Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Chrnb4
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 4 subunit
Alias: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4, Acetylcholine receptor beta 4, N-alpha 2, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 4, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta polypeptide 4, neuronal acetylcholine receptor non-alpha-2 chain, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-related protein
- Albuquerque E, Pereira E, Alkondon M, Rogers S. Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:73-120 pubmed publisher..Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. ..
- Marritt A, Cox B, Yasuda R, McIntosh J, Xiao Y, Wolfe B, et al. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the rat retina: simple and mixed heteromeric subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1656-68 pubmed
- Salas R, Pieri F, De Biasi M. Decreased signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice null for the beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10035-9 pubmed..We also show that the upregulation of epibatidine binding sites attributable to chronic nicotine, an effect associated with beta2-containing receptors, is probably not related to the mechanisms underlying withdrawal. ..
- Lev Lehman E, Bercovich D, Xu W, Stockton D, Beaudet A. Characterization of the human beta4 nAChR gene and polymorphisms in CHRNA3 and CHRNB4. J Hum Genet. 2001;46:362-6 pubmed..and controls identified numerous genetic variants, including high-frequency polymorphisms in both CHRNA3 and CHRNB4. Although no loss-of-function mutations have been identified to date, these genes remain strong candidates for ..
- Xu W, Orr Urtreger A, Nigro F, Gelber S, Sutcliffe C, Armstrong D, et al. Multiorgan autonomic dysfunction in mice lacking the beta2 and the beta4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9298-305 pubmed..The phenotype of the beta2-/-beta4-/- and alpha3-/- mice resembles the autosomal recessive megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans. ..
- Duvoisin R, Deneris E, Patrick J, Heinemann S. The functional diversity of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is increased by a novel subunit: beta 4. Neuron. 1989;3:487-96 pubmed..1, indicating that the beta subunit can affect the sensitivity of neuronal nAChRs to this toxin. These results extend the functional diversity of nicotinic receptors in the nervous system. ..
- Salas R, Cook K, Bassetto L, De Biasi M. The alpha3 and beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are necessary for nicotine-induced seizures and hypolocomotion in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:401-7 pubmed..mRNA levels for the alpha5 and the beta4 subunits were unchanged in alpha3 +/- brains. Together, these results suggest that the beta4 and the alpha3 subunits are mediators of nicotine-induced seizures and hypolocomotion. ..
- Sallette J, Bohler S, Benoit P, Soudant M, Pons S, Le Novère N, et al. An extracellular protein microdomain controls up-regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nicotine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18767-75 pubmed..This mechanism may be central to nicotine addiction, since alpha4beta2 is the subtype exhibiting the highest degree of up-regulation in the brain. ..
- Di Angelantonio S, Matteoni C, Fabbretti E, Nistri A. Molecular biology and electrophysiology of neuronal nicotinic receptors of rat chromaffin cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:2313-22 pubmed
- Lindovský J, Kaniaková M, Svobodová L, Vyskocil F, Krusek J. Role of negatively charged amino acids in beta 4 F-loop in activation and desensitization of alpha 3 beta 4 rat neuronal nicotinic receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:864-71 pubmed publisher..The double mutation substantially accelerated the return from long-term desensitization induced by Epi. ..
- Criado M, Castillo M, Mulet J, Sala F, Sala S. Role of loop 9 on the function of neuronal nicotinic receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:654-9 pubmed publisher..In contrast, heteromeric receptor alpha3beta4 with the same mutations retained some function. We conclude that loop 9 has a different role in the function of homomeric and heteromeric receptors. ..
- Lomazzo E, MacArthur L, Yasuda R, Wolfe B, Kellar K. Quantitative analysis of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors in the rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2010;115:625-34 pubmed publisher..Results suggested these subtypes have comparable binding affinities for the nicotinic ligands used here. ..
- Isenberg K, Meyer G. Cloning of a putative neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. J Neurochem. 1989;52:988-91 pubmed..The deduced amino acid sequence possesses characteristics expected of a nAChR subunit that does not bind acetylcholine, in addition to distinctive features such as unique cysteine residues and N-linked glycosylation sites. ..
- Santoro M, Santos C, Ota V, Gadelha A, Stilhano R, Diana M, et al. Expression profile of neurotransmitter receptor and regulatory genes in the prefrontal cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats: relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2014;219:674-9 pubmed publisher..Four genes were significantly downregulated in the PFC of SHR compared to Wistar rats (Gad2, Chrnb4, Slc5a7, and Qrfpr) and none in nucleus accumbens. Gad2 and Qrfpr have CpG islands in their promoter region...