Gene Symbol: Chrnd
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic delta subunit
Alias: acetylcholine receptor subunit delta, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic delta, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta (muscle), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta polypeptide, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor delta-subunit
Species: rat
Products:     Chrnd

Top Publications

  1. Gu Y, Franco A, Gardner P, Lansman J, Forsayeth J, Hall Z. Properties of embryonic and adult muscle acetylcholine receptors transiently expressed in COS cells. Neuron. 1990;5:147-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, some, but not all, of the differences between AChRs at adult endplates and those in the extrasynaptic membrane can be explained by the difference in subunit composition of gamma- and epsilon-AChRs. ..
  2. Keller S, Lindstrom J, Taylor P. Involvement of the chaperone protein calnexin and the acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit in the assembly and cell surface expression of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:22871-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, calnexin appears to associate with the individual nascent subunits, thereby facilitating their assembly into the mature pentameric receptor. ..
  3. Marchand S, Devillers Thiery A, Pons S, Changeux J, Cartaud J. Rapsyn escorts the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor along the exocytic pathway via association with lipid rafts. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8891-901 pubmed
    ..These data also raise the interesting hypothesis of the participation of the raft machinery in the targeting of signaling molecules to synaptic sites. ..
  4. Michalk A, Stricker S, Becker J, Rupps R, Pantzar T, Miertus J, et al. Acetylcholine receptor pathway mutations explain various fetal akinesia deformation sequence disorders. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Other AChR subunits alpha1, beta1, and delta (CHRNA1, CHRNB1, CHRND) as well as receptor-associated protein of the synapse (RAPSN) previously revealed missense or compound nonsense-..
  5. Wang Z, Hardy S, Hall Z. Assembly of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The first transmembrane domains of truncated alpha and delta subunits are required for heterodimer formation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27575-84 pubmed
    ..These results show that a complete M1 domain is necessary for association of truncated N-terminal alpha and delta subunits into a heterodimer with high affinity ligand binding activity. ..
  6. Albuquerque E, Pereira E, Alkondon M, Rogers S. Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:73-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. ..
  7. Rasoulpour R, Ellis Hutchings R, Terry C, Millar N, Zablotny C, Gibb A, et al. A novel mode-of-action mediated by the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resulting in developmental toxicity in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:522-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data support the hypothesis that the developmental effects of sulfoxaflor in rats are mediated via sustained agonism on the fetal muscle nAChR during late fetal development and are considered not relevant to humans. ..
  8. Witzemann V, Chevessier F, Pacifici P, Yampolsky P. The neuromuscular junction: selective remodeling of synaptic regulators at the nerve/muscle interface. Mech Dev. 2013;130:402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that detailed analysis of mouse models will help to understand the complexity in mechanisms that regulate synaptic remodeling. ..
  9. Chahine K, Walke W, Goldman D. A 102 base pair sequence of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor delta-subunit gene confers regulation by muscle electrical activity. Development. 1992;115:213-9 pubmed
    ..This latter sequence also contains all the necessary elements to confer tissue and developmental stage-specific expression. ..

More Information


  1. Witzemann V, Stein E, Barg B, Konno T, Koenen M, Kues W, et al. Primary structure and functional expression of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-subunits of the acetylcholine receptor from rat muscle. Eur J Biochem. 1990;194:437-48 pubmed
    ..Thus in rat skeletal muscle the motor nerve regulates the expression of two functionally different AChR subtypes with different molecular composition by the differential expression of subunit-specific mRNAs. ..
  2. Opella S, Marassi F, Gesell J, Valente A, Kim Y, Oblatt Montal M, et al. Structures of the M2 channel-lining segments from nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptors by NMR spectroscopy. Nat Struct Biol. 1999;6:374-9 pubmed
    ..A model built from these solid-state NMR data, and assuming a symmetric pentameric arrangement of M2 helices, results in a funnel-like architecture for the channel, with the wide opening on the N-terminal intracellular side. ..