Crh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Crh
Description: corticotropin releasing hormone
Alias: CRF, corticoliberin, corticotropin-releasing factor
Species: rat
Products:     Crh

Top Publications

  1. Desbonnet L, Garrett L, Daly E, McDermott K, Dinan T. Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal separation stress on corticotrophin-releasing factor and vasopressin systems in the adult rat brain. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..As corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin (AVP) have been implicated in depression, we aimed to determine the long-term effects of maternal ..
  2. Hammack S, Richey K, Schmid M, Lopresti M, Watkins L, Maier S. The role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the dorsal raphe nucleus in mediating the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1020-6 pubmed
    ..Extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been implicated in many stress-related phenomena and has recently been shown to increase DRN 5-HT activity in ..
  3. Ungless M, Singh V, Crowder T, Yaka R, Ron D, Bonci A. Corticotropin-releasing factor requires CRF binding protein to potentiate NMDA receptors via CRF receptor 2 in dopamine neurons. Neuron. 2003;39:401-7 pubmed
    Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress...
  4. Reyes B, Valentino R, Van Bockstaele E. Stress-induced intracellular trafficking of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in rat locus coeruleus neurons. Endocrinology. 2008;149:122-30 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activates locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine neurons during stress. Previous stress or CRF administration attenuates the magnitude of this response by decreasing postsynaptic sensitivity to CRF...
  5. Jørgensen H, Knigge U, Kjaer A, Møller M, Warberg J. Serotonergic stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:788-95 pubmed
    ..of 5-HT is predominantly indirect and may be mediated via release of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
  6. Hillhouse E, Grammatopoulos D. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:260-86 pubmed
    The CRH receptor (CRH-R) is a member of the secretin family of G protein-coupled receptors...
  7. George O, Ghozland S, Azar M, Cottone P, Zorrilla E, Parsons L, et al. CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17198-203 pubmed
    ..after abstinence, through recruitment of the extrahypothalamic stress peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and activation of CRF(1) receptors...
  8. Radulovic J, Rühmann A, Liepold T, Spiess J. Modulation of learning and anxiety by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and stress: differential roles of CRF receptors 1 and 2. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5016-25 pubmed
    The differential modulation of learning and anxiety by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) through CRF receptor subtypes 1 (CRFR1) and 2 (CRFR2) is demonstrated...
  9. Panguluri S, Saggu S, LUNDY R. Comparison of somatostatin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in forebrain neurons projecting to taste-responsive and non-responsive regions of the parabrachial nucleus in rat. Brain Res. 2009;1298:57-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the existence of somatostatin (SS) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in forebrain neurons that project to caudal regions of the PBN responsive to chemical stimulation of the anterior ..

More Information

Publications99

  1. Ivy A, Rex C, Chen Y, Dube C, Maras P, Grigoriadis D, et al. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hippocampal interneurons, activating receptors (CRF(1)) located on pyramidal cell dendrites...
  2. Viau V, Bingham B, Davis J, Lee P, Wong M. Gender and puberty interact on the stress-induced activation of parvocellular neurosecretory neurons and corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the rat. Endocrinology. 2005;146:137-46 pubmed
    ..Basal CRH mRNA expression levels in the paraventricular nucleus increased with age in female but not male rats...
  3. Chen J, Evans A, Liu Y, Honda M, Saavedra J, Aguilera G. Maternal deprivation in rats is associated with corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter hypomethylation and enhances CRH transcriptional responses to stress in adulthood. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:1055-64 pubmed publisher
    ..pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity, including increased expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
  4. Zhou Y, Spangler R, Ho A, Kreek M. Increased CRH mRNA levels in the rat amygdala during short-term withdrawal from chronic 'binge' cocaine. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;114:73-9 pubmed
    There is evidence that suggests that increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala underlies the anxiogenic and stress-like consequences of withdrawal that are common in phenomenology to ..
  5. Tanahashi S, Yamamura S, Nakagawa M, Motomura E, Okada M. Effect of lamotrigine and carbamazepine on corticotropin-releasing factor-associated serotonergic transmission in rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:599-610 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and serotonin are important transmitters of the pathophysiology of mood disorder...
  6. Romeo R, Karatsoreos I, Jasnow A, McEwen B. Age- and stress-induced changes in corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology. 2007;85:199-206 pubmed
    ..Differential activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of prepubertal and adult animals have been ..
  7. Carrasco J, Márquez C, Nadal R, Tobeña A, Fernández Teruel A, Armario A. Characterization of central and peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the inbred Roman rat strains. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..only resting and stress levels of peripheral HPA hormones but also central components of the HPA axis, including CRF gene expression in extra-hypothalamic areas...
  8. Dabrowska J, Martinon D, Moaddab M, Rainnie D. Targeting Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Projections from the Oval Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Using Cell-Type Specific Neuronal Tracing Studies in Mouse and Rat Brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2016;28: pubmed publisher
    ..of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesise the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)...
  9. Youngblood K, Conti L, Printz M. Central actions of corticotropin releasing factor on sensori-autonomic processing in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Brain Res. 1996;734:175-85 pubmed
    ..b>CRF has been implicated in coordinating autonomic responses to stressors...
  10. Butler R, Oliver E, Sharko A, Parilla Carrero J, Kaigler K, Fadel J, et al. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the rat central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following exposure to two different anxiogenic stressors. Behav Brain Res. 2016;304:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The current experiments compared activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing neuronal populations in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of rats ..
  11. Xu L, Sun Y, Gao L, Cai Y, Shi S. Prenatal restraint stress is associated with demethylation of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) promoter and enhances CRH transcriptional responses to stress in adolescent rats. Neurochem Res. 2014;39:1193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study investigated the effect of maternal stress on the methylation rate of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter and HPA axis response to acute stress in the adolescent offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats...
  12. Conti L, Murry J, Ruiz M, Printz M. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in two rat strains. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;161:296-303 pubmed
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neurotransmitter that is released during stress, and CRF receptors are expressed in areas of the brain which ..
  13. Ruginsk S, Uchoa E, Elias L, Antunes Rodrigues J, Llewellyn Smith I. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons are stimulated by extracellular volume and osmotic changes. Neuroscience. 2011;186:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..volume expansion and water deprivation (WD), the activation of CART- and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF)-immunoreactive neurons, as well as the relative expression of CART and CRF mRNAs in the paraventricular (PVN) and ..
  14. Reyes B, Kravets J, Connelly K, Unterwald E, van Bockstaele E. Localization of the delta opioid receptor and corticotropin-releasing factor in the amygdalar complex: role in anxiety. Brain Struct Funct. 2017;222:1007-1026 pubmed publisher
    It is well established that central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems are important mediators of behavioral responses to stressors...
  15. Wang L, Goebel Stengel M, Stengel A, Wu S, Ohning G, TACHE Y. Comparison of CRF-immunoreactive neurons distribution in mouse and rat brains and selective induction of Fos in rat hypothalamic CRF neurons by abdominal surgery. Brain Res. 2011;1415:34-46 pubmed publisher
    ..studies while little is known about the distribution of the stress hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the mouse brain...
  16. Erb S, Funk D, Borkowski S, Watson S, Akil H. Effects of chronic cocaine exposure on corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein in the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neuroscience. 2004;123:1003-9 pubmed
    The neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), has been shown to play a role in behavioral and neurobiological effects of drugs of abuse...
  17. Zhao Z, Jin X, Wu Y, Yang X, Xu Y, Jiang J, et al. Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor is involved in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2013;6:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the involvement of amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture was investigated during ethanol withdrawal...
  18. Roozendaal B, Schelling G, McGaugh J. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP pathway: dependence on glucocorticoid receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6642-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The present experiments examined whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP system in the BLA...
  19. Yuan P, Wu S, Wang L, Tache Y. Corticotropin releasing factor in the rat colon: expression, localization and upregulation by endotoxin. Peptides. 2010;31:322-31 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about CRF expression and regulation in the rat colon compared to the brain...
  20. Zhang Y, Huang X, Wang Y, Xie Y, Qiu X, Ren P, et al. Ferulic acid-induced anti-depression and prokinetics similar to Chaihu-Shugan-San via polypharmacology. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CRH, ACTH and 5-HT were significantly decreased, but ghrelin was apparently increased compared with vehicle...
  21. Heinrichs S. Modulation of social learning in rats by brain corticotropin-releasing factor. Brain Res. 2003;994:107-14 pubmed
    ..using a social memory test following pharmacological inactivation and activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems. In particular, administration of a competitive CRF receptor antagonist [0...
  22. Mikics E, Toth M, Varju P, Gereben B, Liposits Z, Ashaber M, et al. Lasting changes in social behavior and amygdala function following traumatic experience induced by a single series of foot-shocks. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:1198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..A real-time PCR study showed that CRF mRNA expression in the amygdala was temporarily reduced 14, but not 1 and 28 days after shock exposure...
  23. Lan N, Hellemans K, Ellis L, Weinberg J. Exposure to Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alters Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin mRNA Expression in the Stress-Responsive Neurocircuitry of Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39:2414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..HPA dysregulation and altered anxiety-like behavior, we investigated neuropeptide (corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH] and arginine vasopressin [AVP]) expression in brain areas involved in the stress neurocircuitry of animals from ..
  24. Gonzalez Gay M, Hajeer A, Dababneh A, Garcia Porrua C, Amoli M, Thomson W, et al. Corticotropin releasing hormone promoter polymorphisms in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002;20:133-8 pubmed
    ..Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) helps to regulate the immune response and maintain homeostasis during inflammatory stress...
  25. Lalmansingh A, Uht R. Estradiol regulates corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (crh) expression in a rapid and phasic manner that parallels estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta recruitment to a 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate regulatory region of the proximal crh pro. Endocrinology. 2008;149:346-57 pubmed
    In the central nervous system, CRH regulates several affective states...
  26. Nishiyama M, Makino S, Iwasaki Y, Tanaka Y, Nazarloo H, Kaneda T, et al. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is inhibited despite the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis during starvation. Brain Res. 2008;1228:107-12 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the anorexigenic neuropeptides, and indeed the expression of hypothalamic CRH is known to be inhibited by starvation...
  27. Marini F, Pozzato C, Andreetta V, Jansson B, Arban R, Domenici E, et al. Single exposure to social defeat increases corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2006;1067:25-35 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we report that 30 h after an acute social stress, a modification in mRNA levels can be detected in rat hippocampus, thus suggesting potential candidate genes involved in mediating long-term responses. ..
  28. Yuan H, Xu S, Wang Y, Xu H, Wang C, Zhu Q, et al. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) facilitates axon outgrowth. Spinal Cord. 2010;48:850-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in facilitating axon outgrowth. Injured neural tissue is difficult to regenerate; the mechanism has not been fully understood...
  29. Hu E, Demmou L, Cauli B, Gallopin T, Geoffroy H, Harris Warrick R, et al. VIP, CRF, and PACAP act at distinct receptors to elicit different cAMP/PKA dynamics in the neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we characterized responses to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in rat ..
  30. Devilbiss D, Waterhouse B, Berridge C, VALENTINO R. Corticotropin-releasing factor acting at the locus coeruleus disrupts thalamic and cortical sensory-evoked responses. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2020-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), coordinates the physiological and behavioral responses to stress, in part, by activating the locus coeruleus-..
  31. Summers C, Kampshoff J, Ronan P, Lowry C, Prestbo A, Korzan W, et al. Monoaminergic activity in subregions of raphé nuclei elicited by prior stress and the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:1122-33 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli; one mechanism through which CRF may modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is via actions on neuromodulatory systems such as ..
  32. Venihaki M, Carrigan A, Dikkes P, Majzoub J. Circadian rise in maternal glucocorticoid prevents pulmonary dysplasia in fetal mice with adrenal insufficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7336-41 pubmed
    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and pituitary corticotropin, is one of the first endocrine systems to develop during fetal life, probably because glucocorticoid ..
  33. Swain M, Patchev V, Vergalla J, Chrousos G, Jones E. Suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness to stress in a rat model of acute cholestasis. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:1903-8 pubmed
    ..decreased HPA axis responsiveness to ether stress in cholestasis, we administered corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and measured hypothalamic content, mRNA levels and in vitro secretion of CRF and arginine vasopressin (AVP), the ..
  34. Kakui N, Kitamura K. Direct evidence that stimulation of neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor activates hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in conscious rats via both corticotropin-releasing factor- and arginine vasopressin-dependent pathway. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2854-62 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist (astressin, 10-50 microg/rat, iv) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor antagonist ([deamino-..
  35. Chen J, Tang Y, Yang J. Changes of glucocorticoid receptor and levels of CRF mRNA, POMC mRNA in brain of chronic immobilization stress rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:237-44 pubmed
    ..to investigate the effects of CIS on the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in brains of rats...
  36. Yamada T, Mochiduki A, Sugimoto Y, Suzuki Y, Itoi K, Inoue K. Prolactin-releasing peptide regulates the cardiovascular system via corticotrophin-releasing hormone. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..e. oxytocin-, vasopressin- and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-producing neurones], which suggests that PrRP may induce its cardiovascular effect via arginine vasopressin (AVP) ..
  37. James P, Rivier C, Lee S. Presence of corticotrophin-releasing factor and/or tyrosine hydroxylase in cells of a neural brain-testicular pathway that are labelled by a transganglionic tracer. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:173-81 pubmed
    ..c.v. injection of either the stress-related peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, both of which alter androgen release and decrease levels of the peripheral-type ..
  38. Fenoglio K, Brunson K, Avishai Eliner S, Chen Y, Baram T. Region-specific onset of handling-induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoid receptor expression. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2702-6 pubmed
    ..to their cage, permanently modifies the expression of the stress neuromodulators corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  39. Watts A, Tanimura S, Sanchez Watts G. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of unstressed rats: daily rhythms and their interactions with corticosterone. Endocrinology. 2004;145:529-40 pubmed
    ..the daily ACTH secretory rhythm from anterior pituitary corticotropes signals from the circadian clock schedule CRH and, to lesser extent, arginine vasopressin (AVP) release from neuroendocrine terminals...
  40. Laes J, Ravoet M, Quan X, Van Vooren P, Szpirer J, Szpirer C. Improved radiation hybrid map of rat chromosome 2: colocalization of the genes encoding corticotropin-releasing hormone and IL6-receptor with quantitative trait loci regulating the inflammatory response. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:130-3 pubmed
    ..Two of the newly localized genes (Crh and Il6r) encode proteins involved in the regulation of inflammatory and immune events...
  41. Bali B, Ferenczi S, Kovacs K. Direct inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on corticotrophin-releasing hormone gene expression in neurones of the paraventricular nucleus in rat hypothalamic organotypic cultures. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the parvocellular neurosecretory neurones of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus governs neuroendocrine stress cascade and is the major target of the negative feedback effect of corticosteroids...
  42. Wood S, McFadden K, Grigoriadis D, Bhatnagar S, Valentino R. Depressive and cardiovascular disease comorbidity in a rat model of social stress: a putative role for corticotropin-releasing factor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;222:325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the efficacy of the corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, NBI-30775 (NBI), or the tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine (DMI), to prevent social ..
  43. Merali Z, Anisman H, James J, Kent P, Schulkin J. Effects of corticosterone on corticotrophin-releasing hormone and gastrin-releasing peptide release in response to an aversive stimulus in two regions of the forebrain (central nucleus of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex). Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..has shown that chronic corticosterone treatment increases the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA at the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
  44. Eraslan E, Akyazi Ä, Ergül Ekiz E, Matur E. Noise Stress-Induced Changes in mRNA Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Family Molecules and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Rat Brain. Folia Biol (Praha). 2015;61:66-73 pubmed
    ..The expression profiles of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), CRH1, CRH2 receptors and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNAs were analysed by RT-PCR...
  45. Nozu T, Tsuchiya Y, Kumei S, Takakusaki K, Okumura T. Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induces stimulation of gastric contractions in freely moving conscious rats: role of CRF receptor types 1 and 2. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:190-7 pubmed publisher
    Peripheral corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an important role in stress-induced alterations of gastrointestinal motility...
  46. Fan H, Zhang T, Sun K, Song S, Cao S, Zhang H, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor mediates bone cancer induced pain through neuronal activation in rat spinal cord. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:9559-65 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) serves as a neuromodulator in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, playing an essential role in depression, anxiety, and pain regulation...
  47. De Souza E, Whitehouse P, Price D, Vale W. Abnormalities in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in Alzheimer's disease and other human disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;512:237-47 pubmed
    b>CRH-IR is significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex of individuals with AD, PD and PSP. Furthermore, we report that the decreases in CRH-IR in AD are accompanied by reciprocal increases in CRH receptors in affected cortical areas...
  48. Li X, Mitchell J, Wood S, Coen C, Lightman S, O Byrne K. The effect of oestradiol and progesterone on hypoglycaemic stress-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone release and on corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:468-76 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is implicated in the suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by a variety of stressful stimuli; 17beta-oestradiol (E2) has been shown to modulate this inhibitory response...
  49. Overman E, Rivier J, Moeser A. CRF induces intestinal epithelial barrier injury via the release of mast cell proteases and TNF-?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39935 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathophysiology of stress-induced intestinal disturbances is known to be mediated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) but the precise signaling pathways remain poorly understood...
  50. Wong M, Loddick S, Bongiorno P, Gold P, Rothwell N, Licinio J. Focal cerebral ischemia induces CRH mRNA in rat cerebral cortex and amygdala. Neuroreport. 1995;6:1785-8 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) antagonism has neuroprotective effects in models of ischemia...
  51. Rivier J, Spiess J, Vale W. Characterization of rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4851-5 pubmed
    ..directed against the NH2 terminus (residues 4-20) of ovine hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)...
  52. Avishai Eliner S, Eghbal Ahmadi M, Tabachnik E, Brunson K, Baram T. Down-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) precedes early-life experience-induced changes in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA. Endocrinology. 2001;142:89-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression is increased, whereas hypothalamic CRH-messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and stress-induced glucocorticoid release are reduced in adult rats handled early in ..
  53. June H, Liu J, Warnock K, Bell K, Balan I, Bollino D, et al. CRF-amplified neuronal TLR4/MCP-1 signaling regulates alcohol self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:1549-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal was sustained during alcohol drinking by increased expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and its feedback regulation of TLR4 expression, likely contributing to the transition to alcohol dependence. ..
  54. Borges G, Micó J, Neto F, Berrocoso E. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Mediates Pain-Induced Anxiety through the ERK1/2 Signaling Cascade in Locus Coeruleus Neurons. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Pain-induced anxiety is mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission in the locus coeruleus through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling cascade. ..
  55. Raff H, Jacobson L, Cullinan W. Augmented hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA and corticosterone responses to stress in adult rats exposed to perinatal hypoxia. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:907-12 pubmed
    ..day 14) augmented the corticosterone response to stress and increased basal corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA levels in the parvocellular portion of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in 6-month-old rats...
  56. Valdez G, Roberts A, Chan K, Davis H, Brennan M, Zorrilla E, et al. Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute ethanol withdrawal and protracted abstinence: regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:1494-501 pubmed
    Animal models of alcohol dependence suggest that long-term alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, key mediators of the behavioral stress response, may be involved in the development and reinstatement of ..
  57. Bangasser D, Curtis A, Reyes B, Bethea T, Parastatidis I, Ischiropoulos H, et al. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor signaling and trafficking: potential role in female vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:877, 896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the receptor for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the neuropeptide that orchestrates the stress response, signals and is trafficked differently in female rats in a ..
  58. Wang A, Nie W, Li H, Hou Y, Yu Z, Fan Q, et al. Epigenetic upregulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone mediates postnatal maternal separation-induced memory deficiency. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94394 pubmed publisher
    ..of neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain...
  59. Tran L, Chaloner A, Sawalha A, Greenwood Van Meerveld B. Importance of epigenetic mechanisms in visceral pain induced by chronic water avoidance stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..was isolated to assess the methylation status of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF) genes via bisulfite sequencing and verified by pyrosequencing...
  60. Sterrenburg L, Borch A, Peeters B, Pintér O, Zelena D, Roubos E, et al. Acute ether stress differentially affects corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin 1 in the Brattleboro rat. Brain Res. 2011;1398:21-9 pubmed publisher
    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin 1 (Ucn1) play a role in the stress response...
  61. La J, Sung T, Kim H, Kim T, Kang T, Yang I. Peripheral corticotropin releasing hormone mediates post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:731-6 pubmed
    To investigate whether peripheral corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which is up-regulated in intestinal inflammation, mediates the post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of colitis...
  62. Miller W, Suzuki S, Miller L, Handa R, Uht R. Estrogen receptor (ER)beta isoforms rather than ERalpha regulate corticotropin-releasing hormone promoter activity through an alternate pathway. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10628-35 pubmed
    ..This gender difference could result from estrogen regulation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter via either of its receptors: estrogen receptor (ER)alpha or ERbeta...
  63. Smith C, Nordstrom E, Sengupta J, Miranda A. Neonatal gastric suctioning results in chronic visceral and somatic hyperalgesia: role of corticotropin releasing factor. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007;19:692-9 pubmed
    ..Orogastric suctioning during the neonatal period results in global chronic somatic and visceral hyperalgesia in adult rats. Visceral hyperalgesia is prevented by pre-emptive administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin. ..
  64. Lenglos C, Mitra A, Guèvremont G, Timofeeva E. Sex differences in the effects of chronic stress and food restriction on body weight gain and brain expression of CRF and relaxin-3 in rats. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:370-87 pubmed publisher
    ..on food intake, body weight, corticosterone plasma levels and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus and relaxin-3 in the nucleus incertus (NI)...
  65. Kageyama K, Itoi K, Iwasaki Y, Niioka K, Watanuki Y, Yamagata S, et al. Stimulation of corticotropin-releasing factor gene expression by FosB in rat hypothalamic 4B cells. Peptides. 2014;51:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..heterodimer, activator protein-1 (AP-1), may be involved in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression...
  66. Aréchiga Ceballos F, Alvarez Salas E, Matamoros Trejo G, Amaya M, García Luna C, de Gortari P. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats. J Endocrinol. 2014;221:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model...
  67. LaBerge J, Malley S, Girard B, Corrow K, Vizzard M. Postnatal expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in rat urinary bladder. Auton Neurosci. 2008;141:83-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide expressed in micturition reflex circuitry and different roles in these reflexes have been suggested...
  68. Liu Y, Knobloch H, Grinevich V, Aguilera G. Stress induces parallel changes in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) Transcription and nuclear translocation of transducer of regulated cAMP response element-binding activity 2 in hypothalamic CRH neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..regulated CREB activity (TORC), is required for transcriptional activation of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene...
  69. Esposito P, Basu S, Letourneau R, Jacobson S, Theoharides T. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) can directly affect brain microvessel endothelial cells. Brain Res. 2003;968:192-8 pubmed
    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through release of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), leading to production of glucocorticoids that down regulate immune responses...
  70. Funk D, Li Z, Shaham Y, Le A. Effect of blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the median raphe nucleus on stress-induced c-fos mRNA in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2003;122:1-4 pubmed
    Using a rat relapse model, we have shown that infusion of a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist into the median raphe nucleus (MRN) blocks footshock stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats...
  71. Jahn O, Tezval H, van Werven L, Eckart K, Spiess J. Three-amino acid motifs of urocortin II and III determine their CRF receptor subtype selectivity. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:233-42 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the CRF-like peptide urocortin I (UcnI) exert their activity through two different CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2...
  72. Kirby L, Freeman Daniels E, Lemos J, Nunan J, Lamy C, Akanwa A, et al. Corticotropin-releasing factor increases GABA synaptic activity and induces inward current in 5-hydroxytryptamine dorsal raphe neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12927-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have found that the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) inhibits 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in vivo...
  73. Tanaka M, Tomimatsu Y, Sakimura K, Ootani Y, Sako Y, Kojima T, et al. Characterization of CRF1 receptor antagonists with differential peripheral vs central actions in CRF challenge in rats. Peptides. 2017;95:40-50 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate peripheral and central roles of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in endocrinological and behavioral changes...
  74. Tan Y, Gan Q, Knuepfer M. Central alpha-adrenergic receptors and corticotropin releasing factor mediate hemodynamic responses to acute cold stress. Brain Res. 2003;968:122-9 pubmed
    ..Since considerable evidence suggests that central catecholamines and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) contribute to the regulation of arterial pressure and the development of hypertension, we ..
  75. Kageyama K, Hanada K, Moriyama T, Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Suda T. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 involvement in desensitization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 1 by CRF in murine corticotrophs. Endocrinology. 2006;147:441-50 pubmed
    Hypothalamic CRF stimulates synthesis and secretion of ACTH via CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in the anterior pituitary gland. After agonist-activated stimulation of receptor signaling, CRFR1 is down-regulated and desensitized...
  76. Florio P, Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic J, Torricelli M, Lowry P, et al. Amniotic fluid and umbilical cord plasma corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein, adrenocorticotropin, and cortisol concentrations in intraamniotic infection and inflammation at term. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3604-9 pubmed publisher
    Pregnant tissues express corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide modulating fetal and placental ACTH and cortisol secretion. These actions are modulated by the locally expressed CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP)...
  77. Meng Q, Chen X, Tong D, Zhou J. Stress and glucocorticoids regulated corticotropin releasing factor in rat prefrontal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;342:54-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is considered as the central driving force in the stress response and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression...
  78. Mironova V, Rybnikova E, Pivina S. Effect of inescapable stress in rodent models of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder on CRH and vasopressin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Acta Physiol Hung. 2013;100:395-410 pubmed publisher
    ..depressive- and anxiety-like states in animals were accompanied by the rise in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactivity in the parvocellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
  79. Kaminski K, Watts A. Intact catecholamine inputs to the forebrain are required for appropriate regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin gene expression by corticosterone in the rat paraventricular nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:1517-26 pubmed publisher
    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neuroendocrine neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) drive adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and thereby glucocorticoid release from pituitary corticotrophs and the ..
  80. Zohar I, Weinstock M. Differential effect of prenatal stress on the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and its receptors in the hypothalamus and amygdala in male and female rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in the elevated plus maze (EPM) together with changes in the gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), its receptors, CRHR1 and CRHR2, as well as CRH binding protein (CRH-BP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ..
  81. Tan L, Xu K, Vaccarino F, Lovejoy D, Rotzinger S. Repeated intracerebral teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP)-1 injections produce enduring changes in behavioral responses to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in rat models of anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2008;188:195-200 pubmed
    ..TCAP is structurally related to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides...
  82. Xiao C, Sartin J, Mulchahey J, Segar T, Sheriff S, Herman J, et al. Aging associated changes in amygdalar corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-binding protein in Fischer 344 rats. Brain Res. 2006;1073-1074:325-31 pubmed
    ..adaptation in aging may become impaired from abnormal expression of amygdalar corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and/or CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP)...
  83. Liu Y, Aguilera G. Cyclic AMP inducible early repressor mediates the termination of corticotropin releasing hormone transcription in hypothalamic neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:1275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..element modulator (CREM), are associated with protein binding to the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) promoter and termination of CRH transcriptional responses to stress...
  84. WANAT M, Bonci A, Phillips P. CRF acts in the midbrain to attenuate accumbens dopamine release to rewards but not their predictors. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:383-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to reduce the motivation to work for food rewards...
  85. Guan X, Wang L, Chen C, Guan Y, Li S. Roles of two subtypes of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor in the corticostriatal long-term potentiation under cocaine withdrawal condition. J Neurochem. 2010;115:795-803 pubmed publisher
    The roles of two subtypes of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity under cocaine withdrawal condition were examined in this study...
  86. Yoshida N, Maejima Y, Sedbazar U, Ando A, Kurita H, Damdindorj B, et al. Stressor-responsive central nesfatin-1 activates corticotropin-releasing hormone, noradrenaline and serotonin neurons and evokes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:775-84 pubmed
    ..of the hypothalamus and brain stem and colocalized with stress-related substances, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), oxytocin, proopiomelanocortin, noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)...
  87. Hsu D, Bakshi V, Roseboom P, Kalin N. Diurnal changes in corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in the rat thalamus. Neurosci Lett. 2003;338:33-6 pubmed
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for mediating the stress response...
  88. Kageyama K, Hanada K, Iwasaki Y, Suda T. Regulation and role of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in hypothalamic 4B cells. J Endocrinol. 2009;201:369-76 pubmed publisher
    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in regulating stress responses. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), CRF, produced in response to stress, stimulates the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary...
  89. Hanstein R, Trotter J, Behl C, Clement A. Increased connexin 43 expression as a potential mediator of the neuroprotective activity of the corticotropin-releasing hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1479-93 pubmed publisher
    b>CRH is a major central stress mediator, but also a potent neuroprotective effector. The mechanisms by which CRH mediates its neuroprotective actions are largely unknown...
  90. Porcher C, Peinnequin A, Pellissier S, Meregnani J, Sinniger V, Canini F, et al. Endogenous expression and in vitro study of CRF-related peptides and CRF receptors in the rat gastric antrum. Peptides. 2006;27:1464-75 pubmed
    In vivo studies suggest that corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-like peptides, urocortin 1 (UCN 1) and UCN 2, inhibit gastric emptying and stimulate colonic motility through CRF2 and CRF1 receptors, respectively...