Gene Symbol: Casr
Description: calcium-sensing receptor
Alias: PCaR1, RaKCaR, extracellular calcium-sensing receptor, Calcium-sensing receptor (hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1, severe neonatal hyperparathyroidism), parathyroid Cell calcium-sensing receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Casr

Top Publications

  1. Pollak M, Brown E, Chou Y, Hebert S, Marx S, Steinmann B, et al. Mutations in the human Ca(2+)-sensing receptor gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Cell. 1993;75:1297-303 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mammalian Ca(2+)-sensing receptor "sets" the extracellular Ca2+ level and is defective in individuals with FHH and NSHPT. ..
  2. Jiang C, Han L, Li H, Qu Y, Zhang Z, Wang R, et al. Calcium-sensing receptors induce apoptosis in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes during simulated ischemia/reperfusion. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that CaSR can induce apoptosis in isolated rat adult hearts and in normal rat neonatal cardiomyocytes...
  3. Zheng H, Liu J, Liu C, Lu F, Zhao Y, Jin Z, et al. Calcium-sensing receptor activating phosphorylation of PKC? translocation on mitochondria to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;358:335-43 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates intracellular effectors; for example, it causes inositol phosphate (IP) and 1,2 diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, stimulating the release of ..
  4. O Seaghdha C, Yang Q, Glazer N, Leak T, Dehghan A, Smith A, et al. Common variants in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with total serum calcium levels. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..4 * 10(-22), minor allele frequency 14%) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR). This lead SNP was associated with higher serum calcium levels [0.06 mg/dl (0...
  5. Huang C, Sindic A, Hill C, Hujer K, Chan K, Sassen M, et al. Interaction of the Ca2+-sensing receptor with the inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir4.1 and Kir4.2 results in inhibition of channel function. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1073-81 pubmed
    ..The CaR interacts directly with Kir4.1 and Kir4.2 and can decrease their currents, which in turn could reduce recycling of K(+) for the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and thereby contribute to inhibition of Na(+) reabsorption. ..
  6. Feng S, Sun M, Li T, Yin X, Xu C, Sun Y. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that CaR stimulation induced activation of TRP channels and promoted the expression of TRPC3, but not TRPC1, that sustained the increased [Ca(2+)](i). ..
  7. Pidasheva S, Grant M, Canaff L, Ercan O, Kumar U, Hendy G. Calcium-sensing receptor dimerizes in the endoplasmic reticulum: biochemical and biophysical characterization of CASR mutants retained intracellularly. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2200-9 pubmed
    Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), expressed in parathyroid gland and kidney, is a critical regulator of extracellular calcium homeostasis...
  8. Chattopadhyay N, Yano S, Tfelt Hansen J, Rooney P, Kanuparthi D, Bandyopadhyay S, et al. Mitogenic action of calcium-sensing receptor on rat calvarial osteoblasts. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3451-62 pubmed
    ..Our data, therefore, show that the parathyroid/kidney CaR expressed in rat calvarial OBs exerts a mitogenic effect that involves activation of the JNK pathway and up-regulation of several mitogenic genes. ..
  9. Zhang W, Fu S, Lu F, Wu B, Gong D, Pan Z, et al. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:872-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that CaR is involved in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion through activation of cytochrome c-caspase-3 signaling pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Scillitani A, Guarnieri V, Battista C, De Geronimo S, Muscarella L, Chiodini I, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism and the presence of kidney stones are associated with different haplotypes of the calcium-sensing receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:277-83 pubmed
    Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) encoding the missense substitutions A986S, R990G, and Q1011E have been associated with normal variation in extracellular calcium homeostasis, both ..
  2. Chi J, Zhu Y, Fu Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, Han L, et al. Cyclosporin A induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells through calcium-sensing receptor-mediated activation of the ERK MAPK and p38 MAPK pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;367:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our group has shown that CsA induces myocardium cell apoptosis in vivo and increases calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) expression. However, its molecular mechanism remains unknown...
  3. Tfelt Hansen J, MacLeod R, Chattopadhyay N, Yano S, Quinn S, Ren X, et al. Calcium-sensing receptor stimulates PTHrP release by pathways dependent on PKC, p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK1/2 in H-500 cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E329-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CaR regulation of PTHrP release in H-500 cells involves activation of PKC as well as the ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK pathways. ..
  4. Guo J, Li H, Wang L, Zhang W, Li G, Xing W, et al. Increased expression of calcium-sensing receptors in atherosclerosis confers hypersensitivity to acute myocardial infarction in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;366:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenic mechanisms underlying AS lesions and AMI are incompletely understood. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) belong to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors...
  5. Shakhssalim N, Kazemi B, Basiri A, Houshmand M, Pakmanesh H, Golestan B, et al. Association between calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and recurrent calcium kidney stone disease: a comprehensive gene analysis. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2010;44:406-12 pubmed publisher
    Comprehensive sequencing of the coding exons of the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) was performed in a group of Iranian recurrent calcium kidney stone-formers and the results were compared with a control group.
  6. Bai S, Sun J, Wu H, Zhang N, Li H, Li G, et al. Decrease in calcium-sensing receptor in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;95:378-85 pubmed publisher
    To observe the dynamic expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in myocardium of diabetic rats and explore its role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including control, diabetic-..
  7. Guarnieri V, Valentina D Elia A, Baorda F, Pazienza V, Benegiamo G, Stanziale P, et al. CASR gene activating mutations in two families with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:548-52 pubmed publisher
    ..hypocalcemia (ADH) is an endocrine disorder caused by activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene which plays a major role in maintaining calcium homeostasis...
  8. Ferreira L, Pereira A, Heilberg I. Vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphisms in hypercalciuric stone-forming patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;114:c135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..have identified an association of kidney stone formation with vitamin D receptor (VDR) or calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) polymorphisms...
  9. Pistilli M, Petrik J, Holloway A, Crankshaw D. Immunohistochemical and functional studies on calcium-sensing receptors in rat uterine smooth muscle. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the pharmacological profile of inhibition of contractility by CaS ligands is not consistent with a role for CaS in the regulation of uterine contractility in the rat. ..
  10. Thomsen A, Hvidtfeldt M, Brauner Osborne H. Biased agonism of the calcium-sensing receptor. Cell Calcium. 2012;51:107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we sought to investigate biased agonism of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), by looking at 12 well-known orthosteric CaSR agonists in 3 different CaSR signaling pathways: G(q/11) protein, G(..
  11. Abdullah H, Pedraza P, McGiff J, Ferreri N. CaR activation increases TNF production by mTAL cells via a Gi-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F345-54 pubmed
    ..Understanding CaR-mediated signaling pathways that regulate TNF production in the mTAL is crucial to defining novel mechanisms that regulate extracellular fluid volume and salt balance. ..
  12. Chi J, Wang L, Zhang X, Fu Y, Liu Y, Chen W, et al. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor-mediated autophagy in angiotensinII-induced cardiac fibrosis in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:571-576 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has been reported to be involved in the development of myocardial fibrosis, but the molecular mechanism for CaSR ..
  13. Heath H, Odelberg S, Jackson C, Teh B, Hayward N, Larsson C, et al. Clustered inactivating mutations and benign polymorphisms of the calcium receptor gene in familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia suggest receptor functional domains. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:1312-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these are important functional domains, probably for calcium binding and signal transduction, respectively. Finally, mutations in regulatory or intronic regions of the CaR gene may also underlie many cases of FBHH. ..
  14. Carrillo López N, Alvarez Hernandez D, Gonzalez Suarez I, Román García P, Valdivielso J, Fernández Martín J, et al. Simultaneous changes in the calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor under the influence of calcium and calcitriol. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:3479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In parathyroid glands cultured in vitro, calcium up-regulates VDR but not CaR. Conversely, calcitriol up-regulates both VDR and CaR mRNAs and protein levels, even at low calcium concentrations. ..
  15. Hannan F, Nesbit M, Christie P, Lissens W, Van Der Schueren B, Bex M, et al. A homozygous inactivating calcium-sensing receptor mutation, Pro339Thr, is associated with isolated primary hyperparathyroidism: correlation between location of mutations and severity of hypercalcaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;73:715-22 pubmed publisher
    Inactivating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor with extracellular (ECD), transmembrane (TMD) and intracellular (ICD) domains, cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia, neonatal severe ..
  16. Zhao Y, Hou G, Zhang Y, Chi J, Zhang L, Zou X, et al. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in cyclosporin A-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats. Pharmazie. 2011;66:968-74 pubmed
    In this study, we sought to determine whether the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in Cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and identify its signal transduction pathway...
  17. Geng Y, Mosyak L, Kurinov I, Zuo H, Sturchler E, Cheng T, et al. Structural mechanism of ligand activation in human calcium-sensing receptor. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that maintains extracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis through the regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion...
  18. Qu Y, Hui J, Wang L, Tang N, Zhong H, Liu Y, et al. Reduced Expression of the Extracellular Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Is Associated with Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) to Promote Vascular Remodeling in the Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157456 pubmed publisher
    ..The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the regulation of BP...
  19. Watanabe S, Fukumoto S, Chang H, Takeuchi Y, Hasegawa Y, Okazaki R, et al. Association between activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor and Bartter's syndrome. Lancet. 2002;360:692-4 pubmed
    ..We found activating mutations of the gene for the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) in both patients...
  20. Xi Q, Wang S, Ye Z, Zhu Z, Li C, Bai J, et al. Effect of silencing VDR gene in kidney on renal epithelial calcium transporter proteins and urinary calcium excretion in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Urology. 2011;78:1442.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, VDR depletion results in an increase in urine calcium excretion. The role of VDR in the hypercalciuric formation needs to be elucidated further. ..
  21. Riccardi D, Park J, Lee W, Gamba G, Brown E, Hebert S. Cloning and functional expression of a rat kidney extracellular calcium/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:131-5 pubmed
    ..strategy, we now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding an extracellular Ca2+/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor (RaKCaR) from rat kidney...
  22. Alam M, Kirton J, Wilkinson F, Towers E, Sinha S, Rouhi M, et al. Calcification is associated with loss of functional calcium-sensing receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that calcimimetics may inhibit the development of VC in CKD patients. ..
  23. Uchiyama T, Tatsumi N, Kamejima S, Waku T, Ohkido I, Yokoyama K, et al. Hypermethylation of the CaSR and VDR genes in the parathyroid glands in chronic kidney disease rats with high-phosphate diet. Hum Cell. 2016;29:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..SHPT results in reduction of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the parathyroid glands during CKD...
  24. van Waterschoot R, Rooswinkel R, Wagenaar E, van der Kruijssen C, van Herwaarden A, Schinkel A. Intestinal cytochrome P450 3A plays an important role in the regulation of detoxifying systems in the liver. FASEB J. 2009;23:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This broad biological effect further emphasizes the importance of intestinal CYP3A activity and could have profound implications for the prediction of drug exposure. ..
  25. Wu Q, Sun M, Wu C, Li Y, Du J, Zeng J, et al. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3/6 expression in T lymphocyte in sepsis. Mol Immunol. 2015;64:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) are expressed in lymphocytes to promote intracellular Ca(2+) release...
  26. Zhang X, Chen W, Li J, Qi S, Hong S, Wang Y, et al. Involvement of mitochondrial fission in calcium sensing receptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation during hypertension. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:454-460 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) was increased in the aortas from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared with age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) ..
  27. Tfelt Hansen J, Chattopadhyay N, Yano S, Kanuparthi D, Rooney P, Schwarz P, et al. Calcium-sensing receptor induces proliferation through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but not extracellularly regulated kinase in a model of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1211-7 pubmed
    ..These effects are likely direct without the involvement of PTHrP in an autocrine mode. ..
  28. Zeng X, Zhu L, Xiao R, Liu B, Sun M, Liu F, et al. Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor Acts as a Nonclassical Ligand of Calcium-Sensing Receptor, Therapeutically Exploitable for Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension. Hypertension. 2017;69:844-854 pubmed publisher
    ..The coimmunoprecipitation screen identified extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) as the binding partner for HIMF in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells...
  29. Mendoza F, Lopez I, Canalejo R, Almaden Y, Martin D, Aguilera Tejero E, et al. Direct upregulation of parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and vitamin D receptor by calcimimetics in uremic rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F605-13 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the effect of the calcimimetic AMG 641 and calcitriol on CaSR and VDR expression could be separated from their ability to reduce parathyroid cell proliferation, five-sixth nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats received ..
  30. Zhang J, Zhou J, Cai L, Lu Y, Wang T, Zhu L, et al. Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is critical in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:471-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular Ca(2+) can be sensed by extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This study aims at determining whether CaSR is pivotal in the initiation of HPV...
  31. Tfelt Hansen J, Schwarz P, Terwilliger E, Brown E, Chattopadhyay N. Calcium-sensing receptor induces messenger ribonucleic acid of human securin, pituitary tumor transforming gene, in rat testicular cancer. Endocrinology. 2003;144:5188-93 pubmed
    ..22-fold. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a GPCR, the CaR, stimulates the synthesis of PTTG mRNA in a nonmetastasizing model for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and, in the process, might induce angiogenesis via VEGF. ..
  32. Sawada K, Wu Wong J, Chen Y, Wessale J, Kanai G, Kakuta T, et al. Vitamin D receptor agonist VS-105 directly modulates parathyroid hormone expression in human parathyroid cells and in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;167:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..VS-105 effectively up-regulated the expression of VDR (1.9-fold of control) and CaSR (1.8-fold of control) in spheroids; paricalcitol was also less effective. In 5/6 NX rats, one single dose of 0.05-0...
  33. Nakamura A, Hotsubo T, Kobayashi K, Mochizuki H, Ishizu K, Tajima T. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations of calcium-sensing receptor: functional analysis and the effect of allosteric modulators NPS R-568 and NPS 2143. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1692-701 pubmed publisher
    Activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene cause autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism, and heterozygous inactivating CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia...
  34. Yan L, Zhu T, Wang L, Pan S, Tao Z, Yang Z, et al. Inhibitory effect of hepatocyte growth factor on cardiomyocytes apoptosis is partly related to reduced calcium sensing receptor expression during a model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2695-701 pubmed publisher
    Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) are G-protein coupled receptors which maintain systemic calcium haemeostasis, participate in hormone secretion, activation of iron channel, cell apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation...
  35. Koori K, Maeda H, Fujii S, Tomokiyo A, Kawachi G, Hasegawa D, et al. The roles of calcium-sensing receptor and calcium channel in osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated periodontal ligament cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;357:707-18 pubmed publisher
    ..line (cell line 1-17) that we have recently established and to elucidate the roles of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) in this process...
  36. Parkash J. Inflammatory cytokine signaling in insulin producing beta-cells enhances the colocalization correlation coefficient between L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel and calcium-sensing receptor. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:155-63 pubmed
    ..Such molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC in tissues possibly provide control over Ca2+ channel activity via direct protein-protein contact. ..
  37. Lu F, Fu S, Leng X, Zhang X, Dong S, Zhao Y, et al. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial death pathway in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:728-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the possible involvement of CaR in the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in an experimental model of heart failure...
  38. Baran N, Ter Braak M, Saffrich R, Woelfle J, Schmitz U. Novel activating mutation of human calcium-sensing receptor in a family with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;407:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study gives insight about a novel activating mutation of CaR and confirms that the novel P136L-CaR mutation is responsible for ADH in this family. ..
  39. Stratta P, Merlotti G, Musetti C, Quaglia M, Pagani A, Izzo C, et al. Calcium-sensing-related gene mutations in hypercalcaemic hypocalciuric patients as differential diagnosis from primary hyperparathyroidism: detection of two novel inactivating mutations in an Italian population. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29:1902-9 pubmed publisher
    Inactivating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), of the G-protein subunit ?11 (GNA11) and of the adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit (AP2S1) genes are responsible for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH)..
  40. Hong S, Zhang X, Zhang X, Liu W, Fu Y, Liu Y, et al. Role of the calcium sensing receptor in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via mitochondrial dynamics in compensatory hypertrophied myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:728-733 pubmed publisher
    Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mediates pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Mitochondria maintain their function through fission and fusion and disruption of mitochondrial dynamic is linked to various cardiac diseases...
  41. Elamin W, de Buyl O. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2010;4:349 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that testing first degree relatives for calcium levels and DNA sequencing may have a role in the assessment of elderly patients with parathormone-related hypercalcemia. ..
  42. Nakagawa T, Yamaguchi M. Overexpression of regucalcin enhances its nuclear localization and suppresses L-type Ca2+ channel and calcium-sensing receptor mRNA expressions in cloned normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial NRK52E cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006;99:1064-77 pubmed
  43. San Gabriel A, Uneyama H, Maekawa T, Torii K. The calcium-sensing receptor in taste tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we propose another system for calcium taste involving the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
  44. Peng X, Li H, Shao H, Li G, Sun J, Xi Y, et al. Involvement of calcium-sensing receptors in hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension by promoting phenotypic modulation of small pulmonary arteries. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;396:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We had previously shown that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in rat PASMCs...
  45. Nakajima S, Hira T, Eto Y, Asano K, Hara H. Soybean beta 51-63 peptide stimulates cholecystokinin secretion via a calcium-sensing receptor in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Regul Pept. 2010;159:148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we conclude that CaR is the beta 51-63 peptide sensor responsible for the stimulation of CCK secretion in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. ..
  46. Li G, Xing W, Bai S, Hao J, Guo J, Li H, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor mediates hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through MEK1/ERK1,2 and PI3K pathways. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;108:185-93 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) leads to an increase of intracellular calcium concentration and alteration of cellular activities...
  47. Muramatsu M, Hira T, Mitsunaga A, Sato E, Nakajima S, Kitahara Y, et al. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306:G1099-107 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract...
  48. Koleganova N, Piecha G, Ritz E, Schmitt C, Gross M. A calcimimetic (R-568), but not calcitriol, prevents vascular remodeling in uremia. Kidney Int. 2009;75:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that in uremic rats, calcitriol increased while R-568 attenuated media calcification and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. ..
  49. Wang Y, Wang X, Liang X, Wu J, Dong S, Li H, et al. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells involved in the modulation of calcium sensing receptor in high homocysteine. Exp Cell Res. 2016;347:184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits the phenotype switch of VSMCs and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulated the production of endogenous H2S...
  50. Pi M, Oakley R, Gesty Palmer D, Cruickshank R, Spurney R, Luttrell L, et al. Beta-arrestin- and G protein receptor kinase-mediated calcium-sensing receptor desensitization. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1078-87 pubmed
    ..calcium rapidly controls PTH secretion through binding to the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) expressed in parathyroid glands...
  51. Kobayashi M, Tanaka H, Tsuzuki K, Tsuyuki M, Igaki H, Ichinose Y, et al. Two novel missense mutations in calcium-sensing receptor gene associated with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:2716-9 pubmed
    ..FHH/NSHPT results from inactivating mutations of the human calcium-sensing receptor (Casr) gene on chromosome 3q13.3-24...
  52. Okamoto K, Iwasaki N, Doi K, Noiri E, Iwamoto Y, Uchigata Y, et al. Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by KCNJ15, a newly identified susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2012;61:1734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of Kcnj15 with CsR was also detected in INS1 cells. In conclusion, downregulation of Kcnj15 leads to increased insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism to regulate insulin secretion involves KCNJ15 and CsR. ..
  53. Tomlins S, Bolllinger N, Creim J, Rodland K. Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 2005;308:439-45 pubmed