Cntf

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cntf
Description: ciliary neurotrophic factor
Alias: ciliary neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotropic factor
Species: rat
Products:     Cntf

Top Publications

  1. Davis S, Aldrich T, Valenzuela D, Wong V, Furth M, Squinto S, et al. The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor. Science. 1991;253:59-63 pubmed
    ..A "tagged-ligand panning" procedure was used to clone a receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). This receptor is expressed exclusively within the nervous system and skeletal muscle...
  2. Müller A, Hauk T, Leibinger M, Marienfeld R, Fischer D. Exogenous CNTF stimulates axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells partially via endogenous CNTF. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;41:233-46 pubmed publisher
    Intravitreal injections of exogenous CNTF stimulate axon regeneration of RGCs in vivo. Nevertheless, controversy exists over the ability of exogenous CNTF to directly stimulate axon regeneration of mature RGCs...
  3. Schuster B, Kovaleva M, Sun Y, Regenhard P, Matthews V, Grötzinger J, et al. Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9528-35 pubmed
    Human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic cytokine that exerts a neuroprotective effect in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
  4. Yokota H, Yoshikawa M, Hirabayashi H, Nakase H, Uranishi R, Nishimura F, et al. Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFR-alpha) following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2005;377:170-5 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is known as a neuro-survival factor in the developing and developed CNS, as well as in the CNS following injury...
  5. Wen R, Song Y, Liu Y, Li Y, Zhao L, Laties A. CNTF negatively regulates the phototransduction machinery in rod photoreceptors: implication for light-induced photostasis plasticity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;613:407-13 pubmed publisher
  6. Ozog M, Modha G, Church J, Reilly R, Naus C. Co-administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor with its soluble receptor protects against neuronal death and enhances neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6546-60 pubmed
    Attempts to promote neuronal survival and repair with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have met with limited success...
  7. Li Y, Tao W, Luo L, Huang D, Kauper K, Stabila P, et al. CNTF induces regeneration of cone outer segments in a rat model of retinal degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9495 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was delivered by intravitreal injection to the left eye of an animal, and vehicle to the right ..
  8. Giess R, Maurer M, Linker R, Gold R, Warmuth Metz M, Toyka K, et al. Association of a null mutation in the CNTF gene with early onset of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:407-9 pubmed
    ..b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing ..
  9. Stöckli K, Lottspeich F, Sendtner M, Masiakowski P, Carroll P, Gotz R, et al. Molecular cloning, expression and regional distribution of rat ciliary neurotrophic factor. Nature. 1989;342:920-3 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was originally characterized as a survival factor for chick ciliary neurons in vitro...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wahlin K, Adler R, Zack D, Campochiaro P. Neurotrophic signaling in normal and degenerating rodent retinas. Exp Eye Res. 2001;73:693-701 pubmed
    ..of degeneration, or in wild type animals, intravitreous injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, or fibroblast growth factor-2 caused immunostaining for pERK and c-fos in cells of the inner retina, ..
  2. Ozog M, Bernier S, Bates D, Chatterjee B, Lo C, Naus C. The complex of ciliary neurotrophic factor-ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha up-regulates connexin43 and intercellular coupling in astrocytes via the Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4761-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on connexin43 (Cx43) expression and intercellular coupling in astrocytes...
  3. Albrecht P, Dahl J, Stoltzfus O, Levenson R, Levison S. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates spinal cord astrocytes, stimulating their production and release of fibroblast growth factor-2, to increase motor neuron survival. Exp Neurol. 2002;173:46-62 pubmed
    At focal CNS injury sites, several cytokines accumulate, including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)...
  4. Elson G, Lelievre E, Guillet C, Chevalier S, Plun Favreau H, Froger J, et al. CLF associates with CLC to form a functional heteromeric ligand for the CNTF receptor complex. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:867-72 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytokine supporting the differentiation and survival of various cell types in the peripheral and central nervous systems...
  5. Rezende L, Vieira A, Negro A, Langone F, Boschero A. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) signals through STAT3-SOCS3 pathway and protects rat pancreatic islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Cytokine. 2009;46:65-71 pubmed publisher
    b>CNTF is a cytokine that promotes survival and/or differentiation in many cell types, including rat pancreatic islets...
  6. Xu J, Chen E, Lu C, He C. Recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes nerve regeneration and induces gene expression in silicon tube-bridged transected sciatic nerves in adult rats. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:812-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This was followed by a focal injection of recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
  7. Yin Y, Henzl M, Lorber B, Nakazawa T, Thomas T, Jiang F, et al. Oncomodulin is a macrophage-derived signal for axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:843-52 pubmed
    ..Oncomodulin also stimulates outgrowth from peripheral sensory neurons. Thus, oncomodulin is a new growth factor for neurons of the mature central and peripheral nervous systems. ..
  8. Tønnessen T, Florholmen G, Henriksen U, Christensen G. Cardiopulmonary alterations in mRNA expression for interleukin-1beta, the interleukin-6 superfamily and CXC-chemokines during development of postischaemic heart failure in the rat. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2003;23:263-8 pubmed
    ..aimed to examine the expression of cytokines belonging to the interleukin (IL)-6 superfamily [IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)], as well as IL-1beta and the CXC-chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8...
  9. Dubovy P, Raska O, Klusáková I, Stejskal L, Celakovský P, Haninec P. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes motor reinnervation of the musculocutaneous nerve in an experimental model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:58 pubmed publisher
    ..to send a sprout is controversial and may be controlled by cytokines and/or neurotrophic factors like ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
  10. Paintlia M, Paintlia A, Singh A, Singh I. S-nitrosoglutathione induces ciliary neurotrophic factor expression in astrocytes, which has implications to protect the central nervous system under pathological conditions. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3831-43 pubmed publisher
    ..GSNO enhanced the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner...
  11. Saygili E, Pekassa M, Saygili E, Rackauskas G, Hommes D, Noor Ebad F, et al. Mechanical stretch of sympathetic neurons induces VEGF expression via a NGF and CNTF signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrated that SN respond to stretch with an upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Whether stretch increases neuronal VEGF expression still remains to be clarified...
  12. Naeem A, Abbas L, Guthrie S. Comparison of the effects of HGF, BDNF, CT-1, CNTF, and the branchial arches on the growth of embryonic cranial motor neurons. J Neurobiol. 2002;51:101-14 pubmed
    ..We find that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) all promote the outgrowth of embryonic cranial motor neurons, while ..
  13. Emerich D, Winn S, Hantraye P, Peschanski M, Chen E, Chu Y, et al. Protective effect of encapsulated cells producing neurotrophic factor CNTF in a monkey model of Huntington's disease. Nature. 1997;386:395-9 pubmed
    ..There is no effective treatment for preventing or slowing this neuronal degeneration. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a trophic factor for striatal neurons and therefore a potential therapeutic agent for ..
  14. Pease M, Zack D, Berlinicke C, Bloom K, Cone F, Wang Y, et al. Effect of CNTF on retinal ganglion cell survival in experimental glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2194-200 pubmed publisher
    To assess the neuroprotective effect of virally mediated overexpression of ciliary-derived neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in experimental rat glaucoma...
  15. Zhao C, Liu J, Zhang W. [Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor mRNA in spinal cords of adult rats with transection injury]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:412-4 pubmed
    To determine the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) mRNA in transactional injured spinal cords and the role of CNTF in repairing and regenerating spinal cords in adult rats...
  16. Ozawa Y, Nakao K, Shimazaki T, Takeda J, Akira S, Ishihara K, et al. Downregulation of STAT3 activation is required for presumptive rod photoreceptor cells to differentiate in the postnatal retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:258-70 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been known to inhibit the differentiation of presumptive rod photoreceptor cells; however, the underlying mechanisms have remained to be elucidated...
  17. Sun Y, März P, Otten U, Ge J, Rose John S. The effect of gp130 stimulation on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:532-9 pubmed
    ..receptors we used fusion proteins of interleukin-6 coupled to the soluble interleukin-6 receptor and ciliary neurotrophic factor coupled to the soluble ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor...
  18. Qin S, Zou Y, Zhang C. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2633 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS. ..
  19. Ahima R. Overcoming insulin resistance with CNTF. Nat Med. 2006;12:511-2 pubmed
  20. Sarup V, Patil K, Sharma S. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptors are differentially expressed in the optic nerve transected adult rat retina. Brain Res. 2004;1013:152-8 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been implicated in the survival and regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  21. Park K, Luo J, Hisheh S, Harvey A, Cui Q. Cellular mechanisms associated with spontaneous and ciliary neurotrophic factor-cAMP-induced survival and axonal regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10806-15 pubmed
    ..adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) into peripheral nerve (PN) grafts but significantly potentiated ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-induced axonal regeneration...
  22. Hata K, Araki M, Yamamori T. CNTF is specifically expressed in developing rat pineal gland and eyes. Neuroreport. 2002;13:735-9 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) attracts considerable attention because it supports survival and differentiation of various types of neurons and glial cells in vitro...
  23. Lo D, SunRhodes N, Watt J. Perivascular cells increase expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor following partial denervation of the rat neurohypophysis. Exp Neurol. 2008;214:247-52 pubmed publisher
    The expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was investigated immunocytochemically during the axonal degeneration and collateral axonal sprouting response that follows partial denervation of the rat neurohypophysis...
  24. Jho D, Engelhard H, Gandhi R, Chao J, Babcock T, Ong E, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor upregulates ubiquitin-proteasome components in a rat model of neuronal injury. Cytokine. 2004;27:142-51 pubmed
    Neuronal injury triggers the release of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), promoting local neuronal repair but producing systemic effects of anorexia and lean body weight loss...
  25. Ji J, Elyaman W, Yip H, Lee V, Yick L, Hugon J, et al. CNTF promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after induction of ocular hypertension in rats: the possible involvement of STAT3 pathway. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:265-72 pubmed
    We examined the neuroprotective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat glaucoma model with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and studied the CNTF-mediated activation of Janus kinase/..
  26. Jang S, Shin Y, Jung J, Lee S, Seo S, Suh D, et al. Injury-induced CRMP4 expression in adult sensory neurons; a possible target gene for ciliary neurotrophic factor. Neurosci Lett. 2010;485:37-42 pubmed publisher
    Neurotrophic cytokines, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) play an important role in the development and regeneration of the nervous system...
  27. Bodega G, Suarez I, López Fernández L, Almonacid L, Zaballos A, Fernandez B. Possible implication of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and beta-synuclein in the ammonia effect on cultured rat astroglial cells: a study using DNA and protein microarrays. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:729-38 pubmed
    ..A notable decrease in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was demonstrated by Western blot after ammonia treatment, concurring with the reduction in CNTF ..
  28. Ito Y, Wiese S, Funk N, Chittka A, Rossoll W, Bommel H, et al. Sox10 regulates ciliary neurotrophic factor gene expression in Schwann cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7871-6 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf) plays an essential role in postnatal maintenance of spinal motoneurons...
  29. Lin H, Jain M, Li H, Levison S. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plus soluble CNTF receptor alpha increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-gamma-induced CD40 in murine microglia. J Neuroinflammation. 2009;6:7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons...
  30. Askvig J, Lo D, Sudbeck A, Behm K, Leiphon L, Watt J. Inhibition of the Jak-STAT pathway prevents CNTF-mediated survival of axotomized oxytocinergic magnocellular neurons in organotypic cultures of the rat supraoptic nucleus. Exp Neurol. 2013;240:75-87 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have demonstrated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) enhances survival and process outgrowth from magnocellular neurons in the paraventricular (PVN) and the supraoptic (SON) nuclei...
  31. Dyck D. Ciliary neural trophic factor: mimicking leptin's effects in skeletal muscle?. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2075-6 pubmed
  32. Jacob A, Zmuda J, Cauley J, Metter E, Hurley B, Ferrell R, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype and body composition. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004;12:372-6 pubmed
    Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration causes significant weight loss in both humans and animal models, but the effects of endogenous CNTF and the CNTF null allele on body composition are not fully understood...
  33. Mey J, Henkes L. Retinoic acid enhances leukemia inhibitory factor expression in OLN-93 oligodendrocytes. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;310:155-61 pubmed
    ..physiological reactions which are mediated by a number of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)...
  34. Jeong K, Nam J, Jin B, Kim S. Activation of CNTF/CNTFRα signaling pathway by hRheb(S16H) transduction of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121803 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of representative neurotrophic factors for the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Its effects are primarily mediated via CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα)...
  35. Holtmann B, Wiese S, Samsam M, Grohmann K, Pennica D, Martini R, et al. Triple knock-out of CNTF, LIF, and CT-1 defines cooperative and distinct roles of these neurotrophic factors for motoneuron maintenance and function. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1778-87 pubmed
    Members of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene family play an essential role for survival of developing and postnatal motoneurons...
  36. Ni Y, Gan D, Xu H, Xu G, Da C. Neuroprotective effect of transcorneal electrical stimulation on light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2009;219:439-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA and protein levels of apoptotic-associated genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 as well as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retinas were determined by real-time PCR and ..
  37. Asan E, Langenhan T, Holtmann B, Bock H, Sendtner M, Carroll P. Ciliary neurotrophic factor in the olfactory bulb of rats and mice. Neuroscience. 2003;120:99-112 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily regarded as an astrocytic lesion factor, promoting neuronal survival and influencing plasticity processes in deafferented areas of the CNS...
  38. Zvonic S, Cornelius P, Stewart W, Mynatt R, Stephens J. The regulation and activation of ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling proteins in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2228-35 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily known for its roles as a lesion factor released by the ruptured glial cells that prevent neuronal degeneration...
  39. Thome J, Kornhuber J, Baumer A, Rosler M, Beckmann H, Riederer P. Association between a null mutation in the human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene and increased incidence of psychiatric diseases?. Neurosci Lett. 1996;203:109-10 pubmed
    We report a possible association between a null mutation in the human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene and psychiatric diseases...
  40. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher
    ..12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1)...
  41. Lee T, Yang C, Fang K, Tzeng S. Role of ciliary neurotrophic factor in microglial phagocytosis. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which has been reported to be produced by glia, was shown to have stimulatory effect on the ..
  42. Elliott J, Cayouette M, Gravel C. The CNTF/LIF signaling pathway regulates developmental programmed cell death and differentiation of rod precursor cells in the mouse retina in vivo. Dev Biol. 2006;300:583-98 pubmed
    ..Here, we studied the role of the CNTF/LIF signaling pathway during mouse retinal development in vivo...
  43. Unoki K, LaVail M. Protection of the rat retina from ischemic injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35:907-15 pubmed
    ..The agents included brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)...
  44. Talon S, Giroux Metges M, Pennec J, Guillet C, Gascan H, Gioux M. Rapid protein kinase C-dependent reduction of rat skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channels by ciliary neurotrophic factor. J Physiol. 2005;565:827-41 pubmed
    The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), known to exert long-term myotrophic effects, has not yet been shown to induce a rapid biological response in skeletal muscles...
  45. Guillard E, Gueret G, Guillouet M, Vermeersch V, Rannou F, Giroux Metges M, et al. Alteration of muscle membrane excitability in sepsis: possible involvement of ciliary nervous trophic factor (CNTF). Cytokine. 2013;63:52-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We have studied the effects of one of them: the ciliary nervous trophic factor (CNTF) which is a cytokine released in the early phase of sepsis...
  46. Cagnon L, Braissant O. CNTF protects oligodendrocytes from ammonia toxicity: intracellular signaling pathways involved. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding these mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic strategies. We investigated whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a cytokine-like protein expressed by astrocytes and described as an injury-associated survival ..
  47. Stahl N, Davis S, Wong V, Taga T, Kishimoto T, Ip N, et al. Cross-linking identifies leukemia inhibitory factor-binding protein as a ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor component. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:7628-31 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) are cytokines that give rise to an identical set of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins upon addition to responsive cells...
  48. Shi X, Woodward W, Habecker B. Ciliary neurotrophic factor stimulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity. J Neurochem. 2012;121:700-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokines that act through gp130, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) decrease norepinephrine production in sympathetic neurons by suppressing TH mRNA and stimulating ..
  49. Li R, Wen R, Banzon T, Maminishkis A, Miller S. CNTF mediates neurotrophic factor secretion and fluid absorption in human retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23148 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects photoreceptors and regulates their phototransduction machinery, but little is known about CNTF's effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) physiology...
  50. Giess R, Holtmann B, Braga M, Grimm T, Muller Myhsok B, Toyka K, et al. Early onset of severe familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a SOD-1 mutation: potential impact of CNTF as a candidate modifier gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;70:1277-86 pubmed
    ..onset and severe course of the disease in the 25-year-old patient revealed an additional homozygous mutation of the CNTF gene not found in his yet unaffected sister...
  51. Calcutt N, Muir D, Powell H, Mizisin A. Reduced ciliary neuronotrophic factor-like activity in nerves from diabetic or galactose-fed rats. Brain Res. 1992;575:320-4 pubmed
    This study examined the levels of ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF)-like activity in the sciatic nerve of rats with short-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes or dietary supplementation with 40% galactose...
  52. Langenhan T. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the olfactory system of rats and mice. Ann Anat. 2006;188:411-3 pubmed
    ..It was known that high amounts of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a hematopoietic cytokine, can be found in the olfactory bulb...
  53. Feng G, Liu J, Wang Y, Wang Z, Hu Y, Xia Q, et al. Effects of Alpha-Synuclein on Primary Spinal Cord Neurons Associated with Apoptosis and CNTF Expression. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2017;37:817-829 pubmed publisher
    ..In molecular level, SNCA silence induced the up-regulation of CNTF and down-regulation of Caspase7/9...