Gene Symbol: Chrna9
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 9 subunit
Alias: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9, NACHR alpha-9, acetylcholine receptor alpha 9 subunit (nAChR), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 9 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 9, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9
Species: rat
Products:     Chrna9

Top Publications

  1. Katz E, Verbitsky M, Rothlin C, Vetter D, Heinemann S, Elgoyhen A. High calcium permeability and calcium block of the alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Hear Res. 2000;141:117-28 pubmed
  2. Lipovsek M, Im G, Franchini L, Pisciottano F, Katz E, Fuchs P, et al. Phylogenetic differences in calcium permeability of the auditory hair cell cholinergic nicotinic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they suggest that high Ca(2+) permeability of the ?9?10 cholinergic nicotinic receptor might have evolved together with other features that have given the mammalian ear an expanded high-frequency sensitivity...
  3. Luebke A, Maroni P, Guth S, Lysakowski A. Alpha-9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor immunoreactivity in the rodent vestibular labyrinth. J Comp Neurol. 2005;492:323-33 pubmed
    ..This latter response could be due to one of the other nicotinic receptors that have been described in studies from other laboratories. ..
  4. Simmons D, Morley B. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of nicotinic acetylcholine ?9 and ?10 subunits in the embryonic and early postnatal inner ear. Neuroscience. 2011;194:326-36 pubmed publisher
  5. Osman A, Schrader A, Hawkes A, Akil O, Bergeron A, Lustig L, et al. Muscle-like nicotinic receptor accessory molecules in sensory hair cells of the inner ear. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:153-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that RIC-3 facilitates receptor function, while rapsyn enhances receptor clustering at the cell surface. ..
  6. Verbitsky M, Rothlin C, Katz E, Elgoyhen A. Mixed nicotinic-muscarinic properties of the alpha9 nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:2515-24 pubmed
    ..We suggest that alpha9 contains the structural determinants responsible for the pharmacological properties of the native receptor. ..
  7. Elgoyhen A, Johnson D, Boulter J, Vetter D, Heinemann S. Alpha 9: an acetylcholine receptor with novel pharmacological properties expressed in rat cochlear hair cells. Cell. 1994;79:705-15 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the alpha 9 receptor is involved in the cholinergic efferent innervation of cochlear hair cells and thus may modulate the encoding of auditory stimuli. ..
  8. MacPherson P, Kostrominova T, Tang H, Goldman D. Protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II (CaMK II) suppress nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene expression in mammalian muscle. A specific role for CaMK II in activity-dependent gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15638-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we provide evidence that calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II participates in mediating the effects of muscle depolarization on nAChR and myogenin gene expression. ..
  9. Weisstaub N, Vetter D, Elgoyhen A, Katz E. The alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is permeable to and is modulated by divalent cations. Hear Res. 2002;167:122-35 pubmed
    ..8 mM Ca(2+) (14.3 microM), suggesting that potentiation by Ca(2+) involves changes in the apparent affinity of the alpha 9 alpha 10 receptor for ACh. ..

More Information


  1. Zouridakis M, Giastas P, Zarkadas E, Chroni Tzartou D, Bregestovski P, Tzartos S. Crystal structures of free and antagonist-bound states of human α9 nicotinic receptor extracellular domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:976-80 pubmed publisher
  2. Baker E, Zwart R, Sher E, Millar N. Pharmacological properties of alpha 9 alpha 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors revealed by heterologous expression of subunit chimeras. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:453-60 pubmed
    ..Results have also been compared with radioligand binding data conducted with a previously described alpha7/5HT3A (alpha7chi) subunit chimera. ..
  3. Colomer C, Olivos Ore L, Vincent A, McIntosh J, Artalejo A, Guerineau N. Functional characterization of alpha9-containing cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the rat adrenal medulla: implication in stress-induced functional plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6732-42 pubmed publisher
  4. Albuquerque E, Pereira E, Alkondon M, Rogers S. Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:73-120 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. ..
  5. Boffi J, Marcovich I, Gill Thind J, Corradi J, Collins T, Lipovsek M, et al. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;91:250-262 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits. ..
  6. Mishra N, Rir Sima Ah J, Boyd R, Singh S, Gundavarapu S, Langley R, et al. Nicotine inhibits Fc epsilon RI-induced cysteinyl leukotrienes and cytokine production without affecting mast cell degranulation through alpha 7/alpha 9/alpha 10-nicotinic receptors. J Immunol. 2010;185:588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This "hybrid" receptor might serve as a target for novel antiallergic/antiasthmatic therapies. ..
  7. Vetter D, Katz E, Maison S, Taranda J, Turcan S, Ballestero J, et al. The alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit is required for normal synaptic function and integrity of the olivocochlear system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20594-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, alpha10 nAChR subunits are required for normal olivocochlear activity because alpha9 homomeric nAChRs do not support maintenance of normal olivocochlear innervation or function in alpha10(-/-) mutant mice. ..
  8. Biallas S, Wilker S, Lips K, Kummer W, Grando S, Padberg W, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha9 and alpha10 in rat lung isografts and allografts. Life Sci. 2007;80:2286-9 pubmed
    ..Therapeutic application of nicotinic agonists might down-modulate pro-inflammatory functions of alveolar macrophages and protect pulmonary transplants. ..
  9. Vincler M, Wittenauer S, Parker R, Ellison M, Olivera B, McIntosh J. Molecular mechanism for analgesia involving specific antagonism of alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17880-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings not only suggest a molecular mechanism for the treatment of neuropathic pain but also demonstrate the involvement of alpha9alpha10 nAChRs in the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury. ..
  10. Katz E, Elgoyhen A, Gómez Casati M, Knipper M, Vetter D, Fuchs P, et al. Developmental regulation of nicotinic synapses on cochlear inner hair cells. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7814-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this developmental knock-out of alpha10, but not alpha9, supports the hypothesis that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in hair cells are heteromers containing both these subunits. ..
  11. Lips K, Pfeil U, Kummer W. Coexpression of alpha 9 and alpha 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2002;115:1-5 pubmed
    ..The data show that dorsal root ganglion neurons coexpress alpha9 and alpha10 nicotinic receptor subunits, thereby providing the first example of neuronal expression of this receptor subunit pair. ..
  12. Elgoyhen A, Vetter D, Katz E, Rothlin C, Heinemann S, Boulter J. alpha10: a determinant of nicotinic cholinergic receptor function in mammalian vestibular and cochlear mechanosensory hair cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3501-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that efferent modulation of hair cell function occurs, at least in part, through heteromeric nAChRs assembled from both alpha9 and alpha10 subunits. ..
  13. Azam L, McIntosh J. Molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of rat and human ?9?10 nAChRs to ?-conotoxin RgIA. J Neurochem. 2012;122:1137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, although the ?9 nAChR subunit has previously been reported to provide the principal (+) binding face for binding of RgIA, Thr56 is located in the (-) complementary binding face. ..