Gene Symbol: Ccr1
Description: C-C motif chemokine receptor 1
Alias: C-C chemokine receptor type 1, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Ccr1

Top Publications

  1. Post T, Bozic C, Rothenberg M, Luster A, Gerard N, Gerard C. Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors. J Immunol. 1995;155:5299-305 pubmed
    ..Murine MIP-1 alpha was found to be a potent chemoattractant for murine eosinophils. Our findings suggest that the murine MIP-1 alpha ligand/receptor system is an important mediator of murine eosinophil trafficking. ..
  2. Sunnemark D, Eltayeb S, Wallstrom E, Appelsved L, Malmberg A, Lassmann H, et al. Differential expression of the chemokine receptors CX3CR1 and CCR1 by microglia and macrophages in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Pathol. 2003;13:617-29 pubmed expression of receptors for the chemokines CCL3/CCL5/CCL7 (MIP-1alpha/RANTES/MCP-3) and CX3CL1 (fractalkine), CCR1 and CX3CR1, respectively, in rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune ..
  3. Gao J, Wynn T, Chang Y, Lee E, Broxmeyer H, Cooper S, et al. Impaired host defense, hematopoiesis, granulomatous inflammation and type 1-type 2 cytokine balance in mice lacking CC chemokine receptor 1. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1959-68 pubmed
    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) is expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and binds the leukocyte chemoattractant and hematopoiesis regulator macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, as well as several ..
  4. Combadiere C, Ahuja S, Tiffany H, Murphy P. Cloning and functional expression of CC CKR5, a human monocyte CC chemokine receptor selective for MIP-1(alpha), MIP-1(beta), and RANTES. J Leukoc Biol. 1996;60:147-52 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that CC CKR5 is a G(i)-coupled receptor that may mediate monocyte responses to MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES. ..
  5. Eltayeb S, Sunnemark D, Berg A, Nordvall G, Malmberg A, Lassmann H, et al. Effector stage CC chemokine receptor-1 selective antagonism reduces multiple sclerosis-like rat disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;142:75-85 pubmed
    We have studied the role of the chemokine receptor CCR1 during the effector stage of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats...
  6. Ninichuk V, Gross O, Reichel C, Khandoga A, Pawar R, Ciubar R, et al. Delayed chemokine receptor 1 blockade prolongs survival in collagen 4A3-deficient mice with Alport disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:977-85 pubmed
    ..This question was addressed by treating COL4A3-deficient mice with BX471, an antagonist of chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) that is known to block interstitial leukocyte recruitment...
  7. John A, Gerard C, Schaller M, Miller A, Berlin A, Humbles A, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced exaggeration of allergic airway disease is dependent upon CCR1-associated immune responses. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:108-16 pubmed
    ..b>CCR1 mRNA was significantly up-regulated during primary RSV infection in BALB/c mice, and was also up-regulated during ..
  8. Amat M, Benjamim C, Williams L, Prats N, Terricabras E, Beleta J, et al. Pharmacological blockade of CCR1 ameliorates murine arthritis and alters cytokine networks in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:666-75 pubmed
    The chemokine receptor CCR1 is a potential target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis...
  9. Ji J, Sun J, Soong L. Impaired expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at early stages of infection with Leishmania amazonensis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4278-88 pubmed
    ..inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1 alpha], CCL4/MIP-1 beta, CCL5/RANTES, MIP-2), and chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR5) in foot tissues and draining lymph nodes compared to the expression in L. major-infected controls...

More Information


  1. Waller A, Nayee P, Czaplewski L. Identification and characterization of a rat macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha receptor. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2000;9:703-9 pubmed
    ..receptor has been cloned from rat (Rattus norvegicus) genomic DNA by PCR using oligonucleotides based on the mouse CCR1 DNA sequence and expressed in HEK293 cells to enable its characterization...
  2. Suffee N, Hlawaty H, Meddahi Pellé A, Maillard L, Louedec L, Haddad O, et al. RANTES/CCL5-induced pro-angiogenic effects depend on CCR1, CCR5 and glycosaminoglycans. Angiogenesis. 2012;15:727-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 on angiogenesis through its receptors CCR1, CCR5, syndecan-1 (SDC-1), syndecan-4 (SDC-4) and CD-44...
  3. Manczak M, Jiang S, Orzechowska B, Adamus G. Crucial role of CCL3/MIP-1alpha in the recurrence of autoimmune anterior uveitis induced with myelin basic protein in Lewis rats. J Autoimmun. 2002;18:259-70 pubmed
    ..In the eyes, the message for CCR1 and CCR5 was considerably elevated prior to the onset of AU and decreased after treatment with anti-chemokine ..
  4. Hickey M, Held K, Baum E, Gao J, Murphy P, Lane T. CCR1 deficiency increases susceptibility to fatal coronavirus infection of the central nervous system. Viral Immunol. 2007;20:599-608 pubmed
    The role of CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) in host defense and disease development was determined in a model of viral-induced neurologic disease...
  5. Liehn E, Merx M, Postea O, Becher S, Djalali Talab Y, Shagdarsuren E, et al. Ccr1 deficiency reduces inflammatory remodelling and preserves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:496-506 pubmed
    ..The chemokine receptor CCR1 mediates inflammatory recruitment in response to several ligands released by activated platelets and up-regulated ..
  6. Borregaard J, Skov L, Wang L, Ting N, Wang C, Beck L, et al. Evaluation of the effect of the specific CCR1 antagonist CP-481715 on the clinical and cellular responses observed following epicutaneous nickel challenge in human subjects. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;59:212-9 pubmed publisher
    The CC-chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) is thought to be involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). CP-481715 is a specific antagonist of CCR1...
  7. Halks Miller M, Schroeder M, Haroutunian V, Moenning U, Rossi M, Achim C, et al. CCR1 is an early and specific marker of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:638-46 pubmed
    ..Our group had found previously that the chemokine receptor CCR1 was present in neurons and dystrophic processes in a small sample of Alzheimer's disease cases...
  8. Gladue R, Cole S, Roach M, Tylaska L, Nelson R, Shepard R, et al. The human specific CCR1 antagonist CP-481,715 inhibits cell infiltration and inflammatory responses in human CCR1 transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2006;176:3141-8 pubmed
    We previously described the in vitro characteristics of the potent and selective CCR1 antagonist, CP-481,715...
  9. Sung H, Kim Y, Kang H, Ko J. Human LZIP induces monocyte CC chemokine receptor 2 expression leading to enhancement of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL2-induced cell migration. Exp Mol Med. 2008;40:332-8 pubmed
    ..RNase protection analysis showed that LZIP increased mRNA expression of CCR2 and CCR1 in THP-1 cells. Surface expressions of both CCR2 and CCR1 were also increased by LZIP...
  10. Haringman J, Kraan M, Smeets T, Zwinderman K, Tak P. Chemokine blockade and chronic inflammatory disease: proof of concept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:715-21 pubmed
    ..To carry out a double blind, placebo controlled, phase Ib clinical trial with a specific, oral CCR1 antagonist...
  11. Richardson R, Pridgen B, Haribabu B, Snyderman R. Regulation of the human chemokine receptor CCR1. Cross-regulation by CXCR1 and CXCR2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:9201-8 pubmed
    To investigate the regulation of the CCR1 chemokine receptor, a rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line was modified to stably express epitope-tagged receptor...
  12. Shahrara S, Amin M, Woods J, Haines G, Koch A. Chemokine receptor expression and in vivo signaling pathways in the joints of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:3568-83 pubmed
    ..We showed significant up-regulation of CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta/CCL4 mRNA in AIA on post-adjuvant injection day 18, ..
  13. Ben Baruch A, Xu L, Young P, Bengali K, Oppenheim J, Wang J. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) interacts with multiple leukocyte receptors. C-C CKR1, a receptor for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/Rantes, is also a functional receptor for MCP3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22123-8 pubmed
    ..Since MCP3 has been reported to use MCP1 receptor(s), our results with transfected 293 cells expressing only C-C CKR1 clearly establish that C-C CKR1 is also a functional receptor for MCP3. ..
  14. Machado R, Soares D, Soares D, Proudfoot A, Souza G. CCR1 and CCR5 chemokine receptors are involved in fever induced by LPS (E. coli) and RANTES in rats. Brain Res. 2007;1161:21-31 pubmed
    This study, besides examining the involvement of CCR1 and CCR5 receptors in the LPS-induced fever (lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli) in male Wistar rats, evaluated if RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and ..
  15. Zhang N, Inan S, Inan S, Cowan A, Sun R, Wang J, et al. A proinflammatory chemokine, CCL3, sensitizes the heat- and capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4536-41 pubmed
    ..We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ..
  16. Gilliland C, SALANGA C, Kawamura T, Trejo J, Handel T. The chemokine receptor CCR1 is constitutively active, which leads to G protein-independent, ?-arrestin-mediated internalization. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32194-210 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we show that the CC-type chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) exhibits significant constitutive activity leading to a variety of cellular responses...
  17. Ness T, Carpenter K, Ewing J, Gerard C, Hogaboam C, Kunkel S. CCR1 and CC chemokine ligand 5 interactions exacerbate innate immune responses during sepsis. J Immunol. 2004;173:6938-48 pubmed
    b>CCR1 has previously been shown to play important roles in leukocyte trafficking, pathogen clearance, and the type 1/type 2 cytokine balance, although very little is known about its role in the host response during sepsis...
  18. Anders H, Belemezova E, Eis V, Segerer S, Vielhauer V, Perez de Lema G, et al. Late onset of treatment with a chemokine receptor CCR1 antagonist prevents progression of lupus nephritis in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1504-13 pubmed
    ..immune complex glomerulonephritis in autoimmune MRL(lpr/lpr) mice was used to evaluate whether chemokine receptor CCR1 blockade late in the disease course can affect progression to renal failure...
  19. Adamus G, Manczak M, Machnicki M. Expression of CC chemokines and their receptors in the eye in autoimmune anterior uveitis associated with EAE. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:2894-903 pubmed
    ..The expression of chemokine receptors associated with T-helper (Th)1-type response, CCR1 and CCR5, correlated with their appropriate ligands and was the highest at the peak of AU, whereas CCR2, the ..
  20. Carpenter K, Ewing J, Schuh J, Ness T, Kunkel S, Aparici M, et al. Therapeutic targeting of CCR1 attenuates established chronic fungal asthma in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:1160-72 pubmed
    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) represents a promising target in chronic airway inflammation and remodeling due to fungus-associated allergic asthma...
  21. LaCasse R, Striebel J, Favara C, Kercher L, Chesebro B. Role of Erk1/2 activation in prion disease pathogenesis: absence of CCR1 leads to increased Erk1/2 activation and accelerated disease progression. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;196:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms of degeneration remain unclear, but chemokines may be important. In current experiments CCR1 knock-out (KO) mice succumbed more rapidly to scrapie infection than WT controls...
  22. Havaux X, Zeine A, Dits A, Denis O. A new mouse model of lung allergy induced by the spores of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum molds. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;139:179-88 pubmed
    ..Finally we demonstrate through whole-body plethysmography that mold spore sensitization and challenge induce the development of an airway hyperreactivity in response to nebulized methacholine. ..
  23. Di Marzio P, Dai W, Franchin G, Chan A, Symons M, Sherry B. Role of Rho family GTPases in CCR1- and CCR5-induced actin reorganization in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:909-16 pubmed
    ..Herein, we demonstrate that the binding of each of these beta-chemokines to their cognate receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, in either macrophages or in CCR1- or CCR5-transfected CHO cells, induced actin reorganization and the ..
  24. Yang X, Walton W, Cook D, Hua X, Tilley S, Haskell C, et al. The chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR1, mediate thoracic radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J mice received thoracic radiation, and the interaction of CCL3 with CCR1 or CCR5 was blocked using genetic techniques, or by pharmacologic intervention...
  25. Waehre T, Damås J, Gullestad L, Holm A, Pedersen T, Arnesen K, et al. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors down-regulate chemokines and chemokine receptors in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1460-7 pubmed
    ..e., MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, IL-8) and receptors (i.e., CCR1 and CCR2), with the most pronounced effect in the atorvastatin group; and 3) statin therapy reduced the spontaneous ..
  26. Stroo I, Stokman G, Teske G, Raven A, Butter L, Florquin S, et al. Chemokine expression in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury is most profound during the reparative phase. Int Immunol. 2010;22:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Up-regulated genes included CC chemokines MCP-1 and TARC, CXC chemokines KC and MIP-2alpha, chemokine receptors Ccr1 and Cx3cr1 and related genes like matrix metalloproteinases...
  27. He M, Horuk R, Bhatia M. Treatment with BX471, a nonpeptide CCR1 antagonist, protects mice against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury by modulating neutrophil recruitment. Pancreas. 2007;34:233-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that interfering with neutrophil migration and activation by targeting CC chemokine receptor 1 may represent a promising strategy to prevent disease progression in acute pancreatitis. ..
  28. Morteau O, Castagliuolo I, Mykoniatis A, Zacks J, Wlk M, Lu B, et al. Genetic deficiency in the chemokine receptor CCR1 protects against acute Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:725-33 pubmed
    The role of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 1 in acute enteritis was investigated by subjecting CCR1 knockout mice to Clostridium difficile toxin A treatment...
  29. Berkhout T, Gohil J, Gonzalez P, Nicols C, Moores K, Macphee C, et al. Selective binding of the truncated form of the chemokine CKbeta8 (25-99) to CC chemokine receptor 1(CCR1). Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:591-6 pubmed
    Human CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has been proposed as a receptor for CKbeta8...
  30. Aye C, Toda M, Morohoshi K, Ono S. Identification of genes and proteins specifically regulated by costimulation of mast cell Fc? Receptor I and chemokine receptor 1. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;92:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..E receptor Fc?RI can be enhanced by co-activation of additional receptors such as CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)...
  31. Xia R, Yosef N, Ubogu E. Selective expression and cellular localization of pro-inflammatory chemokine ligand/receptor pairs in the sciatic nerves of a severe murine experimental autoimmune neuritis model of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2010;36:388-98 pubmed publisher
  32. Lee S, Shin H, Jang S, Shim J, Song I, Son K, et al. PLP2/A4 interacts with CCR1 and stimulates migration of CCR1-expressing HOS cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:768-72 pubmed
    Multiple CC chemokines bind to CCR1, which plays important roles in immune and inflammatory responses...
  33. Eltayeb S, Berg A, Lassmann H, Wallstrom E, Nilsson M, Olsson T, et al. Temporal expression and cellular origin of CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in the central nervous system: insight into mechanisms of MOG-induced EAE. J Neuroinflammation. 2007;4:14 pubmed
    The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases...
  34. Ko J, Jang S, Kim Y, Kim I, Sung H, Kim H, et al. Human LZIP binds to CCR1 and differentially affects the chemotactic activities of CCR1-dependent chemokines. FASEB J. 2004;18:890-2 pubmed
    ..To characterize the CCR1-mediated cellular signal transduction mechanism, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify a cellular ligand ..
  35. Booth G, Newham P, Barlow R, Raines S, Zheng B, Han S. Gene expression profiles at different stages of collagen-induced arthritis. Autoimmunity. 2008;41:512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..By real-time PCR, expression of some chemokines/chemokine receptors, such as CCR1, CXCR4, CXCL13 and MCP1, showed significantly elevated in the inflamed joints...
  36. He M, Horuk R, Moochhala S, Bhatia M. Treatment with BX471, a CC chemokine receptor 1 antagonist, attenuates systemic inflammatory response during sepsis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1173-80 pubmed
    ..BX471 is a potent nonpeptide CC chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) antagonist in both human and mouse...
  37. Lionakis M, Fischer B, Lim J, Swamydas M, Wan W, Richard Lee C, et al. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002865 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney ..
  38. Lee S, Brummet M, Shahabuddin S, Woodworth T, Georas S, Leiferman K, et al. Cutaneous injection of human subjects with macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha induces significant recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. J Immunol. 2000;164:3392-401 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found that neutrophils in whole blood, but not after isolation, expressed CCR1 on their cell surface...
  39. Choi S, Hildebrandt G, Olkiewicz K, Hanauer D, Chaudhary M, Silva I, et al. CCR1/CCL5 (RANTES) receptor-ligand interactions modulate allogeneic T-cell responses and graft-versus-host disease following stem-cell transplantation. Blood. 2007;110:3447-55 pubmed
    ..We examined the contribution of donor cell CCR1 expression to the development of GVHD and GVL using a well-established murine SCT model (B6 --> B6D2F1) and CCR1-..
  40. Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Gursoy S, Canoz O, Artis T, Akcan A, et al. Treatment with Met-RANTES decreases bacterial translocation in experimental colitis. Am J Surg. 2006;191:77-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that chemokine receptor antagonists may potentially be useful in the treatment of IBDs. ..
  41. Ajuebor M, Hogaboam C, Le T, Proudfoot A, Swain M. CCL3/MIP-1alpha is pro-inflammatory in murine T cell-mediated hepatitis by recruiting CCR1-expressing CD4(+) T cells to the liver. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2907-18 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the recruitment of CCR1-expressing CD4(+) T cells to the liver after Con A treatment was strikingly attenuated by CCL3/MIP-1alpha ..
  42. Bonville C, Lau V, DeLeon J, Gao J, Easton A, Rosenberg H, et al. Functional antagonism of chemokine receptor CCR1 reduces mortality in acute pneumovirus infection in vivo. J Virol. 2004;78:7984-9 pubmed
    ..We show here that ribavirin reduces mortality, from 100% to 10 and 30%, respectively, in gene-deleted CCR1(-/-) mice and in wild-type mice treated with the small-molecule chemokine receptor antagonist, Met-RANTES...
  43. Vallet S, Pozzi S, Patel K, Vaghela N, Fulciniti M, Veiby P, et al. A novel role for CCL3 (MIP-1?) in myeloma-induced bone disease via osteocalcin downregulation and inhibition of osteoblast function. Leukemia. 2011;25:1174-81 pubmed publisher
    ..CCL3 and its receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, contribute to the development of bone disease in MM by supporting tumor growth and regulating osteoclast (..
  44. Kanno M, Suzuki S, Fujiwara T, Yokoyama A, Sakamoto A, Takahashi H, et al. Functional expression of CCL6 by rat microglia: a possible role of CCL6 in cell-cell communication. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;167:72-80 pubmed rat primary microglia without any stimulation, but not in primary astrocytes, although both cell types expressed CCR1 mRNA, which is a receptor for CCL6...
  45. Estep J, Baranova A, Hossain N, Elariny H, Ankrah K, Afendy A, et al. Expression of cytokine signaling genes in morbidly obese patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. Obes Surg. 2009;19:617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight genes (CCL2, CCL4, CCL18, CCR1, IL10RB, IL15RA, and LTB) were differentially expressed in NASH with fibrosis...
  46. Cowell R, Silverstein F. Developmental changes in the expression of chemokine receptor CCR1 in the rat cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:7-23 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the expression of beta-chemokine receptor CCR1 in the immature and adult rat cerebellum and report striking developmental changes in CCR1 expression...
  47. Knerlich Lukoschus F, von der Ropp Brenner B, Lucius R, Mehdorn H, Held Feindt J. Spatiotemporal CCR1, CCL3(MIP-1?), CXCR4, CXCL12(SDF-1?) expression patterns in a rat spinal cord injury model of posttraumatic neuropathic pain. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:583-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of CCR1, CCL3(MIP-1?), CXCR4, and CXCL12(SDF-1?) was investigated in parallel with behavioral testing for mechanical and ..
  48. Repeke C, Ferreira S, Claudino M, Silveira E, de Assis G, Avila Campos M, et al. Evidences of the cooperative role of the chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 and its receptors CCR1+ and CCR5+ in RANKL+ cell migration throughout experimental periodontitis in mice. Bone. 2010;46:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction and severe alveolar bone resorption, associated with a high expression of CCL3 and the migration of CCR5+, CCR1+ and RANKL+ cells to periodontal tissues...