Gene Symbol: Chrm1
Description: cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1
Alias: muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Cholinergic receptor, muscarin 1, m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor protein
Species: rat
Products:     Chrm1

Top Publications

  1. Willets J, Nahorski S, Challiss R. Roles of phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the regulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18950-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that in hippocampal neurons endogenous GRK2 is a key regulator of M1 mACh receptor signaling and that the regulatory process involves both phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  2. Renuka T, Ani D, Paulose C. Alterations in the muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor gene expression in the brain stem during pancreatic regeneration and insulin secretion in weanling rats. Life Sci. 2004;75:2269-80 pubmed
    ..Central muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor subtypes functional balance is suggested to regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, which in turn control the islet cell proliferation and glucose homeostasis. ..
  3. Nash M, Willets J, Billups B, John Challiss R, Nahorski S. Synaptic activity augments muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production to facilitate Ca2+ release in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49036-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that convergent ionotropic and metabotropic receptor inputs can facilitate Ca2+ signaling by enhancing IP3 production as well as augmenting release by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. ..
  4. Scheiderer C, Smith C, McCutchen E, MCCOY P, Thacker E, Kolasa K, et al. Coactivation of M(1) muscarinic and alpha1 adrenergic receptors stimulates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and induces long-term depression at CA3-CA1 synapses in rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5350-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Balakrishnan S, Mathew J, Paulose C. Cholinergic and glutamergic receptor functional regulation in long-term, low dose somatotropin and insulin treatment to ageing rats: rejuvenation of brain function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight long-term low dose somatotropin and insulin treatment in regulating cholinergic and glutamergic receptors subtypes in ageing rats and rejuvenation of brain function. ..
  6. Kann O, Taubenberger N, Huchzermeyer C, Papageorgiou I, Benninger F, Heinemann U, et al. Muscarinic receptor activation determines the effects of store-operated Ca(2+)-entry on excitability and energy metabolism in pyramidal neurons. Cell Calcium. 2012;51:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might have significant impact on information processing and neurometabolic coupling in central neurons. ..
  7. Perez Burgos A, Prieto G, Galarraga E, Bargas J. CaV2.1 channels are modulated by muscarinic M1 receptors through phosphoinositide hydrolysis in neostriatal neurons. Neuroscience. 2010;165:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that muscarinic M(1) modulation of Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels in these neurons involves phosphoinositide hydrolysis. ..
  8. Savitha B, Joseph B, Peeyush Kumar T, Paulose C. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets. Biogerontology. 2010;11:151-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age. ..
  9. Anisuzzaman A, Morishima S, Suzuki F, Tanaka T, Muramatsu I. Identification of M(1) muscarinic receptor subtype in rat stomach using a tissue segment binding method, and the effects of immobilization stress on the muscarinic receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;599:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful identification of native in vivo muscarinic receptors may further elucidate their functions in stomach. ..

More Information


  1. Sanchez Lemus E, Arias Montaño J. M1 muscarinic receptors contribute to, whereas M4 receptors inhibit, dopamine D1 receptor-induced [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation in rat striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:555-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results indicate that in addition to the inhibitory role of M(4) receptors, in rat striatum acetylcholine stimulates cAMP formation through the activation of M(1 )receptors and PKC stimulation. ..
  2. Gerber D, Sotnikova T, Gainetdinov R, Huang S, Caron M, Tonegawa S. Hyperactivity, elevated dopaminergic transmission, and response to amphetamine in M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:15312-7 pubmed
  3. Ma K, Yang Z, Yang L, Chen H, Lu Y. Activation of M1 mAChRs by lesatropane rescues glutamate neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via PKC-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2013;13:146-52 pubmed
    ..While M1 mAChR is a therapeutic target of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the results of this paper contribute to further information concerning the activation of M1 mAChR as a therapeutic target in AD. ..
  4. Amar M, Lucas Meunier E, Baux G, Fossier P. Blockade of different muscarinic receptor subtypes changes the equilibrium between excitation and inhibition in rat visual cortex. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1610-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the different types of MRs located either on glutamatergic neurons or on GABAergic interneurons converges to reinforce the dominance of inhibitory inputs thus decreasing the excitability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. ..
  5. Zefirov T, Ziyatdinova N, Zefirov A. Age-related peculiarities of inotropic response of rat myocardium to selective block of M1-cholinoreceptors. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013;155:708-10 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect of pirenzepine on the contractile force of ventricular myocardium was revealed in 6-week rats. ..
  6. Gireesh G, Kumar T, Mathew J, Paulose C. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors. ..
  7. Anju T, Paulose C. Cortical cholinergic dysregulation as a long-term consequence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;93:47-53 pubmed publisher
  8. Tseng J, Erbe C, Kwitek A, Jacob H, Popper P, Wackym P. Radiation hybrid mapping of five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype genes in Rattus norvegicus. Hear Res. 2002;174:86-92 pubmed
    ..The m1-m5 muscarinic subtypes mapped to the following chromosomes: Chrm1, chromosome 1; Chrm2, chromosome 4; Chrm3, chromosome 17; Chrm4, chromosome 3; and Chrm5, chromosome 3...
  9. Muller J, Mascagni F, Zaric V, McDonald A. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor M1 in the rat basolateral amygdala: ultrastructural localization and synaptic relationships to cholinergic axons. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:1743-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that M1R mechanisms in the BLa are complex, involving postsynaptic effects as well as regulating release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic terminals. ..
  10. Williams B, Milligan C, Street M, Hornby F, Deuchars J, Buckley N. Transcription of the M1 muscarinic receptor gene in neurons and neuronal progenitors of the embryonic rat forebrain. J Neurochem. 2004;88:70-7 pubmed
  11. Hersch S, Gutekunst C, Rees H, Heilman C, Levey A. Distribution of m1-m4 muscarinic receptor proteins in the rat striatum: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry using subtype-specific antibodies. J Neurosci. 1994;14:3351-63 pubmed
  12. Bozkurt T, Sahin Erdemli I. M(1) and M(3) muscarinic receptors are involved in the release of urinary bladder-derived relaxant factor. Pharmacol Res. 2009;59:300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, McN-A-343, by activating the facilitatory M(1) receptors and physostigmine by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase may induce the release of this factor through endogenous acetylcholine in the coaxial bioassay system. ..
  13. McCool M, Patel S, Talati R, Ragozzino M. Differential involvement of M1-type and M4-type muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum in task switching. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008;89:114-24 pubmed
  14. Dorofeeva N, Karpushev A, Nikolaev M, Bolshakov K, Stockand J, Staruschenko A. Muscarinic M1 modulation of acid-sensing ion channels. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1386-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the current study identifies ASIC1a as a novel target for muscarinic signaling. ..
  15. Miozza V, Sánchez G, Busch L. Influence of experimental periodontitis on cholinergic stimulation of K? release in rat parotid glands. Auton Neurosci. 2012;169:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings agree with the fact that a decrease of fluid secretion is not a condition of patients with periodontal disease. ..
  16. Anisuzzaman A, Uwada J, Masuoka T, Yoshiki H, Nishio M, Ikegaya Y, et al. Novel contribution of cell surface and intracellular M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors to synaptic plasticity in hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2013;126:360-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus demonstrate that M1-mAChRs function at both surface and intracellular sites in telencephalon neurons including the hippocampus, suggesting a new mode of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. ..
  17. Chambon C, Jatzke C, Wegener N, Gravius A, Danysz W. Using cholinergic M1 receptor positive allosteric modulators to improve memory via enhancement of brain cholinergic communication. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;697:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data show the therapeutic potential of the M(1) receptor positive allosteric modulator BQCA for the treatment of memory deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. ..
  18. Takamori M, Motomura M, Fukudome T, Yoshikawa H. Autoantibodies against M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in myasthenic disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:1230-5 pubmed
    ..Although not proving primary pathogenicity of anti-M1 mAChR antibodies, the present results highlight their potential to affect synaptic compensatory mechanisms, more in LEMS than MG. ..
  19. Willets J, Nelson C, Nahorski S, Challiss R. The regulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization by synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2007;103:2268-80 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data suggest that the level of synaptic activity may determine the different kinases recruited to regulate M1 mACh receptor desensitization in neurons. ..
  20. Long C, Hsu C, Shao P, Liu C, Su J, Tsai E. Effect of ovariectomy on the gene expression of detrusor muscarinic receptors in female rats. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1147-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that performing an ovariectomy in a virgin rat appears to have little effect on the gene expression of detrusor muscarinic receptors and urethral nNOS despite the menopausal events that occurred. ..
  21. Kurtenbach E, Curtis C, Pedder E, Aitken A, Harris A, Hulme E. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Peptide sequencing identifies residues involved in antagonist binding and disulfide bond formation. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:13702-8 pubmed
  22. Shen J, Tu B, Yakel J. Inhibition of alpha 7-containing nicotinic ACh receptors by muscarinic M1 ACh receptors in rat hippocampal CA1 interneurones in slices. J Physiol. 2009;587:1033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This information will help to understand how these cholinergic receptor systems might be regulating neuronal excitability in the hippocampus in a manner that has relevance for synaptic plasticity and cognition. ..
  23. Galloway C, Lebois E, Shagarabi S, Hernández N, Manns J. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats. Pharmacology. 2014;93:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory. ..
  24. Wood I, Garriga M, Palmer C, Pepitoni S, Buckley N. Neuronal expression of the rat M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene is regulated by elements in the first exon. Biochem J. 1999;340 ( Pt 2):475-83 pubmed
    ..We show that DNA binding proteins interact in vitro with single-stranded DNA derived from these regions and suggest that topology of the DNA is important for regulation of M1 expression. ..
  25. Kim J, Saffen D. Activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors stimulates the formation of a multiprotein complex centered on TRPC6 channels. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32035-47 pubmed
    ..Subsequent dephosphorylation of the channels by calcineurin is required for the disassociation of M1 mAChRs. ..
  26. Liu D, Liman E. Intracellular Ca2+ and the phospholipid PIP2 regulate the taste transduction ion channel TRPM5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15160-5 pubmed
    ..TRPM5 channels are nonselective among monovalent cations and not detectably permeable to divalent cations. We propose that the regulation of TRPM5 by Ca2+ mediates sensory activation in the taste system. ..
  27. Santafe M, Salon I, Garcia N, Lanuza M, Uchitel O, Tomas J. Modulation of ACh release by presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors in the neuromuscular junction of the newborn and adult rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:119-27 pubmed
    ..We show that the way in which M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors modulate neurotransmission can differ between the developing and adult rat neuromuscular synapse. ..
  28. Farías G, Godoy J, Hernandez F, Avila J, Fisher A, Inestrosa N. M1 muscarinic receptor activation protects neurons from beta-amyloid toxicity. A role for Wnt signaling pathway. Neurobiol Dis. 2004;17:337-48 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the cross-talk between the muscarinic signaling and Wnt components underlie the neuroprotective effect of the M1 mAChR activation. ..
  29. Chandra J, Malviya M, Sadashiva C, Subhash M, Rangappa K. Effect of novel arecoline thiazolidinones as muscarinic receptor 1 agonist in Alzheimer's dementia models. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:376-83 pubmed
    ..Four derivatives (5a-5c and 5e) showed considerable M1 receptor binding affinity (in vitro) and elicited beneficial effects in vivo memory and learning models (Rodent memory evaluation, plus and Y maze studies). ..
  30. Espada S, Rojo A, Salinas M, Cuadrado A. The muscarinic M1 receptor activates Nrf2 through a signaling cascade that involves protein kinase C and inhibition of GSK-3beta: connecting neurotransmission with neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Such role provides additional conceptual support for the use of cholinemimetics in the treatment of pathologies that, like Alzheimer's disease, require a reinforcement of the cell antioxidant capacity. ..
  31. Oliveira L, Timóteo M, Correia de Sá P. Negative crosstalk between M1 and M2 muscarinic autoreceptors involves endogenous adenosine activating A1 receptors at the rat motor endplate. Neurosci Lett. 2009;459:127-31 pubmed publisher
  32. Sherin A, Peeyush K, Naijil G, Nandhu M, Jayanarayanan S, Jes P, et al. The effects of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis on the expression and binding of muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex of rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;651:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurochemical changes in cerebral cortex induced by hyperglycemia. These findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. ..
  33. Chiang P, Yeh W, Lee C, Weng J, Huang Y, Lien C. M(1)-like muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate fast-spiking interneuron excitability in rat dentate gyrus. Neuroscience. 2010;169:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cholinergic activation through M(1)-like receptor enhances BC activity and promotes the generation of nested theta and gamma rhythms, thereby enhancing hippocampal function and associated performance. ..
  34. Lai J, Smith T, Mei L, Ikeda M, Fujiwara Y, Gomez J, et al. The molecular properties of the M1 muscarinic receptor and its regulation of cytosolic calcium in a eukaryotic gene expression system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;287:313-30 pubmed
  35. Bikopoulos G, Hoque T, Webb R. Infection with the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta induces changes in acetylcholine metabolism and muscarinic receptor mRNA expression in the rat jejunum. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:231-7 pubmed
  36. Gireesh G, Kaimal S, Kumar T, Paulose C. Decreased muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:947-53 pubmed
    ..Thus our results suggest that insulin modulates binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors. ..
  37. Bee M, Hulme E. Functional analysis of transmembrane domain 2 of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32471-9 pubmed
    ..Thermal inactivation measurements confirmed that a reduction in structural stability followed the mutation of Met79 as well as Asp71. ..
  38. Romeo C, Raveendran A, Sobha N, Paulose C. Cholinergic receptor alterations in the brain stem of spinal cord injured rats. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant reduction in brain stem cholinergic function might have intensified the motor dysfunction and locomotor disabilities. ..
  39. Myslivecek J, Klein M, Novakova M, Ricny J. The detection of the non-M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in the rat heart atria and ventricles. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;378:103-16 pubmed publisher
  40. Kaye R, Saldanha J, Lu Z, Hulme E. Helix 8 of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: scanning mutagenesis delineates a G protein recognition site. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:701-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Soares J, Fornari R, Oliveira M. Role of muscarinic M1 receptors in inhibitory avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2006;86:188-96 pubmed
    ..However, it is possible that the retrieval of these tasks may be mediated, at least in part, by different neurochemical mechanisms and may be dissociated by dicyclomine. ..
  42. Aitken P, Benoit A, Zheng Y, Philoxène B, Le Gall A, Denise P, et al. Hippocampal and striatal M1 -muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are down-regulated following bilateral vestibular loss in rats. Hippocampus. 2016;26:1509-1514 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the changes in learning and memory seen following vestibular damage may be in part due to the loss of M1 muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and striatum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  43. Garcia R, Dati L, Torres L, da Silva M, Udo M, Abdalla F, et al. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17555 pubmed publisher
  44. Anagnostaras S, Murphy G, Hamilton S, Mitchell S, Rahnama N, Nathanson N, et al. Selective cognitive dysfunction in acetylcholine M1 muscarinic receptor mutant mice. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:51-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the M1 receptor is specifically involved in memory processes for which the cortex and hippocampus interact. ..
  45. Bashkatova V, Hornick A, Vanin A, Prast H. Antagonist of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor prevents neurotoxicity induced by amphetamine via nitric oxide pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1139:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that M1 acetylcholine receptors are critically involved in neurotoxic processes induced by AMPH via NO and LPO. ..
  46. Del Bel E, Joca S, Padovan C, Guimarães F. Effects of isolation-rearing on serotonin-1A and M1-muscarinic receptor messenger RNA expression in the hipocampal formation of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;332:123-6 pubmed
    ..No significant change on M1 mRNA expression was found. These results may reflect up-regulation of 5-HT1A gene transcription in response to deficits in hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission induced by social isolation. ..
  47. Thiele A. Muscarinic signaling in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2013;36:271-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines possible scenarios to describe how it contributes to cellular mechanisms of attention and how it affects channeling of information in different neuronal circuits. ..
  48. Liu L, Heneghan J, Michael G, Stanish L, Egertová M, Rittenhouse A. L- and N-current but not M-current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors requires DAG lipase activity. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..These results extend our previous findings that the signaling pathway mediating L- and N-current inhibition diverges from the pathway initiating M-current inhibition. ..
  49. Yazawa H, Honda K. The M3-muscarinic cholinoceptor subtype in rat prostate and its down regulation by aging. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1993;61:319-24 pubmed
    ..However, KD values for muscarinic cholinoceptors, and Bmax and KD values for beta-adrenoceptors showed no change. These results suggest that the number of prostatic muscarinic cholinoceptors decreases with aging. ..
  50. Savitha B, Kumar P, Pretty M, Naijil G, Paulose C. Muscarinic M?, M? receptor modulation in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as a function of age. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:1768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies showed that M? and M? receptors, IP3 and cGMP were functionally regulated during diabetes as function of age, which will have immense clinical significance. ..
  51. Klett C, Zimonjic D, Keck C, Bonner T. Localization of the rat M1 muscarinic receptor gene to chromosome 1q43-51. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:476-8 pubmed
  52. Savarese T, Wang C, Fraser C. Site-directed mutagenesis of the rat m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Role of conserved cysteines in receptor function. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:11439-48 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that cysteine residues in the seventh transmembrane helix of the m1 mAChR may influence agonist binding and the efficiency of receptor activation. ..
  53. Langmead C, Austin N, Branch C, Brown J, Buchanan K, Davies C, et al. Characterization of a CNS penetrant, selective M1 muscarinic receptor agonist, 77-LH-28-1. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:1104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that 77-LH-28-1 is a potent, selective, bioavailable and brain-penetrant agonist at the M1 mAChR and therefore that it represents a better tool than AC-42, with which to study the pharmacology of the M1 mAChR. ..
  54. Eftekhari G, Hajiasgharzadeh K, Ahmadi Soleimani S, Dehpour A, Semnanian S, Mani A. Activation of central muscarinic receptor type 1 prevents development of endotoxin tolerance in rat liver. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014;740:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that M1 cholinergic receptor activation in the central nervous system can modulate endotoxin tolerance in rat liver. ..
  55. Cheng T, Lin C, Hsu C, Chen L, Cheng K, Cheng J. Activation of muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors by curcumin to increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle isolated from Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett. 2009;465:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that curcumin can activate M(1)-mAChR at concentrations lower than to scavenge free radicals for increase of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle through PLC-PI3-kinase pathway. ..
  56. Shen W, Hamilton S, Nathanson N, Surmeier D. Cholinergic suppression of KCNQ channel currents enhances excitability of striatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7449-58 pubmed
  57. Kohlmeier K, Soja P, Kristensen M. Disparate cholinergic currents in rat principal trigeminal sensory nucleus neurons mediated by M1 and M2 receptors: a possible mechanism for selective gating of afferent sensory neurotransmission. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:3245-58 pubmed
    ..g. sleep/wakefulness arousal levels or neuropathic pain conditions. ..
  58. Dickinson B, Jo J, Seok H, Son G, Whitcomb D, Davies C, et al. A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-alpha. Mol Brain. 2009;2:18 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a novel mechanism of synaptic plasticity in which activation of M1 receptors results in AMPAR endocytosis, via a mechanism involving interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-alpha. ..
  59. Jones C, Brady A, Davis A, Xiang Z, Bubser M, Tantawy M, et al. Novel selective allosteric activator of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor regulates amyloid processing and produces antipsychotic-like activity in rats. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that selective activation of M(1) may provide a novel approach for the treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. ..
  60. Maeda Y, Hizawa N, Jinushi E, Honda A, Takahashi D, Fukui Y, et al. Polymorphisms in the muscarinic receptor 1 gene confer susceptibility to asthma in Japanese subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:1119-24 pubmed
    The human cholinergic receptor muscarinic-1 (CHRM1) is widely distributed in the lungs. In patients with asthma, CHRM1 may be involved in airway constriction, airway epithelial cell proliferation, and airway inflammation...
  61. Malomouzh A, Mukhtarov M, Nikolsky E, Vyskocil F. Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors regulate the non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction via NO-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2007;102:2110-2117 pubmed publisher
  62. Dong Y, Wang Y, Wei N, Zhang Q, Guan Z. Deficit in learning and memory of rats with chronic fluorosis correlates with the decreased expressions of M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Arch Toxicol. 2015;89:1981-91 pubmed publisher
  63. Zou Y, Kong W. [Expression change of Muscarinic receptor subunits in rat flocculus following unilateral labyrinthectomy]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:896-8, 903 pubmed
    ..But the significance of the change of Muscarinic receptor M1, M3, M5 subunits in the vestibular compensation is still unknown. ..
  64. Bonner T, Buckley N, Young A, Brann M. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes. Science. 1987;237:527-32 pubmed
    ..This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system. ..