caspase 3


Gene Symbol: caspase 3
Description: caspase 3
Alias: CPP32-beta, Lice, Yama, caspase-3, CASP-3, CPP-32, CPP32beta, Caspase 3, apoptosis related cysteine protease (ICE-like cysteine protease), IRP, SCA-1, SREBP cleavage activity 1, apopain, cysteine protease CPP32, cysteine protease p32-beta, protein Yama, yama protein
Species: rat
Products:     caspase 3

Top Publications

  1. Kurosu K, Saeki M, Kamisaki Y. Formation of high molecular weight caspase-3 complex in neonatal rat brain. Neurochem Int. 2004;44:199-204 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that procaspase-3 exists as a high molecular weight complex during brain development. ..
  2. Wen X, Huang Y, Wang J. Erythropoietin preconditioning on hippocampus neuronal apoptosis following status epilepticus induced by Li-pilocarpine in rats through anti-caspase-3 expression. Neurol India. 2006;54:58-63; discussion 63 pubmed
    ..In addition, colocalization of caspase-3 with NeuN was shown. Systemic rhEpo therapy reduced caspase-3 expression in SE induced by Li-pilocarpine. ..
  3. Liu J, Liu J, Mao J, Yuan X, Lin Z, Li Y. Caspase-3-mediated cyclic stretch-induced myoblast apoptosis via a Fas/FasL-independent signaling pathway during myogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we had provided evidence that caspase-3 mediated cyclic stretch-induced myoblast apoptosis. Mechanical forces induced activation of caspase-3 via signaling pathways independent of Fas/FasL system. ..
  4. Cregan S, MacLaurin J, Craig C, Robertson G, Nicholson D, Park D, et al. Bax-dependent caspase-3 activation is a key determinant in p53-induced apoptosis in neurons. J Neurosci. 1999;19:7860-9 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that p53-induced cell death in postmitotic neurons involves a Bax-dependent caspase-3 activation, suggesting that these molecules are important determinants in neuronal cell death after injury. ..
  5. Falschlehner C, Emmerich C, Gerlach B, Walczak H. TRAIL signalling: decisions between life and death. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1462-75 pubmed
    ..In this review we intend to summarise the most important findings on the TRAIL signalling network and the interplay in the decisions between life and death of a tumor cell. ..
  6. Ozbal S, Erbil G, Kocdor H, Tugyan K, Pekcetin C, Ozogul C. The effects of selenium against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2008;438:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that selenium is potentially a beneficial agent in treating IR-induced brain injury in rats. ..
  7. Dahmani S, Rouelle D, Gressens P, Mantz J. The effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 and tyrosine phosphorylation in the rat hippocampal slice. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:119-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we compared the effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on FAK phosphorylation and cleaved caspase 3 expression in rat hippocampal slices. Slices were treated with increasing concentrations of lidocaine (4...
  8. Tsai N, Chen Y, Lee C, Lin P, Cheng Y, Chang W, et al. The natural compound n-butylidenephthalide derived from Angelica sinensis inhibits malignant brain tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1251-62 pubmed
    ..These in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects indicate that BP could serve as a new anti-brain tumor drug...
  9. Yacobi K, Tsafriri A, Gross A. Luteinizing hormone-induced caspase activation in rat preovulatory follicles is coupled to mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1717-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study reveals a linkage between two seemingly distinct processes in which LH-induced caspase activation in cultured rat preovulatory follicles is coupled to mitochondrial steroidogenesis via P450scc. ..

More Information


  1. Jung J, Roh K, Jeong Y, Kim S, Lee E, Kim M, et al. Estradiol protects PC12 cells against CoCl2-induced apoptosis. Brain Res Bull. 2008;76:579-85 pubmed publisher
  2. Cai J, Kang Z, Liu W, Luo X, Qiang S, Zhang J, et al. Hydrogen therapy reduces apoptosis in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated H2 administration after HI appeared to provide brain protection via inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. ..
  3. García Cáceres C, Lechuga Sancho A, Argente J, Frago L, Chowen J. Death of hypothalamic astrocytes in poorly controlled diabetic rats is associated with nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, enzymatic assays indicated that caspase 3 activity increased significantly after 1 week of diabetes and decreased below control levels thereafter...
  4. Guo J, Wang J, Song S, Liu Q, Huang Y, Xu Y, et al. Sphallerocarpus gracilis polysaccharide protects pancreatic ?-cells via regulation of the bax/bcl-2, caspase-3, pdx-1 and insulin signalling pathways. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;93:829-836 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study suggest that SGP may be a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. ..
  5. Luo J, Zhang Y, Hu X, Chen G, Liu X, Nie H, et al. Aqueous extract from Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux reduces liver injury in rats via regulation of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-ΚB/caspase-3 and PCNA signaling pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;183:187-192 pubmed publisher
    ..AEACD protected liver function by inhibiting inflammatory reaction, apoptosis and promoting liver tissue regeneration in the acute liver failure rats induced by D-galactosamine. ..
  6. Yang F, Liu G, Lu X, Kang J. [Expression of caspase-3 in rat kidney with renal tubular damage induced by lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:2091-3 pubmed
  7. Iglesias Guimarais V, Gil Guiñón E, Gabernet G, García Belinchón M, Sánchez Osuna M, Casanelles E, et al. Apoptotic DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments, but not apoptotic nuclear morphology, relies on a cytosolic pool of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7766-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation. ..
  8. Yang Z, Lin F, Robertson C, Wang K. Dual vulnerability of TDP-43 to calpain and caspase-3 proteolysis after neurotoxic conditions and traumatic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:1444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence that TDP-43 might be involved in acute neuroinjury and TBI pathology, and that TDP-43 and its fragments may have biomarker utilities in TBI patients. ..
  9. Menshanov P, Lanshakov D, Dygalo N. proBDNF is a major product of bdnf gene expressed in the perinatal rat cortex. Physiol Res. 2015;64:925-34 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that proBDNF alone may play an important role in the regulation of naturally occurring cell death during cortical development. ..
  10. Oomman S, Strahlendorf H, Finckbone V, Strahlendorf J. Non-lethal active caspase-3 expression in Bergmann glia of postnatal rat cerebellum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;160:130-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that active caspase-3 may be regulating both differentiation of Bergmann glia by allowing the cells to exit the cell cycle and their morphogenesis. ..
  11. Liu D, Nazneen A, Taguchi T, Razzaque M. Low-dose local kidney irradiation inhibits progression of experimental crescentic nephritis by promoting apoptosis. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28:555-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis showed marked increase in active caspase 3 and active caspase 7 expression in irradiated kidneys compared with NTS injection only...
  12. Rami A, Jansen S, Giesser I, Winckler J. Post-ischemic activation of caspase-3 in the rat hippocampus: evidence of an axonal and dendritic localisation. Neurochem Int. 2003;43:211-23 pubmed
  13. Zhu Z, Wan H, Li J. Chuanxiongzine-astragaloside IV decreases IL-1? and Caspase-3 gene expressions in rat brain damaged by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion: a study of real-time quantitative PCR assay. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2011;63:272-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the absolute quantitative method established in the present study is capable of detecting the changes of IL-1? and Caspase-3 gene expressions in rat brain damaged by I/R. ..
  14. Simpson M, MacLaurin J, Xu D, Ferguson K, Vanderluit J, Davoli M, et al. Caspase 3 deficiency rescues peripheral nervous system defect in retinoblastoma nullizygous mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7089-98 pubmed
    ..In view of the pivotal role of caspase 3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis during development, we examined its function in the execution of the ..
  15. Hu T, Fu Q, Liu X, Zhang H, Dong M. Increased acetylcholinesterase and capase-3 expression in the brain and peripheral immune system of focal cerebral ischemic rats. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;211:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this pro-apoptotic activity may result in a T helper cell (Th1/Th2) imbalance and impaired immune function in ischemia. ..
  16. Kim K, Ha K, Lee J, Rhyu K, An H, Woo Y. The apoptotic effects of oxidative stress and antiapoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on rat notochordal cells. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2443-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that inhibition of inappropriate or premature oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of notochordal cells may delay the starting point of disc degeneration. ..
  17. Kishi T, Hirooka Y, Konno S, Ogawa K, Sunagawa K. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-activated caspase-3 through ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is involved in sympathoexcitation in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive ra. Hypertension. 2010;55:291-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Rao R, Poksay K, Castro Obregon S, Schilling B, Row R, Del Rio G, et al. Molecular components of a cell death pathway activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:177-87 pubmed
    ..Our data identify two molecules, valosin-containing protein and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), that appear to play a role in mediating ER stress-induced cell death. ..
  19. Ye L, Yang S. [Sirtuin 3 inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C release in myocardiac H9c2 cells with calcium overload]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;31:1031-5 pubmed
    ..Sirtuin 3 could inhibit cell apoptosis by reducing CytC release and inhibiting caspase-3 activation in cardiomyocyte models with calcium overload. ..
  20. Galichanin K, Svedlund J, Söderberg P. Kinetics of GADD45?, TP53 and CASP3 gene expression in the rat lens in vivo in response to exposure to double threshold dose of UV-B radiation. Exp Eye Res. 2012;97:19-23 pubmed publisher
  21. Kuper C, Bartels H, Beck F, Neuhofer W. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells. Kidney Int. 2011;80:938-945 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells. ..
  22. Huey K, Roy R, Zhong H, Lullo C. Time-dependent changes in caspase-3 activity and heat shock protein 25 after spinal cord transection in adult rats. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:415-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, the effects of ST on Hsp25 and caspase-3 are muscle specific and time dependent, factors that should be considered in developing any intervention to maintain muscle mass after a spinal cord injury. ..
  23. Kadry M, Abdel Megeed R. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells mitigate caspase-3 and 8-hydroxy proline induced via ?-adrenergic agonist in pulmonary injured rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2017;31: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it was demonstrated that BM-MSCs transplantation showed a superior effect in improving pulmonary function through alleviating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and collagen content. ..
  24. Zhang Y, Leavitt B, Van Raamsdonk J, Dragatsis I, Goldowitz D, MacDonald M, et al. Huntingtin inhibits caspase-3 activation. EMBO J. 2006;25:5896-906 pubmed
  25. Takagi Y, Takahashi M, Sanada M, Ito R, Yamaizumi M, Sekiguchi M. Roles of MGMT and MLH1 proteins in alkylation-induced apoptosis and mutagenesis. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1135-46 pubmed
    ..The haploinsufficient phenotype of Mlh1-heterozygous cells may be explained by competition in heterodimer formation between MLH1 homologues. ..
  26. Wendland M, Faustino J, West T, Manabat C, Holtzman D, Vexler Z. Early diffusion-weighted MRI as a predictor of caspase-3 activation after hypoxic-ischemic insult in neonatal rodents. Stroke. 2008;39:1862-8 pubmed publisher
  27. Wang X, Chen S, Ma G, Ye M, Lu G. Involvement of proinflammatory factors, apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and Ca2+ disturbance in microglia activation-mediated dopaminergic cell degeneration. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:1241-54 pubmed
    ..Understanding the mechanism for microglia activation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration may contribute to the development of new neuroprotective strategies against PD. ..
  28. Stanelle J, Tu Rapp H, Pützer B. A novel mitochondrial protein DIP mediates E2F1-induced apoptosis independently of p53. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:347-57 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights to the incompletely understood regulatory mechanisms of E2F1-induced apoptosis. ..
  29. Didier A, Windisch W, Pfaffl M. Elevated caspase-3 and Fas mRNA expression in jejunum of adult rats during subclinical zinc deficiency. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2004;18:41-5 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence that even moderate zinc deficiency in an adult, non-growing rat model is able to elevate mRNA expression levels of factors involved in early stages of apoptosis. ..
  30. Calafat M, Larocca L, Roca V, Hauk V, Pregi N, Nesse A, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic events in acinar cells from nonobese diabetic mice submandibular glands. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R53 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptotic mediators and TNF-alpha receptor expression were assessed by immunoblotting and RT-PCR, caspase 3 activity was assessed by optical density at 405 nm with Ac-DEVD-pNA as a substrate and chromatin condensation by ..
  31. Chen L, Hsu C, Weng C. Involvement of P53 and Bax/Bad triggering apoptosis in thioacetamide-induced hepatic epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:5175-81 pubmed
    ..The activity of caspase 3 in TAA-induced clone 9 cells was monitored by the cleavage of DEVD-p-nitroanaline...
  32. Korhonen L, Näpänkangas U, Steen H, Chen Y, Martinez R, Lindholm D. Differential regulation of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-3 by NMDA in developing hippocampal neurons; involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in NMDA-mediated neuronal survival. Exp Cell Res. 2004;295:290-9 pubmed
    ..These findings are of importance for understanding the function of NMDA receptors in the control of neuronal survival during development and in other conditions. ..
  33. Abouzied M, Eltahir H, Abdel Aziz M, Ahmed N, Abd El Ghany A, Abd El Aziz E, et al. Curcumin ameliorate DENA-induced HCC via modulating TGF-β, AKT, and caspase-3 expression in experimental rat model. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It interferes and modulates cell signaling pathways and hence turns death signals and apoptosis on within tumor cells. ..
  34. Wang X, Narayanan M, Bruey J, Rigamonti D, Cattaneo E, Reed J, et al. Protective role of Cop in Rip2/caspase-1/caspase-4-mediated HeLa cell death. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762:742-54 pubmed
    ..Cop, as an inhibitor of an important apical caspase cell death axis, may provide a tool for modulating pathological cell death. ..
  35. Zhao H, Sui Y, Guan J, He L, Gu X, Wong H, et al. Amyloid oligomers in diabetic and nondiabetic human pancreas. Transl Res. 2009;153:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations warrant function studies to investigate the clinical implications of the amyloid oligomerization in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. ..
  36. Dong H, Fazzaro A, Xiang C, Korsmeyer S, Jacquin M, McDonald J. Enhanced oligodendrocyte survival after spinal cord injury in Bax-deficient mice and mice with delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8682-91 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data, we hypothesize that the Wallerian degeneration of white matter axons that follows SCI removes axonal support and induces apoptotic death in oligodendrocytes by triggering Bax expression. ..
  37. Rajkumar L, Arumugam A, Elsayed A, Schecter S, Kotkowski E, Castillo R, et al. Long-term hormonal promotion overcomes genetic resistance to mammary cancer. Steroids. 2011;76:31-7 pubmed publisher MNU by increasing expression of Areg, Bcl-2, Ccnd-1 and Vegf genes, while decreasing expression of Bad, Bax, Casp 3, 8, 9 and p53 genes. Furthermore, hormone treatment increased CCND-1 and PARP proteins levels...
  38. Putinski C, Abdul Ghani M, Stiles R, Brunette S, Dick S, Fernando P, et al. Intrinsic-mediated caspase activation is essential for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of the intrinsic-mediated cell death pathway, characterized by elevated levels of caspase 9, followed by caspase 3 protease activity...
  39. Vahtola E, Louhelainen M, Merasto S, Martonen E, Penttinen S, Aahos I, et al. Forkhead class O transcription factor 3a activation and Sirtuin1 overexpression in the hypertrophied myocardium of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. J Hypertens. 2008;26:334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study also suggests that antiapoptotic Sirt1 protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis and acts as a novel regulator of cardiomyocyte growth. ..
  40. Li W, Zhou J, Li B, Wang H, Peng Y, Wang Z. PARP inhibition restores erectile function by suppressing corporal smooth muscle apoptosis in diabetic rats. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1072-82 pubmed publisher
  41. Ness J, Harvey C, Washington J, Roth K, Carroll S, Zhang J. Differential activation of c-fos and caspase-3 in hippocampal neuron subpopulations following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1115-24 pubmed
    ..The differential expression of c-Fos in HI-resistant hippocampal subpopulations vs. cleaved caspase-3 in dying neurons suggests a neuroprotective role for c-Fos expression in neonatal HI. ..
  42. Wei X, Yan H, Xu B, Wu Y, Li C, Zhang G. Neuroprotection of co-activation of GABA receptors by preventing caspase-3 denitrosylation in KA-induced seizures. Brain Res Bull. 2012;88:617-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that co-activation of GABA receptors results in neuroprotection by preventing caspase-3 denitrosylation in KA-induced seizure of rats. ..
  43. Cheung T, Quach N, Charville G, Liu L, Park L, Edalati A, et al. Maintenance of muscle stem-cell quiescence by microRNA-489. Nature. 2012;482:524-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence of the miRNA pathway in general, and of a specific miRNA, miR-489, in actively maintaining the quiescent state of an adult stem-cell population. ..
  44. Chong Z, Kang J, Maiese K. AKT1 drives endothelial cell membrane asymmetry and microglial activation through Bcl-xL and caspase 1, 3, and 9. Exp Cell Res. 2004;296:196-207 pubmed
    ..Our work elucidates the critical role of Akt1 during cellular inflammation and identifies new downstream targets of Akt1 that may offer therapeutic potential against vascular disease. ..
  45. Tian F, Fu X, Gao J, Zhang C, Ning Q, Luo X. Caspase-3 mediates apoptosis of striatal cells in GA I rat model. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012;32:107-112 pubmed publisher
    ..The rat model for GA I showed mitochondrial apoptotic pathway may be involved in the GA-induced striatal lesion. Further studies should be taken to investigate the underlying mechanisms. ..
  46. Kato K, Yamanouchi D, Esbona K, Kamiya K, Zhang F, Kent K, et al. Caspase-mediated protein kinase C-delta cleavage is necessary for apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H2253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that caspase-3-mediated PKC-delta cleavage underlies SMC apoptosis induced by oxidative stress, and that PKC-delta acts both upstream and downstream of caspase-3. ..
  47. Noyan Ashraf M, Brandizzi F, Juurlink B. Constitutive nuclear localization of activated caspase 3 in subpopulations of the astroglial family of cells. Glia. 2005;49:588-93 pubmed
    ..for apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we observed the constitutive presence of activated caspase 3 in Bergmann glia...
  48. Sohn E, Kim Y, Kim C, Lee Y, Kim J. KIOM-79 prevents apoptotic cell death and AGEs accumulation in retinas of diabetic db/db mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:171-4 pubmed publisher
    ..KIOM-79 attenuated caspase-3 expression and AGEs accumulation in the retina. These data show that KIOM-79 can prevent apoptosis in neuronal cells, AGEs accumulation in the retina, and retard the development of diabetic retinopathy. ..
  49. Li J, Lang M, Mao X, Tian L, Feng Y. Antiapoptosis and mitochondrial effect of pioglitazone preconditioning in the ischemic/reperfused heart of rat. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2008;22:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These protective effects of pioglitazone may be related to opening mitochondrial(ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. ..
  50. Han B, Xu D, Choi J, Han Y, Xanthoudakis S, Roy S, et al. Selective, reversible caspase-3 inhibitor is neuroprotective and reveals distinct pathways of cell death after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30128-36 pubmed
  51. Peng G, Yuan Y, He Q, Wu W, Luo B. MicroRNA let-7e regulates the expression of caspase-3 during apoptosis of PC12 cells following anoxia/reoxygenation injury. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that let-7e may protect PC12 cells against apoptosis following A/R injury by negatively regulating the expression of Casp3. ..
  52. Hota S, Barhwal K, Singh S, Ilavazhagan G. Chronic hypobaric hypoxia induced apoptosis in CA1 region of hippocampus: a possible role of NMDAR mediated p75NTR upregulation. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin condensation using Hoechst staining along with estimation of caspase activity and expression of active Caspase 3. Expression of p75(NTR) was studied to determine its possible role in triggering apoptosis in hypobaric hypoxia...
  53. Yang Y, Chen S, Zhang Y, Lin X, Song Y, Xue Z, et al. Induction of autophagy by spermidine is neuroprotective via inhibition of caspase 3-mediated Beclin 1 cleavage. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2738 pubmed publisher
    ..Spermidine inhibited the caspase 3 activation induced by STS...