe J, Li X, Kinsey Jones J, Brain S, Lightman S, O Byrne K. The role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in the calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat. Stress. 2008;11:312-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Park P, Schlosburg J, Vendruscolo L, Schulteis G, Edwards S, Koob G. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia. Addict Biol. 2015;20:275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20?mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity...
  32. Wan Q, Gao K, Rong H, Wu M, Wang H, Wang X, et al. Histone modifications of the Crhr1 gene in a rat model of depression following chronic stress. Behav Brain Res. 2014;271:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its main receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1). However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying depression remain poorly understood...
  33. Chen S, Yang J, Kong F, Ren J, Hao K, Li M, et al. Overactivation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 and aquaporin-4 by hypoxia induces cerebral edema. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..and neuronal apoptosis and increases the expression of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the cortex...
  34. Du F, Yin L, Shi M, Cheng H, Xu X, Liu Z, et al. Involvement of microglial cells in infrasonic noise-induced stress via upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone type 1 receptor. Neuroscience. 2010;167:909-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that in addition to the PVN neurons, microglial cells are the effector cells for infrasound as well, and involve in the infrasound-induced stress through upregulated expression of CRH-R1. ..
  35. Meng Q, Chen X, Tong D, Zhou J. Stress and glucocorticoids regulated corticotropin releasing factor in rat prefrontal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;342:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific attention was paid to the effect of CRF on CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) expression in primary PFC cultures...
  36. McDowell E, Kisielewski A, Pike J, Franco H, Yao H, Johnson K. A transcriptome-wide screen for mRNAs enriched in fetal Leydig cells: CRHR1 agonism stimulates rat and mouse fetal testis steroidogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47359 pubmed publisher
    ..Fetal mouse testis interstitial expression of a subset of these genes with unknown expression (Crhr1, Gramd1b, Itih5, Vgll3, and Vsnl1) was verified by whole-mount in situ hybridization...
  37. Nozu T, Kumei S, Takakusaki K, Okumura T. Water-avoidance stress enhances gastric contractions in freely moving conscious rats: role of peripheral CRF receptors. J Gastroenterol. 2014;49:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in the regulation of gastric motility, and enhances gastric contractions through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and delays gastric emptying (GE) through CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2)...
  38. Fan J, Chen X, Wang X, Hao K, Du J. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 colocalizes with type 2 in corticotropin-releasing factor-containing cellular profiles in rat brain. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014;35:417-26 pubmed
    To investigate whether CRHR1 and CRHR2 are colocalized in CRH-specific neurons in rat brain...
  39. Narla C, Scidmore T, Jeong J, Everest M, Chidiac P, Poulter M. A switch in G protein coupling for type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptors promotes excitability in epileptic brains. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra60 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that seizures produce changes in neuronal signaling that can increase seizure occurrence by converting a beneficial stress response into an epileptic trigger. ..
  40. Ayyadurai S, Gibson A, D Costa S, Overman E, Sommerville L, Poopal A, et al. Frontline Science: Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 is a critical modulator of mast cell degranulation and stress-induced pathophysiology. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:1299-1312 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results revealed a prominent role for CRF1 signaling in mast cells as a positive modulator of stimuli-induced degranulation and in vivo pathophysiologic responses to immunologic and psychologic stress. ..
  41. Ivy A, Rex C, Chen Y, Dube C, Maras P, Grigoriadis D, et al. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing CRF(1) occupancy post hoc normalized hippocampal function during middle age, thus offering potential mechanism-based therapeutic interventions for children affected by chronic stress. ..
  42. Rogers A, Tantisira K, Fuhlbrigge A, Litonjua A, Lasky Su J, Szefler S, et al. Predictors of poor response during asthma therapy differ with definition of outcome. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested 17 phenotypic variables and polymorphisms in FCER2 and CRHR1 in 311 children (aged 5-12 years) randomized to a 4-year course of inhaled corticosteroid during the Childhood ..
  43. Tian J, King J, Bishop G. Stimulation of the inferior olivary complex alters the distribution of the type 1 corticotropin releasing factor receptor in the adult rat cerebellar cortex. Neuroscience. 2008;153:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that CRF released from climbing fibers may modulate the physiological properties of basket and stellate cells as well as having a heretofore unidentified and potentially unique effect on Bergmann glia. ..
  44. Li X, Bowe J, Kinsey Jones J, Brain S, Lightman S, O Byrne K. Differential role of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor types 1 and 2 in stress-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:602-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hypoglycaemia and LPS stress-induced LH suppression involves activation of CRF(2) while restraint stress-induced inhibition of LH pulses involves both CRF(1) and CRF(2). ..
  45. Ramsey S, Attkins N, Fish R, van der Graaf P. Quantitative pharmacological analysis of antagonist binding kinetics at CRF1 receptors in vitro and in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:992-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we have developed a quantitative framework to study and integrate in vitro and in vivo receptor binding kinetic behaviour of CRF(1) receptor antagonists in an efficient manner in a drug discovery setting. ..
  46. Weiss S, Lake S, Silverman E, Silverman E, Richter B, Drazen J, et al. Asthma steroid pharmacogenetics: a study strategy to identify replicated treatment responses. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2004;1:364-7 pubmed
    ..One gene, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1, NM_004382), demonstrated multiple single nucleotide polymorphism associations within each of the three ..
  47. Cottone P, Sabino V, Roberto M, Bajo M, Pockros L, Frihauf J, et al. CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20016-20 pubmed publisher
  48. Cheng H, Zhou L, Zhu W, Wang A, Tang C, Chan O, et al. Type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus promote hypoglycemia-induced hormonal counterregulation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E705-12 pubmed
    ..The VMH expresses both subtypes of CRF receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2...
  49. Brunton P, Donadio M, Russell J. Sex differences in prenatally programmed anxiety behaviour in rats: differential corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA expression in the amygdaloid complex. Stress. 2011;14:634-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, sex differences in anxiety-type behaviour in PNS rats may be explained by differential mRNA expression for CRH-R1 (pro-anxiogenic) and CRH-R2 (pro-anxiolytic) in the amygdaloid complex. ..
  50. Coin I, KATRITCH V, Sun T, Xiang Z, SIU F, Beyermann M, et al. Genetically encoded chemical probes in cells reveal the binding path of urocortin-I to CRF class B GPCR. Cell. 2013;155:1258-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural features of the receptor-ligand complex yield molecular insights on the mechanism of receptor activation and the basis for discrimination between agonist and antagonist function. ..
  51. Kageyama K, Kimura R, Suga S, Ogawa Y, Suda T, Wakui M. Modulation of Ca2+ influx by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides via CRF receptors in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Peptides. 2006;27:1814-9 pubmed
    ..of peptides are mediated by the seven transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptors, the CRF receptors type 1 (CRF1 receptor) and type 2 (CRF2 receptor)...
  52. Boyson C, Miguel T, Quadros I, DeBold J, Miczek K. Prevention of social stress-escalated cocaine self-administration by CRF-R1 antagonist in the rat VTA. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:257-69 pubmed publisher
  53. Bravo J, Dinan T, Cryan J. Alterations in the central CRF system of two different rat models of comorbid depression and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:666-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is the primary peptide regulating this axis, acting through two receptors: CRF1 and CRF2. The central CRF system is also a key regulator in the stress response...
  54. O Malley D, Dinan T, Cryan J. Alterations in colonic corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the maternally separated rat model of irritable bowel syndrome: differential effects of acute psychological and physical stressors. Peptides. 2010;31:662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunofluorescent dual-labeling demonstrated increased activation of both CRFR1 (MS: 79.6+/-4.4% vs. NS: 43.8+/-6.8%, p<0.001) and CRFR2 (MS: 65.9+/-3.2% vs. NS: 51.6+/-5.8%, p<0...
  55. Alken M, Rutz C, Köchl R, Donalies U, Oueslati M, Furkert J, et al. The signal peptide of the rat corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 promotes receptor expression but is not essential for establishing a functional receptor. Biochem J. 2005;390:455-64 pubmed
    ..Thus the signal peptide of the CRF-R1 promotes an early step of receptor biogenesis, such as targeting of the nascent chain to the ER membrane and/or the gating of the protein-conducting translocon of the ER membrane. ..
  56. Roltsch E, Baynes B, Mayeux J, Whitaker A, Baiamonte B, Gilpin N. Predator odor stress alters corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor (CRF1R)-dependent behaviors in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2014;79:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that post-stress alcohol drinking may be driven by a high-nociception high-arousal state, and that brain CRF1R signaling mediates these stress effects. ..
  57. Klampfl S, Brunton P, Bayerl D, Bosch O. CRF-R1 activation in the anterior-dorsal BNST induces maternal neglect in lactating rats via an HPA axis-independent central mechanism. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;64:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Crf mRNA expression in the adBNST was increased during lactation; however, Crfr1 mRNA expression was similar between lactating and virgin rats...
  58. McCrimmon R, Song Z, Cheng H, McNay E, Weikart Yeckel C, Fan X, et al. Corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors within the ventromedial hypothalamus regulate hypoglycemia-induced hormonal counterregulation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1723-30 pubmed
    ..The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides and their receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2) play a critical role in regulating the neuroendocrine stress response...
  59. Gilpin N, Richardson H, Koob G. Effects of CRF1-receptor and opioid-receptor antagonists on dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, brain CRF(1)-receptor systems are important in the regulation of dependence-induced alcohol consumption, whereas brain opioid systems are important in the regulation of basal alcohol consumption by rats. ..
  60. Li C, Liu Y, Liu D, Jiang H, Pan F. Dynamic Alterations of miR-34c Expression in the Hypothalamus of Male Rats after Early Adolescent Traumatic Stress. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:5249893 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the targets of miR-34c is the stress-related corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 1 mRNA (CRFR1 mRNA)...
  61. Bijlsma E, Hendriksen H, Baas J, Millan M, Groenink L. Lifelong disturbance of serotonin transporter functioning results in fear learning deficits: Reversal by blockade of CRF1 receptors. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..the known interactions between serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), we studied the effect of the CRFR1 antagonist CP154,526 on behavioral changes observed and determined CRF1 receptor levels in SERT(-/-) rats...
  62. Lamy C, Beck S. Swim stress differentially blocks CRF receptor mediated responses in dorsal raphe nucleus. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:1321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a mechanism at the cellular level for the immobility induced by swim stress and identifies critical components of the raphe circuitry responsible for the altered output of 5-HT neurons induced by swim stress. ..
  63. Eraslan E, Akyazi Ä, Ergül Ekiz E, Matur E. Noise Stress-Induced Changes in mRNA Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Family Molecules and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Rat Brain. Folia Biol (Praha). 2015;61:66-73 pubmed
  64. Li C, Liu Y, Yin S, Lu C, Liu D, Jiang H, et al. Long-term effects of early adolescent stress: dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and central corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 expression in adult male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2015;288:39-49 pubmed publisher early adolescence on behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, central corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) expression and the relative vulnerability of PTSD in adulthood...
  65. Fan J, Wang X, Hao K, Yuan Y, Chen X, Du J. Upregulation of PVN CRHR1 by gestational intermittent hypoxia selectively triggers a male-specific anxiogenic effect in rat offspring. Horm Behav. 2013;63:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that the anxiogenic effect was correlated with upregulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) by GIH, and was selective to male offspring...
  66. Pedersen W, Wan R, Zhang P, Mattson M. Urocortin, but not urocortin II, protects cultured hippocampal neurons from oxidative and excitotoxic cell death via corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type I. J Neurosci. 2002;22:404-12 pubmed
    ..high-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified that bind CRH and/or urocortin I and II, designated CRHR1 and CRHR2, both of which are present in hippocampal regions of mammalian brain...
  67. Knapp D, Overstreet D, Huang M, Wills T, Whitman B, Angel R, et al. Effects of a stressor and corticotrophin releasing factor on ethanol deprivation-induced ethanol intake and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring P rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Results emphasize that a restraint stressor elevates ethanol intake and sensitizes ethanol deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior through CRF1 receptors in the NAC and Amyg/DRN, respectively.
  68. Gai Z, Li K, Sun H, She X, Cui B, Wang R. Effects of chronic noise on mRNA and protein expression of CRF family molecules and its relationship with p-tau in the rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurol Sci. 2016;368:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic noise significantly accelerated the progressive overproduction of corticosterone and upregulated CRF and CRFR1 mRNA and protein, both of which persisted 7-14days after noise exposure...
  69. Blacktop J, Seubert C, Baker D, Ferda N, Lee G, Graf E, et al. Augmented cocaine seeking in response to stress or CRF delivered into the ventral tegmental area following long-access self-administration is mediated by CRF receptor type 1 but not CRF receptor type 2. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that excessive cocaine use increases susceptibility to stressor-induced relapse in part by augmenting CRF-R1-dependent regulation of addiction-related neurocircuitry in the VTA. ..
  70. Brunson K, Grigoriadis D, Lorang M, Baram T. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) downregulates the function of its receptor (CRF1) and induces CRF1 expression in hippocampal and cortical regions of the immature rat brain. Exp Neurol. 2002;176:75-86 pubmed
    ..CRH-expressing cells and their target neurons possessing CRH receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) are distributed throughout the limbic system, but little is known about the regulation of limbic CRH ..
  71. Porcher C, Peinnequin A, Pellissier S, Meregnani J, Sinniger V, Canini F, et al. Endogenous expression and in vitro study of CRF-related peptides and CRF receptors in the rat gastric antrum. Peptides. 2006;27:1464-75 pubmed
    ..peptides, urocortin 1 (UCN 1) and UCN 2, inhibit gastric emptying and stimulate colonic motility through CRF2 and CRF1 receptors, respectively...
  72. Sink K, Chung A, Ressler K, Davis M, Walker D. Anxiogenic effects of CGRP within the BNST may be mediated by CRF acting at BNST CRFR1 receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2013;243:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..With this in mind, the present set of experiments was designed to examine the role of CRFR1 signaling in the anxiogenic effects of CGRP within the BNST and to determine whether CRF from BNST neurons ..
  73. Sun S, Silver P, Caspi R, Du Y, Chan C, Wilder R, et al. Identification of genomic regions controlling experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in rats. Int Immunol. 1999;11:529-34 pubmed
    ..Further analysis of these genomic regions may lead to identification of the susceptibility genes and to characterization of their function. ..
  74. Chatzaki E, Murphy B, Wang L, Million M, Ohning G, Crowe P, et al. Differential profile of CRF receptor distribution in the rat stomach and duodenum assessed by newly developed CRF receptor antibodies. J Neurochem. 2004;88:1-11 pubmed
    ..We mapped the distribution of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and 2 (CRF2) in the rat upper GI...
  75. Liu S, Wang Z, Li Y, Sun X, Ge F, Yang M, et al. CRFR1 in the ventromedial caudate putamen modulates acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization. Neuropharmacology. 2017;121:60-68 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitization was paralleled by a selective increase in the number of the c-Fos+ cells, the level of CRFR1 mRNA in the ventromedial caudate putamen (vmCPu)...
  76. Zhu J, Chen Z, Tian J, Meng Z, Ju M, Wu G, et al. miR-34b attenuates trauma-induced anxiety-like behavior by targeting CRHR1. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..following intervention with NBI‑27914, a specific corticotropin‑releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) antagonist. CRHR1 was found to be involved in trauma‑induced anxiety...
  77. Tanaka M, Tomimatsu Y, Sakimura K, Ootani Y, Sako Y, Kojima T, et al. Characterization of CRF1 receptor antagonists with differential peripheral vs central actions in CRF challenge in rats. Peptides. 2017;95:40-50 pubmed publisher
  78. Nemoto T, Kakinuma Y, Shibasaki T. Impaired miR449a-induced downregulation of Crhr1 expression in low-birth-weight rats. J Endocrinol. 2015;224:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..NBW) offspring and impaired downregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF-R1, Crhr1) in the anterior pituitary in restraint...
  79. Sequeira Cordero A, Mora Gallegos A, Cuenca Berger P, Fornaguera Trías J. Individual differences in the immobility behavior in juvenile and adult rats are associated with monoaminergic neurotransmission and with the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 in the nucleus accumbens. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the expression of accumbal corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) was significantly different in animals with low and high immobility at both ages, with animals less immobile ..
  80. Nozu T, Tsuchiya Y, Kumei S, Takakusaki K, Okumura T. Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induces stimulation of gastric contractions in freely moving conscious rats: role of CRF receptor types 1 and 2. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral CRF stimulates gastric contractions through CRF(1). CRF(2) activation inhibits the response induced by CRF, suggesting that CRF(2) may have a modulatory action to CRF(1) signaling in gastric motor activity. ..
  81. Schulz K, Rutz C, Westendorf C, Ridelis I, Vogelbein S, Furkert J, et al. The pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a decreases receptor expression and prevents Gi-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32878-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtypes, the use of conventional and pseudo signal peptides have an unexpected influence on signal transduction. ..
  82. Lawrence C, Liu Y, Stock M, Luckman S. Anorectic actions of prolactin-releasing peptide are mediated by corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R101-7 pubmed
    ..These results show that the anorectic actions of PrRP are mediated by central CRH receptors but not by melanocortin receptors-3/4 and that PrRP can modify Vo2. ..
  83. Kageyama K, Hanada K, Moriyama T, Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Suda T. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 involvement in desensitization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 1 by CRF in murine corticotrophs. Endocrinology. 2006;147:441-50 pubmed
    Hypothalamic CRF stimulates synthesis and secretion of ACTH via CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland. After agonist-activated stimulation of receptor signaling, CRFR1 is down-regulated and desensitized...
  84. Sheng H, Zhang Y, Sun J, Gao L, Ma B, Lu J, et al. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) depresses n-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via CRH receptor type 1. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1389-98 pubmed
    ..This effect was reversed by the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist antalarmin but not by the CRHR2 antagonist astressin-2B, suggesting that CRHR1 mediated the inhibitory ..
  85. Wu Y, Hu J, Zhang R, Zhou C, Xu Y, Guan X, et al. Enhanced intracellular calcium induced by urocortin is involved in degranulation of rat lung mast cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;21:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of allergic and inflammatory lung disorders such as asthma, which is closely associated with mast cell activation and degranulation. ..
  86. Bangasser D, Curtis A, Reyes B, Bethea T, Parastatidis I, Ischiropoulos H, et al. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor signaling and trafficking: potential role in female vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:877, 896-904 pubmed publisher
  87. Verleye M, Andre N, Gillardin J. Lack of interaction between etifoxine and CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in rodents. Neurosci Res. 2006;56:53-60 pubmed
    ..Blockade of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors can underlie the anxiolytic effects of drugs...
  88. Zaidan H, Leshem M, Gaisler Salomon I. Prereproductive stress to female rats alters corticotropin releasing factor type 1 expression in ova and behavior and brain corticotropin releasing factor type 1 expression in offspring. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticotropin releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) is a key component in the stress response...
  89. Hofmann B, Sydow S, Jahn O, van Werven L, Liepold T, Eckart K, et al. Functional and protein chemical characterization of the N-terminal domain of the rat corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Protein Sci. 2001;10:2050-62 pubmed
    ..Of all putative N-glycosylation sites in positions 32, 38, 45, 78, 90, and 98, all Asn residues except for Asn(32) were glycosylated to a significant extent. No O-glycosylation was observed. ..