Gene Symbol: Chrnb2
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit
Alias: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2, N-alpha 1, cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta polypeptide 2, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 2, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta polypeptide 2 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta subunit 2, neuronal acetylcholine receptor non-alpha-1 chain
Species: rat
Products:     Chrnb2

Top Publications

  1. Robles N, Sabriá J. Ethanol consumption produces changes in behavior and on hippocampal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;30:119-20 pubmed
  2. Blum A, Lester H, Dougherty D. Nicotinic pharmacophore: the pyridine N of nicotine and carbonyl of acetylcholine hydrogen bond across a subunit interface to a backbone NH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data represent a completed nicotinic pharmacophore and offer insight into the design of new therapeutic agents that selectively target these receptors. ..
  3. Zappettini S, Grilli M, Salamone A, Fedele E, Marchi M. Pre-synaptic nicotinic receptors evoke endogenous glutamate and aspartate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by way of distinct coupling mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work aimed to investigate whether and through which mechanisms selective ?7 and ?4?2 nicotinic receptor (nAChR) agonists stimulate endogenous glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP) release in rat hippocampus...
  4. Rodrigues Pinguet N, Jia L, Li M, Figl A, Klaassen A, Truong A, et al. Five ADNFLE mutations reduce the Ca2+ dependence of the mammalian alpha4beta2 acetylcholine response. J Physiol. 2003;550:11-26 pubmed
    ..Reducing the Ca2+ dependence of the ACh response could trigger seizures by increasing alpha4beta2-mediated glutamate release during such bouts. ..
  5. Wu M, He Y, Guo F, Qi J. Alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for the amyloid beta protein-induced suppression of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo. Brain Res Bull. 2008;77:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study provides further insight into the mechanisms by which Abeta impairs synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in the AD brain. ..
  6. Picciotto M, Zoli M, Lena C, Bessis A, Lallemand Y, Le Novère N, et al. Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain. Nature. 1995;374:65-7 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, mutant mice are able to perform better than their non-mutant siblings on this task. ..
  7. Ren X, Cheng S, Treuil M, Mukherjee J, Rao J, Braunewell K, et al. Structural determinants of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor trafficking. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6676-86 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results identify, for the first time, residues within AChR subunits that are essential structural determinants of alpha4beta2 AChR ER export. ..
  8. Lomazzo E, MacArthur L, Yasuda R, Wolfe B, Kellar K. Quantitative analysis of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors in the rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2010;115:625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggested these subtypes have comparable binding affinities for the nicotinic ligands used here. ..
  9. Quik M, Campos C, Bordia T, Strachan J, Zhang J, McIntosh J, et al. ?4?2 Nicotinic receptors play a role in the nAChR-mediated decline in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats. Neuropharmacology. 2013;71:191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Since ?4?5?2 nAChRs are also predominantly on striatal dopamine terminals, these data suggest that drugs targeting ?4?2 nAChRs may reduce l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in late stage Parkinson's disease. ..

More Information


  1. Cesa L, Higgins C, Sando S, Kuo D, Levandoski M. Specificity determinants of allosteric modulation in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a fine line between inhibition and potentiation. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work has implications for rational drug design for nicotinic receptors and sheds light on mechanisms of allosteric modulation in nAChRs, especially the subtle differences between potentiation and inhibition. ..
  2. Villegier A, Salomon L, Blanc G, Godeheu G, Glowinski J, Tassin J. Irreversible blockade of monoamine oxidases reveals the critical role of 5-HT transmission in locomotor response induced by nicotine in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1359-65 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that mixed irreversible MAOIs contained in tobacco facilitate the effects of nicotine on serotonin release, thus allowing the locomotor and rewarding effects of nicotine...
  3. Picciotto M, Zoli M, Rimondini R, Lena C, Marubio L, Pich E, et al. Acetylcholine receptors containing the beta2 subunit are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Nature. 1998;391:173-7 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly support the idea that the beta2-containing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing properties of nicotine. ..
  4. Boulter J, Connolly J, Deneris E, Goldman D, Heinemann S, Patrick J. Functional expression of two neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from cDNA clones identifies a gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7763-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the alpha 3, alpha 4, and beta 2 genes encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that are expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. ..
  5. Rigbi A, Kanyas K, Yakir A, Greenbaum L, Pollak Y, Ben Asher E, et al. Why do young women smoke? V. Role of direct and interactive effects of nicotinic cholinergic receptor gene variation on neurocognitive function. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:164-72 pubmed
    ..Stroop, CPT Loading Phase, TOL) was associated with variants in CHRNA2, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2 and CHRNB3. Selective attention (Stroop) was associated with CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA9 and CHRNB2...
  6. Grubb M, Rossi F, Changeux J, Thompson I. Abnormal functional organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice lacking the beta 2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuron. 2003;40:1161-72 pubmed
    ..The presence of the beta2 subunit of the nAChR in the CNS is therefore important for normal functional organization in the retinogeniculate projection. ..
  7. Zoli M, Lena C, Picciotto M, Changeux J. Identification of four classes of brain nicotinic receptors using beta2 mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:4461-72 pubmed
    ..Type 4 nAChRs also exhibit faster desensitization than type 3 nAChRs at high doses of nicotine. Knock-out animals lacking individual alpha subunits should allow a further dissection of nAChR subclasses. ..
  8. Sallette J, Bohler S, Benoit P, Soudant M, Pons S, Le Novère N, et al. An extracellular protein microdomain controls up-regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nicotine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18767-75 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may be central to nicotine addiction, since alpha4beta2 is the subtype exhibiting the highest degree of up-regulation in the brain. ..
  9. Marubio L, Del Mar Arroyo Jimenez M, Cordero Erausquin M, Lena C, Le Novère N, de Kerchove d Exaerde A, et al. Reduced antinociception in mice lacking neuronal nicotinic receptor subunits. Nature. 1999;398:805-10 pubmed
    ..The alpha4 nAChR subunit, possibly associated with the beta2 nAChR subunit, is therefore crucial for nicotine-elicited antinociception. ..
  10. Dutertre S, Nicke A, Lewis R. Beta2 subunit contribution to 4/7 alpha-conotoxin binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30460-8 pubmed
  11. Steensland P, Simms J, Holgate J, Richards J, Bartlett S. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, selectively decreases ethanol consumption and seeking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12518-23 pubmed
    ..The selectivity of varenicline in decreasing ethanol consumption combined with its reported safety profile and mild side effects in humans suggest that varenicline may prove to be a treatment for alcohol dependence. ..
  12. Mura E, Zappettini S, Preda S, Biundo F, Lanni C, Grilli M, et al. Dual effect of beta-amyloid on ?7 and ?4?2 nicotinic receptors controlling the release of glutamate, aspartate and GABA in rat hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29661 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reinforce the concept that A? has relevant neuromodulatory effects, which may span from facilitation to inhibition of stimulated release depending upon the concentration used. ..
  13. Deneris E, Connolly J, Boulter J, Wada E, Wada K, Swanson L, et al. Primary structure and expression of beta 2: a novel subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuron. 1988;1:45-54 pubmed
    ..These results lead us to propose that the nervous system expresses diverse forms of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by combining beta 2 subunits with different agonist-binding alpha subunits. ..
  14. Forsayeth J, Kobrin E. Formation of oligomers containing the beta3 and beta4 subunits of the rat nicotinic receptor. J Neurosci. 1997;17:1531-8 pubmed
    ..In this respect, nicotinic receptors that contain the beta3 subunit are structurally homologous to the muscle nicotinic receptor. ..
  15. Caldarone B, Duman C, Picciotto M. Fear conditioning and latent inhibition in mice lacking the high affinity subclass of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:2779-84 pubmed
    ..18 (1999) 1235] and suggest that performance of other cognitive tasks may not be influenced by absence of beta2 subunit-containing receptors. ..
  16. Grubb M, Thompson I. Visual response properties in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8459-69 pubmed
  17. Elliott K, Ellis S, Berckhan K, Urrutia A, Chavez Noriega L, Johnson E, et al. Comparative structure of human neuronal alpha 2-alpha 7 and beta 2-beta 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and functional expression of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7, beta 2, and beta 4 subunits. J Mol Neurosci. 1996;7:217-28 pubmed
  18. Govind A, Walsh H, Green W. Nicotine-induced upregulation of native neuronal nicotinic receptors is caused by multiple mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that nicotine-induced upregulation is composed of multiple processes occurring at different rates with different underlying causes. ..
  19. Wang X. Nicotinic receptors partly mediate brainstem autonomic dysfunction evoked by the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease of GABAergic IPSCs frequency is dependent upon inhibition of presynaptic alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic receptors. ..
  20. Klink R, de Kerchove d Exaerde A, Zoli M, Changeux J. Molecular and physiological diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the midbrain dopaminergic nuclei. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1452-63 pubmed
    ..Neurons in the DA nuclei thus exhibit a diversity of nAChRs that might differentially modulate reinforcement and motor behavior. ..
  21. Marubio L, Paylor R. Impaired passive avoidance learning in mice lacking central neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuroscience. 2004;129:575-82 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking both the alpha7 and the beta2 nAChR subunits displayed impaired learning and memory performance in a passive avoidance test and showed enhanced motor performance on the rotarod. ..
  22. Xu W, Orr Urtreger A, Nigro F, Gelber S, Sutcliffe C, Armstrong D, et al. Multiorgan autonomic dysfunction in mice lacking the beta2 and the beta4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9298-305 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of the beta2-/-beta4-/- and alpha3-/- mice resembles the autosomal recessive megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis syndrome in humans. ..
  23. Bansal A, Singer J, Hwang B, Xu W, Beaudet A, Feller M. Mice lacking specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits exhibit dramatically altered spontaneous activity patterns and reveal a limited role for retinal waves in forming ON and OFF circuits in the inner retina. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7672-81 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that retinal waves mediated by nAChRs are involved in, but not required for, the development of neural circuits that define the ON and OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. ..
  24. Hidaka N, Suemaru K, Kato Y, Araki H. Involvement of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in working memory impairment induced by repeated electroconvulsive seizures in rats. Epilepsy Res. 2013;104:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..And, repeated ECS caused a reduction of ?4 nAChR-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Thus, the ?4?2 nAChR is related to ECS-induced deficits in rats. ..
  25. Suresh A, Hung A. Molecular simulation study of the unbinding of α-conotoxin [ϒ4E]GID at the α7 and α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Mol Graph Model. 2016;70:109-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational mutational free energy analyses also revealed a number of possible single-site mutations to GID which might enhance its selective binding to α4β2 over α7. ..
  26. Takarada T, Nakamichi N, Kitajima S, Fukumori R, Nakazato R, Le N, et al. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46177 pubmed publisher
  27. Hales T, Dunlop J, Deeb T, Carland J, Kelley S, Lambert J, et al. Common determinants of single channel conductance within the large cytoplasmic loop of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8062-71 pubmed
    ..This locus may be a common determinant of ion conduction throughout the Cys loop receptor family...
  28. Champtiaux N, Gotti C, Cordero Erausquin M, David D, Przybylski C, Léna C, et al. Subunit composition of functional nicotinic receptors in dopaminergic neurons investigated with knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7820-9 pubmed
  29. Matsubayashi H, Inoue A, Amano T, Seki T, Nakata Y, Sasa M, et al. Involvement of alpha7- and alpha4beta2-type postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nicotine-induced excitation of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra: a patch clamp and single-cell PCR study using acutely dissociated nigral neuron. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;129:1-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that nicotine directly acts on postsynaptic alpha7- and alpha4beta2-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induces inward current, which result in the excitation of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. ..
  30. Marritt A, Cox B, Yasuda R, McIntosh J, Xiao Y, Wolfe B, et al. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the rat retina: simple and mixed heteromeric subtypes. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1656-68 pubmed
  31. Heeschen C, Weis M, Aicher A, Dimmeler S, Cooke J. A novel angiogenic pathway mediated by non-neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:527-36 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first description of a cholinergic angiogenic pathway, and it suggests a novel avenue for therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. ..
  32. Léna C, Popa D, Grailhe R, Escourrou P, Changeux J, Adrien J. Beta2-containing nicotinic receptors contribute to the organization of sleep and regulate putative micro-arousals in mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5711-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the beta2-containing nAChRs contribute to the organization of sleep by regulating the transient phasic activity in NREMS, the REMS onset and duration, and the REMS-promoting effect of stress. ..
  33. Diaz Otero F, Quesada M, Morales Corraliza J, Martínez Parra C, Gomez Garre P, Serratosa J. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy with a mutation in the CHRNB2 gene. Epilepsia. 2008;49:516-20 pubmed
    ..ADNFLE; MIM 600513) has been associated with mutations in the genes coding for the alfa-4 (CHRNA4), beta-2 (CHRNB2), and alpha-2 (CHRNA2) subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and for the corticotropin-..
  34. Chandrasekaran A, Shah R, Crair M. Developmental homeostasis of mouse retinocollicular synapses. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1746-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that during the development of sensory maps, a unique consequence of homeostatic mechanisms is the precise shaping of neuronal receptive fields in conjunction with activity-dependent competition. ..
  35. Gahring L, Rogers S. Nicotinic receptor subunit alpha5 modifies assembly, up-regulation, and response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that alpha5 is an influential modulator of alpha4+beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor assembly and stabilizes their expression in response to fluctuations in external conditions. ..
  36. Livingstone P, Srinivasan J, Kew J, Dawson L, Gotti C, Moretti M, et al. alpha7 and non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate dopamine release in vitro and in vivo in the rat prefrontal cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Through their distinct actions on dopamine release, these nAChR subtypes could contribute to executive function, making them specific therapeutic targets for conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ..
  37. Luo S, Zhangsun D, Schroeder C, Zhu X, Hu Y, Wu Y, et al. A novel ?4/7-conotoxin LvIA from Conus lividus that selectively blocks ?3?2 vs. ?6/?3?2?3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. FASEB J. 2014;28:1842-53 pubmed publisher
    ..4/7-CTx LvIA is a new, potent, selective ?3?2 nAChR antagonist, which will enable detailed studies of ?3?2 nAChR structure, function, and physiological roles...
  38. Perez X, Bordia T, McIntosh J, Grady S, Quik M. Long-term nicotine treatment differentially regulates striatal alpha6alpha4beta2* and alpha6(nonalpha4)beta2* nAChR expression and function. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:844-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alpha6beta2(*) nAChR subtypes may represent important targets for smoking cessation therapies and neurological disorders involving these receptors such as Parkinson's disease. ..
  39. Rossi F, Pizzorusso T, Porciatti V, Marubio L, Maffei L, Changeux J. Requirement of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2 subunit for the anatomical and functional development of the visual system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6453-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is necessary for the anatomical and functional development of the visual system. ..
  40. Skok M, Grailhe R, Agenes F, Changeux J. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in lymphocyte development. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;171:86-98 pubmed
    ..More annexin V-positive B cells were found in the bone marrow of knockout than wild-type animals. We conclude that nicotinic receptors are involved in regulating lymphocyte development and control the B lymphocyte survival. ..
  41. Mori T, Zhao X, Zuo Y, Aistrup G, Nishikawa K, Marszalec W, et al. Modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by halothane in rat cortical neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:732-43 pubmed
    ..Halothane block of nnAChRs is deemed to play an important role in anesthesia via a direct action on the receptor and an indirect action to suppress transmitter release. ..
  42. Xiao Y, Zhao L, Kuang S, Guan Z. Inhibited Expression of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Blood Leukocytes of Chinese Patients with Vascular Dementia and in Blood Leukocytes as Well as the Hippocampus of Brain from Ischemic Rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016;36:1377-1387 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that alterations in expression of the α4β2 subtype of nAChR may be involved in the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the cognitive deficit associated with VaD. ..
  43. Phillips H, Favre I, Kirkpatrick M, Zuberi S, Goudie D, Heron S, et al. CHRNB2 is the second acetylcholine receptor subunit associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:225-31 pubmed
    ..The mutation, in an evolutionary conserved region of CHRNB2, is associated with ADNFLE in a Scottish family...
  44. Karadsheh M, Shah M, Tang X, Macdonald R, Stitzel J. Functional characterization of mouse alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stably expressed in HEK293T cells. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1138-50 pubmed
    ..Consequently, at low nanomolar concentrations, MLA may not be as selective for alpha7-containing nAchRs as previously thought. ..
  45. Khakh B, Fisher J, Nashmi R, Bowser D, Lester H. An angstrom scale interaction between plasma membrane ATP-gated P2X2 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic channels measured with fluorescence resonance energy transfer and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6911-20 pubmed
    ..The data provide direct evidence for the close spatial apposition of full-length P2X2 and alpha4beta2 channels within 100 nm of the plasma membrane of living cells. ..
  46. Skok M, Grailhe R, Changeux J. Nicotinic receptors regulate B lymphocyte activation and immune response. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;517:246-51 pubmed
    ..This could contribute to immune depression found in tobacco smokers. ..
  47. Ceyhan B, Gultekin F, Doguc D, Kulac E. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:145-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. ..
  48. Dauger S, Durand E, Cohen G, Lagercrantz H, Changeux J, Gaultier C, et al. Control of breathing in newborn mice lacking the beta-2 nAChR subunit. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182:205-12 pubmed
  49. Bao J, Lei D, Du Y, Ohlemiller K, Beaudet A, Role L. Requirement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit beta2 in the maintenance of spiral ganglion neurons during aging. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3041-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings clearly established a requirement for beta2 nAChR subunit in the maintenance of SGNs during aging. ..
  50. Besson M, Granon S, Mameli Engvall M, Cloëz Tayarani I, Maubourguet N, Cormier A, et al. Long-term effects of chronic nicotine exposure on brain nicotinic receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8155-60 pubmed
    ..alpha7*nAChRs. These data offer previously undescribed insights into the understanding of nicotine addiction and the treatment of several human pathologies by nicotine-like agents chronically acting on beta2*- or alpha7*nAChRs. ..
  51. Mameli Engvall M, Evrard A, Pons S, Maskos U, Svensson T, Changeux J, et al. Hierarchical control of dopamine neuron-firing patterns by nicotinic receptors. Neuron. 2006;50:911-21 pubmed
  52. Xiu J, Nordberg A, Zhang J, Guan Z. Expression of nicotinic receptors on primary cultures of rat astrocytes and up-regulation of the alpha7, alpha4 and beta2 subunits in response to nanomolar concentrations of the beta-amyloid peptide(1-42). Neurochem Int. 2005;47:281-90 pubmed
    ..We propose that the enhanced expression of alpha7, alpha4 and beta2 nAChRs by astrocytes stimulated directly by nanomolar concentrations of Abeta(1-42) might be related to ongoing defensive or compensative mechanisms. ..
  53. Albuquerque E, Pereira E, Alkondon M, Rogers S. Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:73-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. ..
  54. Zhang H, Yu L, Eaton J, Whiteaker P, Onajole O, Hanania T, et al. Chemistry, pharmacology, and behavioral studies identify chiral cyclopropanes as selective ?4?2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists exhibiting an antidepressant profile. Part II. J Med Chem. 2013;56:5495-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The favorable ADMET profile and chemical stability of 26 further indicate this compound to be a promising lead as a drug candidate warranting further advancement down the drug discovery pipeline. ..
  55. Khiroug S, Harkness P, Lamb P, Sudweeks S, Khiroug L, Millar N, et al. Rat nicotinic ACh receptor alpha7 and beta2 subunits co-assemble to form functional heteromeric nicotinic receptor channels. J Physiol. 2002;540:425-34 pubmed
    ..This co-assembly may help to explain nAChR channel diversity in rat hippocampal interneurons, and perhaps in other areas of the nervous system. ..
  56. Bordia T, Hrachova M, Chin M, McIntosh J, Quik M. Varenicline is a potent partial agonist at ?6?2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat and monkey striatum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the ability of varenicline to interact at ?6?2* nAChRs may contribute to its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. ..
  57. Tsutsui Kimura I, Ohmura Y, Izumi T, Yamaguchi T, Yoshida T, Yoshioka M. Nicotine provokes impulsive-like action by stimulating alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the infralimbic, but not in the prelimbic cortex. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;209:351-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest a critical role for alpha4beta2 nAChRs in the IL in mediating the effects of nicotine on impulsive-like action in the 3-CSRTT. ..
  58. Torborg C, Hansen K, Feller M. High frequency, synchronized bursting drives eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:72-8 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a possible resolution to previously described discrepancies regarding the role of retinal waves in retinogeniculate segregation. ..
  59. Zhangsun D, Zhu X, Wu Y, Hu Y, Kaas Q, Craik D, et al. Key residues in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunit contribute to α-conotoxin LvIA binding. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:9855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thr(59) and Phe(119) of the β2 subunit appear to interfere with LvIA binding, and their replacement by the corresponding residues of the β4 subunit leads to increased affinity. ..
  60. Hone A, Ruiz M, Scadden M, Christensen S, Gajewiak J, Azam L, et al. Positional scanning mutagenesis of ?-conotoxin PeIA identifies critical residues that confer potency and selectivity for ?6/?3?2?3 and ?3?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these studies provide molecular insights into designing ligands that selectively target ?6?2* nAChRs. ..
  61. Zachariou V, Caldarone B, Weathers Lowin A, George T, Elsworth J, Roth R, et al. Nicotine receptor inactivation decreases sensitivity to cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;24:576-89 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that activation of the high affinity nAChR may contribute to cocaine reinforcement. ..
  62. Cheng S, Amici S, Ren X, McKay S, Treuil M, Lindstrom J, et al. Presynaptic targeting of alpha4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is regulated by neurexin-1beta. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide novel insights as to possible mechanisms by which dysfunctional neurexins, through downstream effects on alpha4beta2 AChRs, may contribute to the etiology of these neurological disorders. ..
  63. King S, Caldarone B, Picciotto M. Beta2-subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are critical for dopamine-dependent locomotor activation following repeated nicotine administration. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47 Suppl 1:132-9 pubmed
  64. López Hernández G, Biaggi Labiosa N, Torres Cintrón A, Ortiz Acevedo A, Lasalde Dominicci J. Contribution of position alpha4S336 on functional expression and up-regulation of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Along the same line, our data support the idea that phosphorylation at multiple consensus sites in the alpha4 subunit could play a remarkable role on the regulation of the functional expression of the alpha4beta2 nAChR. ..
  65. Oshikawa J, Toya Y, Fujita T, Egawa M, Kawabe J, Umemura S, et al. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 regulates cAMP signal within lipid rafts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;285:C567-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, nAChR alpha 7 may regulate the AC activity via Ca2+ within lipid rafts. ..
  66. Shoaib M, Gommans J, Morley A, Stolerman I, Grailhe R, Changeux J. The role of nicotinic receptor beta-2 subunits in nicotine discrimination and conditioned taste aversion. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:530-9 pubmed
    ..Such receptors appear to have a less crucial role in the response-rate, reducing effects of nicotine and in nicotine tolerance. ..
  67. Darsow T, Booker T, Piña Crespo J, Heinemann S. Exocytic trafficking is required for nicotine-induced up-regulation of alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18311-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, nicotine appears to regulate surface receptor levels at a step prior to initial insertion in the plasma membrane rather than by altering their endocytic trafficking or degradation rates as had been previously suggested. ..
  68. Xiao Y, Kellar K. The comparative pharmacology and up-regulation of rat neuronal nicotinic receptor subtype binding sites stably expressed in transfected mammalian cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:98-107 pubmed
  69. Wu M, Puddifoot C, Taylor P, Joiner W. Mechanisms of inhibition and potentiation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by members of the Ly6 protein family. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data support roles for Lynx2 and Ly6g6e in intracellular trafficking and allosteric potentiation of α4β2 nAChRs, respectively. ..
  70. Muir Robinson G, Hwang B, Feller M. Retinogeniculate axons undergo eye-specific segregation in the absence of eye-specific layers. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5259-64 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that spontaneous neural activity may independently regulate eye-specific segregation and the formation of layers at the developing retinothalamic projection. ..
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