Gene Symbol: Cdk1
Description: cyclin-dependent kinase 1
Alias: Cdc2, Cdc2a, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Cell division cycle control protein 2, cell division control protein 2 homolog, cell division cycle 2 homolog A, cell division cycle 2, G1 to S and G2 to M, cell division protein kinase 1, p34 protein kinase
Species: rat
Products:     Cdk1

Top Publications

  1. Yuan Z, Becker E, Merlo P, Yamada T, Dibacco S, Konishi Y, et al. Activation of FOXO1 by Cdk1 in cycling cells and postmitotic neurons. Science. 2008;319:1665-8 pubmed publisher
    Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) has been linked to cell death of postmitotic neurons in brain development and disease. We found that Cdk1 phosphorylated the transcription factor FOXO1 at Ser249 in vitro and in vivo...
  2. North B, Verdin E. Mitotic regulation of SIRT2 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1-dependent phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19546-55 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of SIRT2 mediates a delay in cellular proliferation that is dependent on serine 368 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutation of serine 368 reduces hyperploidy in cells under mitotic stress due to microtubule poisons. ..
  3. Wang Z, Fan M, Candas D, Zhang T, Qin L, Eldridge A, et al. Cyclin B1/Cdk1 coordinates mitochondrial respiration for cell-cycle G2/M progression. Dev Cell. 2014;29:217-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a fraction of cyclin B1/Cdk1 proteins localizes to the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins, including ..
  4. Cobelens P, Kavelaars A, Heijnen C, Ribas C, Mayor F, Penela P. Hydrogen peroxide impairs GRK2 translation via a calpain-dependent and cdk1-mediated pathway. Cell Signal. 2007;19:269-77 pubmed
    ..Instead we show that hydrogen peroxide treatment impairs GRK2 translation in a process that requires Cdk1 activation and involves the mTOR pathway...
  5. Baffet A, Hu D, Vallee R. Cdk1 Activates Pre-mitotic Nuclear Envelope Dynein Recruitment and Apical Nuclear Migration in Neural Stem Cells. Dev Cell. 2015;33:703-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms responsible for cell-cycle control of this behavior are unknown. We now find that Cdk1 serves as a direct master controller for NE dynein recruitment in neural stem cells and HeLa cells...
  6. Holyoake A, O Sullivan P, Pollock R, Best T, Watanabe J, Kajita Y, et al. Development of a multiplex RNA urine test for the detection and stratification of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of the RNAs CDC2, MDK, IGFBP5, and HOXA13 detected 48%, 90%, and 100% of stage Ta, T1, and >T1 TCCs, respectively, at a ..
  7. Vallejo G, La Greca A, Tarifa Reischle I, Mestre Citrinovitz A, Ballaré C, Beato M, et al. CDC2 mediates progestin initiated endometrial stromal cell proliferation: a PR signaling to gene expression independently of its binding to chromatin. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97311 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP experiments show that progestin promoted the interaction of USF1 with the proximal promoter of the Cdc2 gene...
  8. Woo G, Takahashi M, Inoue K, Fujimoto H, Igarashi K, Kanno J, et al. Cellular distributions of molecules with altered expression specific to thyroid proliferative lesions developing in a rat thyroid carcinogenesis model. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel with microarray data, increased localization of ceruloplasmin, cyclin B1, and cell division cycle 2 homolog A, and decreased localization of poliovirus receptor-related 3 and Id3 were observed in all types of ..
  9. Ueno M, Katayama K, Yamauchi H, Nakayama H, Doi K. Cell cycle and cell death regulation of neural progenitor cells in the 5-azacytidine (5AzC)-treated developing fetal brain. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:154-66 pubmed
    ..The G2/M regulator, Cdc2, was activated by dephosphorylation through G2/M accumulation, suggesting accelerated entry into mitosis leading to ..

More Information


  1. Pizarro J, Folch J, Esparza J, Jordan J, Pallas M, Camins A. A molecular study of pathways involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation in neuroblastoma B65 cells by the GSK-3 inhibitors lithium and SB-415286. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3906-17 pubmed publisher
    ..G(2)/M arrest we studied changes in the expression of proteins involved in this phase, specifically cyclin B, cdc2 and the phosphorylated form of this protein (tyr15-cdc2)...
  2. Martinsson Ahlzén H, Liberal V, Grünenfelder B, Chaves S, Spruck C, Reed S. Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated proteins Cks1 and Cks2 are essential during early embryogenesis and for cell cycle progression in somatic cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5698-709 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenotype can be attributed to impaired transcription of the CCNB1, CCNA2, and CDK1 genes, encoding cyclin B1, cyclin A, and Cdk1, respectively...
  3. Pagano M, Pepperkok R, Verde F, Ansorge W, Draetta G. Cyclin A is required at two points in the human cell cycle. EMBO J. 1992;11:961-71 pubmed
    ..Cyclin A binds both cdk2 and cdc2, giving two distinct cyclin A kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2...
  4. O Connor D, Grossman D, Plescia J, Li F, Zhang H, Villa A, et al. Regulation of apoptosis at cell division by p34cdc2 phosphorylation of survivin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13103-7 pubmed inhibitor of apoptosis over-expressed in cancer, physically associates with the cyclin-dependent kinase p34(cdc2) on the mitotic apparatus, and is phosphorylated on Thr(34) by p34(cdc2)-cyclin B1, in vitro and in vivo...
  5. Wu J, Kharebava G, Piao C, Stoica B, Dinizo M, Sabirzhanov B, et al. Inhibition of E2F1/CDK1 pathway attenuates neuronal apoptosis in vitro and confers neuroprotection after spinal cord injury in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42129 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of E2F1-dependent transcription promotes expression of pro-apoptotic factors, including CDK1; this signal transduction pathway is believed to represent an important mechanism for the physiological or ..
  6. Chang I, Kwon K, Park Y, Namgung U. Permissive role of Cdc2 activity induced from astrocytes in neurite outgrowth. J Neurochem. 2013;125:214-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Cdc2 activation in astrocytes is positively linked to axon growth...
  7. Riabowol K, Draetta G, Brizuela L, Vandre D, Beach D. The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells. Cell. 1989;57:393-401 pubmed
    A homolog of the fission yeast cdc2-encoded protein kinase (p34) is a component of M phase promoting factor in Xenopus oocytes...
  8. Kanemitsu M, Jiang W, Eckhart W. Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of the gap junction protein, connexin43, during mitosis. Cell Growth Differ. 1998;9:13-21 pubmed
    ..Sites phosphorylated in vitro were phosphorylated in vivo. Butyrolactone I, an inhibitor of cdc2 kinase, inhibited increases in Cx43 phosphorylation during mitosis...
  9. Rao H, Thirumangalakudi L, Grammas P. Cyclin C and cyclin dependent kinases 1, 2 and 3 in thrombin-induced neuronal cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..5h and the expression of cyclin C, cyclin dependent kinases (cdk1, cdk2, cdk3, cdk8) and the cell cycle inhibitor p27 assessed...
  10. Ito J, Hirabayashi M, Kato M, Takeuchi A, Ito M, Shimada M, et al. Contribution of high p34cdc2 kinase activity to premature chromosome condensation of injected somatic cell nuclei in rat oocytes. Reproduction. 2005;129:171-80 pubmed
  11. Preisinger C, Körner R, Wind M, Lehmann W, Kopajtich R, Barr F. Plk1 docking to GRASP65 phosphorylated by Cdk1 suggests a mechanism for Golgi checkpoint signalling. EMBO J. 2005;24:753-65 pubmed
    ..We show that Cdk1-cyclin B is the major kinase phosphorylating GRASP65 in mitosis, and that phosphorylated GRASP65 interacts with the ..
  12. Cheng K, Klancer R, Singson A, Seydoux G. Regulation of MBK-2/DYRK by CDK-1 and the pseudophosphatases EGG-4 and EGG-5 during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Cell. 2009;139:560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings link cell-cycle progression to MBK-2/DYRK activation and the oocyte-to-embryo transition. ..
  13. Donald S, Verschoyle R, Edwards R, Judah D, Davies R, Riley J, et al. Hepatobiliary damage and changes in hepatic gene expression caused by the antitumor drug ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743) in the female rat. Cancer Res. 2002;62:4256-62 pubmed
    ..of ATP binding cassette transport genes Abcb1a and Abcb1b, which impart resistance to anticancer drugs, and of Cdc2a and Ccnd1, the rodent homologues of human cell cycle genes CDC2 and cyclin D1, respectively...
  14. Calvisi D, Pinna F, Ladu S, Pellegrino R, Simile M, Frau M, et al. Forkhead box M1B is a determinant of rat susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis and sustains ERK activity in human HCC. Gut. 2009;58:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of FOXM1 and its targets (Aurora Kinose A, Cdc2, cyclin B1, Nek2) occurred earlier and was most pronounced in liver lesions from F344 than BN rats, leading to the ..
  15. Yamashiro S, Yamakita Y, Totsukawa G, Goto H, Kaibuchi K, Ito M, et al. Myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 regulates mitosis by antagonizing polo-like kinase 1. Dev Cell. 2008;14:787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..MYPT1 is phosphorylated during mitosis by proline-directed kinases including cdc2, which generates the binding motif for the polo box domain of PLK1...
  16. Veas Pérez de Tudela M, Delgado Esteban M, Maestre C, Bobo Jiménez V, Jiménez Blasco D, Vecino R, et al. Regulation of Bcl-xL-ATP Synthase Interaction by Mitochondrial Cyclin B1-Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-1 Determines Neuronal Survival. J Neurosci. 2015;35:9287-301 pubmed publisher
    ..cyclin B1 accumulation in the mitochondria, in which it binds to, and activates, cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (Cdk1)...
  17. Shima T, Nishimura J, Dewa Y, Saegusa Y, Matsumoto S, Kawai M, et al. Modification of dietary copper levels on the early stage of tumor-promotion with propylthiouracil in a rat two-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180:262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferating cells in both FFCHs and surrounding follicles accompanied by mRNA downregulation of Cdc2a and Ccnb1, while TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were unaltered with change of dietary Cu...
  18. Han I, Seo T, Kim K, Yoon J, Yoon S, Namgung U. Cdc2-mediated Schwann cell migration during peripheral nerve regeneration. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:246-55 pubmed
    ..We have recently found increased activation of Cdc2 kinase in regenerating sciatic nerves...
  19. Prasad S, Koch B, Chaube S. Involvement of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 during Postovulatory Aging-Mediated Abortive Spontaneous Egg Activation in Rat Eggs Cultured In Vitro. Cell Reprogram. 2016;18:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Postovulatory aging increased Wee1 kinase and Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) levels, whereas Thr-161 phosphorylated Cdk1 and cyclin B1 levels were significantly decreased in eggs cultured in ..
  20. Kim S, Nakayama S, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Matsushima T, et al. Determination of the specific activity of CDK1 and CDK2 as a novel prognostic indicator for early breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:68-72 pubmed
    ..73, P < 0.001). Determination of CDK1SA and CDK2SA may be useful in the prediction of outcomes in breast cancer patients and has potential for use as a routine laboratory test. ..
  21. Vandyke K, White M, Nguyen Khuong T, Ow K, Luk S, Kingsley E, et al. Plant-derived MINA-05 inhibits human prostate cancer proliferation in vitro and lymph node spread in vivo. Neoplasia. 2007;9:322-31 pubmed
    ..It has potential as an adjuvant treatment for patients with PC. ..
  22. Lowe M, Rabouille C, Nakamura N, Watson R, Jackman M, Jämsä E, et al. Cdc2 kinase directly phosphorylates the cis-Golgi matrix protein GM130 and is required for Golgi fragmentation in mitosis. Cell. 1998;94:783-93 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a single serine (Ser-25) in GM130 as the key phosphorylated target and Cdc2 as the responsible kinase...
  23. Kim M, Kim H, Lee M, Lee M, Jang J. Cell cycle protein profile of the hepatic stellate cells(HSCs)in dimethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatic fibrosis. Exp Mol Med. 2005;37:335-42 pubmed
    ..The expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, cdk2, cdk4, cdc2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21(Cip/WAF1), and p27 was examined with immunoblotting analysis...
  24. Bicknell K, Coxon C, Brooks G. Forced expression of the cyclin B1-CDC2 complex induces proliferation in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem J. 2004;382:411-6 pubmed
    ..We show that overexpression of the cyclin B1-CDC2 (cell division cycle 2 kinase) complex re-initiates cell division in adult cardiomyocytes...
  25. Parekh V, Falcone J, Wills Frank L, Joshua I, Dholakia J, Passmore J. Protein kinase B, P34cdc2 kinase, and p21 ras GTP-binding in kidneys of aging rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004;229:850-6 pubmed
    ..001, respectively). These results suggest that proteins involved in signal transduction pathways associated with cell replication are downregulated in the aging kidney cortex at a time when renal cellular damage is also present. ..
  26. Zhu D, Dix D, Eddy E. HSP70-2 is required for CDC2 kinase activity in meiosis I of mouse spermatocytes. Development. 1997;124:3007-14 pubmed
    Cyclin B-dependent CDC2 kinase activity has a key role in triggering the G2/M-phase transition during the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. The Hsp70-2 gene is expressed only in spermatogenic cells at a significant level...
  27. Lokeshwar V, Estrella V, Lopez L, Kramer M, Gomez P, Soloway M, et al. HYAL1-v1, an alternatively spliced variant of HYAL1 hyaluronidase: a negative regulator of bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11219-27 pubmed
    ..In HYAL1-v1 transfectants, cyclin B1, cdc2/p34, and cdc25c levels were > or =2-fold lower than those in vector transfectants...
  28. Seo T, Baek K, Kwon K, Lee S, Lim J, Seol I, et al. Shengmai-san-mediated enhancement of regenerative responses of spinal cord axons after injury in rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;110:483-92 pubmed
    ..In contrast, upregulation of cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) production by SMS treatment was limited to a local, SCI area...
  29. Olson J, Wang X, Goode E, Pankratz V, Fredericksen Z, Vierkant R, et al. Variation in genes required for normal mitosis and risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119:423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..with an altered risk of breast cancer along with single variants in RRM2, PSCD3, C11orf51, CDC16, SNW1, MFAP1, and CDC2 (P < 0.05). Variation in both SART1 (P = 0.009) and EIF3A (P = 0.02) was also significant at the gene level...
  30. Imoto M, Doki Y, Jiang W, Han E, Weinstein I. Effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on G1 progression-related events. Exp Cell Res. 1997;236:173-80 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of cyclin D, which is frequently seen in human tumors, can have complex effects on the expression of other genes that control cell cycle progression. ..
  31. Swierczynski S, Maitra A, Abraham S, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Ashfaq R, Cameron J, et al. Analysis of novel tumor markers in pancreatic and biliary carcinomas using tissue microarrays. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:357-66 pubmed
    ..of 6 epithelial markers (fascin, mucin 4, 14-3-3sigma, prostate stem cell antigen, topoisomerase IIalpha, and cdc2/p34) were concordant with previously published studies on whole tissue sections, yet required far fewer slides and ..
  32. Yuan L, Yu W, Qu C. DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen-immortalized embryonic fibroblast cells requires SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42812-20 pubmed
    ..These results together provide the first evidence that SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase enhances the DNA damage G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen immortalized murine embryonic fibroblast cells. ..
  33. Seo T, Han I, Yoon J, Hong K, Yoon S, Namgung U. Involvement of Cdc2 in axonal regeneration enhanced by exercise training in rats. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:1267-76 pubmed
    ..Cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) mRNA and protein levels were highly increased in the injured sciatic nerves 3 and 7 d after injury, and decreased ..
  34. Starkel P, De Saeger C, Sempoux C, Legrand E, Leclercq I, Horsmans Y. Blunted DNA synthesis and delayed S-phase entry following inhibition of Cdk2 activity in the regenerating rat liver. Lab Invest. 2005;85:562-71 pubmed
  35. Jones M, Padilla O, Webb N, Norng M. The anti-apoptosis protein, survivin, mediates gastric epithelial cell cytoprotection against ethanol-induced injury via activation of the p34(cdc2) cyclin-dependent kinase. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:750-64 pubmed publisher
    ..0001) and 540% (P < 0.0002), respectively, which required the p34(cdc2) cell cycle-dependent kinase...
  36. Chen Q, Zhang X, Jiang Q, Clarke P, Zhang C. Cyclin B1 is localized to unattached kinetochores and contributes to efficient microtubule attachment and proper chromosome alignment during mitosis. Cell Res. 2008;18:268-80 pubmed publisher
    Cyclin B1 is a key regulatory protein controlling cell cycle progression in vertebrates. Cyclin B1 binds CDK1, a cyclin-dependent kinase catalytic subunit, forming a complex that orchestrates mitosis through phosphorylation of key ..
  37. Xie J, Shaikh Z. Cadmium induces cell cycle arrest in rat kidney epithelial cells in G2/M phase. Toxicology. 2006;224:56-65 pubmed
    ..investigation into the mechanism revealed that Cd treatment led to down-modulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk1 and Cdk2, apparently by elevating the expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, KIP1/p27 and WAF1/p21...
  38. Garnier D, Loyer P, Ribault C, Guguen Guillouzo C, Corlu A. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 plays a critical role in DNA replication control during rat liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2009;50:1946-56 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferation is characterized by high expression levels of the "mitotic" cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) during S-phase compared to other mammalian cells...
  39. Nishihara K, Masuda S, Nakagawa S, Yonezawa A, Ichimura T, Bonventre J, et al. Impact of Cyclin B2 and Cell division cycle 2 on tubular hyperplasia in progressive chronic renal failure rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of mitosis-specific genes Cyclin B2 and Cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) was significantly and selectively increased in the proximal tubules during the compensated period but decreased to ..
  40. Adler M, Müller K, Rached E, Dekant W, Mally A. Modulation of key regulators of mitosis linked to chromosomal instability is an early event in ochratoxin A carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed upregulation of Cdk1, p21(WAF1/CIP1), topoisomerase II and survivin in S3 proximal tubule cells, from which OTA-induced tumors in rats ..
  41. Badea T, Niculescu F, Soane L, Shin M, Rus H. Molecular cloning and characterization of RGC-32, a novel gene induced by complement activation in oligodendrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26977-81 pubmed
    ..RGC-32 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and co-immunoprecipitated with cdc2 kinase. Overexpression of RGC-32 increased DNA synthesis in OLGxC6 glioma cell hybrids...
  42. Mondal G, Ohashi A, Yang L, Rowley M, Couch F. Tex14, a Plk1-regulated protein, is required for kinetochore-microtubule attachment and regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2012;45:680-95 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 14 (Tex14), which has been implicated in midbody function, is recruited to KTs by Plk1 in a Cdk1-dependent manner during early mitosis...
  43. Zempolich K, Fuhrman C, Milash B, Flinner R, Greven K, Ryu J, et al. Changes in gene expression induced by chemoradiation in advanced cervical carcinoma: a microarray study of RTOG C-0128. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109:275-9 pubmed publisher
    ..II alpha, myc, H2AX, MSH2, RAD51, RAD53, PCNA, and cell cycle-regulating molecules chk1, CDK2, cyclinB1, cyclin D3, cdc2, and cdc25. Microarray analysis was successfully performed in a multi-institutional cooperative group trial...
  44. Ostvold A, Norum J, Mathiesen S, Wanvik B, Sefland I, Grundt K. Molecular cloning of a mammalian nuclear phosphoprotein NUCKS, which serves as a substrate for Cdk1 in vivo. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2430-40 pubmed
    ..Phosphopeptide mapping and back-phosphorylation experiments employing NUCKS from HeLa interphase and metaphase cells show that the protein is phosphorylated by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle.
  45. Yeo M, Lin P, Dahmus M, Gill G. A novel RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates serine 5. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26078-85 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, SCP1 may play a role in the regulation of gene expression, possibly by controlling the transition from initiation/capping to processive transcript elongation. ..
  46. Yoon I, Chung J, Hahm S, Park M, Lee Y, Ko S, et al. Ribosomal protein S3 is phosphorylated by Cdk1/cdc2 during G2/M phase. BMB Rep. 2011;44:529-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that rpS3 is phosphorylated by Cdk1 in G2/M phase. Co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays revealed that Cdk1 interacted with rpS3...
  47. Raina K, Singh R, Agarwal R, Agarwal C. Oral grape seed extract inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in TRAMP mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:5976-82 pubmed
    ..05), and 89% (P < 0.001), respectively. The protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 6 and Cdc2 was also decreased by more than 90% (P < 0.05) in the prostate from the GSE-fed group...
  48. Seo T, Chang I, Lee J, Namgung U. Beneficial function of cell division cycle 2 activity in astrocytes on axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we found that cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) activity in primary astrocytes facilitated neurite outgrowth of co-cultured neurons...
  49. Seomun Y, Kim J, Kim H, Park J, Joo C. Induction of p21Cip1-mediated G2/M arrest in H2O2-treated lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2005;11:764-74 pubmed
    ..However, H2O2 treatment lowered the levels of p27Kip1, cdc2, and PCNA in the rat lens culture, unlike in the HLE B-3 cells...
  50. Shimizu M, Ichikawa E, Inoue U, Nakamura T, Nakajima T, Nojima H, et al. The G1/S boundary-specific enhancer of the rat cdc2 promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2882-92 pubmed
    ..cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases are induced sequentially during G1 phase, and the expression of cyclin A and cdc2 genes is subsequently induced at the G1/S boundary...