Gene Symbol: Casp9
Description: caspase 9
Alias: Apaf3, Casp-9-CTD, Casp9_v1, Ice-Lap6, Mch6, caspase-9, 25 kDa caspase-9 dominant negative protein, Ice-like apoptotic protease 6, apoptotic protease Mch-6, apoptotic protease activating factor 3, caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, caspase-9 dominant negative form, caspase-9-carboxyl-terminal divergent
Species: rat
Products:     Casp9

Top Publications

  1. Theodoropoulos G, Michalopoulos N, Panoussopoulos S, Taka S, Gazouli M. Effects of caspase-9 and survivin gene polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer risk and tumor characteristics. Pancreas. 2010;39:976-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The caspase-9 G allele confers increased susceptibility to pancreatic cancer development, and the survivin C carriage status may be related to aggressive features of this malignancy. ..
  2. Valladares A, Hernández N, Gómez F, Curiel Quezada E, Madrigal Bujaidar E, Vergara M, et al. Genetic expression profiles and chromosomal alterations in sporadic breast cancer in Mexican women. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006;170:147-51 pubmed
    ..Underexpressed genes included CASP9, FGR, TP73, HSPG2, and ERCC1; genes turned off included FRAP1, EPHA2 (previously ECK), IL12A, E2F5, TNFRSF10B, ..
  3. Wang W, Shi Z, Yu J, Guo L, Wang L, Han D, et al. [Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on hippocampal p-Akt and caspase-9 expressions in rats with status epilepticus and the mechanism]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:64-9 pubmed
  4. Song Y, Liang X, Hu Y, Wang Y, Yu H, Yang K. p,p'-DDE induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of cultured rat Sertoli cells. Toxicology. 2008;253:53-61 pubmed publisher
  5. Krepela E, Prochazka J, Fiala P, Zatloukal P, Selinger P. Expression of apoptosome pathway-related transcripts in non-small cell lung cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:57-68 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that there is a subgroup of NSCLCs, which may be intrinsically primed for apoptosis through upregulated expression of transcripts encoding the apoptosome pathway components. ..
  6. Ruiz Vela A, Opferman J, Cheng E, Korsmeyer S. Proapoptotic BAX and BAK control multiple initiator caspases. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:379-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, BAX and BAK confer an essential gateway for the activation of caspases in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. ..
  7. Xiang R, Yang Y, Zuo J, Xiao X, Chang Y, De Fang F. PanK4 inhibits pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by decreasing the transcriptional level of pro-caspase-9. Cell Res. 2007;17:966-8 pubmed
  8. Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Vaiopoulou A, Leandrou M, Nikouli S, Vassou E, et al. Polymorphisms of caspase 8 and caspase 9 gene and colorectal cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011;26:1113-8 pubmed publisher
    Caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-9 (CASP9) play crucial roles in regulating apoptosis, and their functional polymorphisms may alter cancer risk...
  9. Angelastro J, Moon N, Liu D, Yang A, Greene L, Franke T. Characterization of a novel isoform of caspase-9 that inhibits apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12190-200 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our observations indicate that casp-9-CTD acts as a dominant-negative variant. Its expression in various tissues indicates a physiological role in regulating cell death. ..

More Information


  1. Chong Z, Kang J, Maiese K. AKT1 drives endothelial cell membrane asymmetry and microglial activation through Bcl-xL and caspase 1, 3, and 9. Exp Cell Res. 2004;296:196-207 pubmed
    ..Our work elucidates the critical role of Akt1 during cellular inflammation and identifies new downstream targets of Akt1 that may offer therapeutic potential against vascular disease. ..
  2. Lakhani S, Masud A, Kuida K, Porter G, Booth C, Mehal W, et al. Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. Science. 2006;311:847-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the early apoptotic events of Bax translocation and cytochrome c release were also delayed. We conclude that caspases 3 and 7 are critical mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. ..
  3. Nishiyama J, Yi X, Venkatachalam M, Dong Z. cDNA cloning and promoter analysis of rat caspase-9. Biochem J. 2001;360:49-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, the genomic sequences reported here contain not only the basal promoter of rat caspase-9 but also regulatory elements responsive to pathophysiological stimuli including hypoxia. ..
  4. Putinski C, Abdul Ghani M, Stiles R, Brunette S, Dick S, Fernando P, et al. Intrinsic-mediated caspase activation is essential for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid and transient activation of the intrinsic-mediated cell death pathway, characterized by elevated levels of caspase 9, followed by caspase 3 protease activity...
  5. Jung J, Roh K, Jeong Y, Kim S, Lee E, Kim M, et al. Estradiol protects PC12 cells against CoCl2-induced apoptosis. Brain Res Bull. 2008;76:579-85 pubmed publisher
  6. Razmara M, Srinivasula S, Wang L, Poyet J, Geddes B, DiStefano P, et al. CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13952-8 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of CARD-8 can also induce apoptosis in transfected cells. The results suggest that CARD-8 represents a new signaling molecule involved in the regulation of caspase-1 and NF-kappaB activation. ..
  7. Oshitari T, Yamamoto S, Hata N, Roy S. Mitochondria- and caspase-dependent cell death pathway involved in neuronal degeneration in diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The mitochondria- and caspase-dependent cell-death pathway may be, in part, associated with neuronal degeneration in diabetic retinas. ..
  8. Sakai T, Liu L, Teng X, Mukai Sakai R, Shimada H, Kaji R, et al. Nucling recruits Apaf-1/pro-caspase-9 complex for the induction of stress-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41131-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Nucling recruits and transports the apoptosome complex during stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  9. Zhang D, Zhao N, Ma B, Wang Y, Zhang G, Yan X, et al. Procaspase-9 induces its cleavage by transnitrosylating XIAP via the Thioredoxin system during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24203 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induces a transnitrosylation from procaspase-9 to XIAP via the Trx system to consequently cause apoptosis. Additionally, Cys325 is a critical S-nitrosylation site of procaspase-9. ..
  10. Tsujimoto K, Ono T, Sato M, Nishida T, Oguma T, Tadakuma T. Regulation of the expression of caspase-9 by the transcription factor activator protein-4 in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27638-44 pubmed
    ..GC has a two-sided effect on apoptosis, i.e. a pro-apoptotic effect on certain cell types and a prosurvival effect on other cell types. Our findings will explain, at least in part, this effect. ..
  11. Chong Z, Kang J, Maiese K. Apaf-1, Bcl-xL, cytochrome c, and caspase-9 form the critical elements for cerebral vascular protection by erythropoietin. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23:320-30 pubmed
    ..Identification of novel cytoprotective pathways used by EPO may serve as therapeutic targets for cerebral vascular disease. ..
  12. Rao R, Poksay K, Castro Obregon S, Schilling B, Row R, Del Rio G, et al. Molecular components of a cell death pathway activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:177-87 pubmed
    ..Our data identify two molecules, valosin-containing protein and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), that appear to play a role in mediating ER stress-induced cell death. ..
  13. Choi W, Eom D, Han B, Kim W, Han B, Choi E, et al. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK induced by oxidative stress is linked to activation of both caspase-8- and -9-mediated apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20451-60 pubmed
  14. Lee S, Choi Y, Choi J, Kim M, Kim J, Jung D, et al. Polymorphisms in the caspase genes and the risk of lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In individual polymorphism analysis, the CASP7 rs2227310C>G and CASP9 rs4645981C>T were associated with 1.40-fold and 1...
  15. Li Y, Wu G, Zuo J, Meng Y, Fang F. [Screening susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes in Chinese population by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2005;27:274-9 pubmed
    ..60) located in sAC gene, rs7535528 (P=0.028, OR=1.45) located in PANK4, rs884363 (P=0.043, OR=1.37) located in CASP9 gene...
  16. Zaidi A, D Sa Eipper C, Brenner J, Kuida K, Zheng T, Flavell R, et al. Bcl-X(L)-caspase-9 interactions in the developing nervous system: evidence for multiple death pathways. J Neurosci. 2001;21:169-75 pubmed
    ..In total, these results indicate a transition from Caspase-9- to Bax- and Bcl-X(L)-mediated neuronal apoptosis. ..
  17. Chen W, Salojin K, Mi Q, Grattan M, Meagher T, Zucker P, et al. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-binding protein-3 complex: therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of protection against type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology. 2004;145:627-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 affords more efficient protection from insulitis, beta-cell destruction, and T1D than IGF-I, and this complex may represent an efficacious therapeutic treatment for the prevention of T1D. ..
  18. Gangwar R, Mandhani A, Mittal R. Caspase 9 and caspase 8 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to bladder cancer in north Indian population. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2028-34 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the association of Caspase 9 and Caspase 8 gene polymorphism with bladder cancer (BC) susceptibility...
  19. Al Mashat H, Kandru S, Liu R, Behl Y, Desta T, Graves D. Diabetes enhances mRNA levels of proapoptotic genes and caspase activity, which contribute to impaired healing. Diabetes. 2006;55:487-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, diabetes-enhanced apoptosis represents an important mechanism through which healing is impaired, and this can be explained, in part, by diabetes-increased expression of proapoptotic genes and caspase activity. ..
  20. HOFMANN E, Nallar S, Lin L, D Cunha J, Lindner D, Weihua X, et al. Identification and characterization of GRIM-1, a cell-death-associated gene product. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies identified a novel protein involved in growth suppression and cell death. ..
  21. Bai J, Meng Z. Expression of caspase and apoptotic signal pathway induced by sulfur dioxide. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2010;51:112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SO(2) exposure increases the expression and activity of both initiator and and effector caspases, and may induce apoptosis in liver and lung of rats through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. ..
  22. Bhattacharjee M, Acharya S, Ghosh A, Sarkar P, Chatterjee S, Kumar P, et al. Bax and Bid act in synergy to bring about T11TS-mediated glioma apoptosis via the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and subsequent caspase activation. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1489-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work focuses on the mechanistic approach of how T11TS mediates apoptosis and hence is the first approach of its kind in the field of immunology where the immunotherapeutic molecule's mode of action has been worked out. ..
  23. Woo S, An S, Lee H, Jin H, Seo S, Yoo D, et al. A truncated form of p23 down-regulates telomerase activity via disruption of Hsp90 function. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data aid in determining the mechanism underlying the regulation of telomerase activity by the chaperone complex during caspase-dependent cell death. ..
  24. Yip K, Lo S, Leung M, So K, Tang C, Poon D. The effect of low-energy laser irradiation on apoptotic factors following experimentally induced transient cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2011;190:301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Akt), phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), pBAD, and Bcl-2, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic factors, such as BAD, caspase 9, and caspase 3 activities...
  25. Hänninen V, Pantcheva M, Freeman E, Poulin N, Grosskreutz C. Activation of caspase 9 in a rat model of experimental glaucoma. Curr Eye Res. 2002;25:389-95 pubmed
    We investigated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and activation of caspase 9 in rats with experimental glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced in rats using the Morrison model...
  26. Huang W, Dobberfuhl A, Filippopoulos T, Ingelsson M, Fileta J, Poulin N, et al. Transcriptional up-regulation and activation of initiating caspases in experimental glaucoma. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:673-81 pubmed
    ..We now describe the impact of elevated IOP in the rat on expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9, initiators of the extrinsic and intrinsic caspase cascades, respectively...
  27. Broustas C, Gokhale P, Rahman A, Dritschilo A, Ahmad I, Kasid U. BRCC2, a novel BH3-like domain-containing protein, induces apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26780-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that BRCC2 functions as a proapoptotic molecule and suggest that BRCC2 induces a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway of cell death. ..
  28. Sharifi A, Eslami H, Larijani B, Davoodi J. Involvement of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in high glucose-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2009;459:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the current data, it could be concluded that high glucose-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells is mediated, in part, by activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 dependent pathways. ..
  29. Chen H, Sun B, Pan S, Jiang H, Sun X. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Anticancer Drugs. 2009;20:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that DHA may be a potent and promising agent to combat pancreatic cancer. ..
  30. Haidara K, Marion M, Gascon Barre M, Denizeau F, Averill Bates D. Implication of caspases and subcellular compartments in tert-butylhydroperoxide induced apoptosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;229:65-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that caspase-9 and caspase-12 are activated in t-BHP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. We highlight the importance of subcellular compartments such as mitochondria, ER and nuclei in the apoptotic process. ..
  31. De Franco S, Chiocchetti A, Ferretti M, Castelli L, Cadario F, Cerutti F, et al. Defective function of the Fas apoptotic pathway in type 1 diabetes mellitus correlates with age at onset. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2007;20:567-76 pubmed
    ..These data show that defective Fas function may involve both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway in T1DM and severity correlates with the precocity of the autoimmune attack and its tissue polyreactivity. ..
  32. Lou Y, Fang C, Li J. [A study on the expression of CASP9 gene and its polymorphism distribution in non-small cell lung cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2007;24:59-62 pubmed
    To explore the expression of caspase 9(CASP9) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution of CASP9 in NSCLC patients and normal people...
  33. Ribeil J, Zermati Y, Vandekerckhove J, Cathelin S, Kersual J, Dussiot M, et al. Hsp70 regulates erythropoiesis by preventing caspase-3-mediated cleavage of GATA-1. Nature. 2007;445:102-5 pubmed
    ..These effects are abrogated by the transduction of a caspase-resistant GATA-1 mutant. Thus, in erythroid precursors undergoing terminal differentiation, Hsp70 prevents active caspase-3 from cleaving GATA-1 and inducing apoptosis. ..
  34. Cai C, Feng L, Wang L, Kong Q, Zhao Y. Tetrazolium violet induces apoptosis via caspases-8, -9 activation and Fas/FasL up-regulation in rat C6 glioma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed that the activity of Fas/FasL and caspase-8 and -9 were significantly enhanced by the compound, which suggested that TV might be used as a Fas/FasL and caspases promoter to initiate brain cancer cell apoptosis. ..
  35. Arroba A, Frago L, Argente J, Chowen J. Activation of caspase 8 in the pituitaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: implication in increased apoptosis of lactotrophs. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4417-24 pubmed
    ..The intact and cleaved forms of caspase 9 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries compared with controls...
  36. Yuan S, Yu X, Asara J, Heuser J, Ludtke S, Akey C. The holo-apoptosome: activation of procaspase-9 and interactions with caspase-3. Structure. 2011;19:1084-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These binding sites may play a role in pc-3 activation and could allow the formation of hybrid apoptosomes with pc-9 and caspase-3 proteolytic activities. ..
  37. Lemaire C, Godefroy N, Costina Parvu I, Rincheval V, Renaud F, Trotot P, et al. Caspase-9 can antagonize p53-induced apoptosis by generating a p76(Rb) truncated form of Rb. Oncogene. 2005;24:3297-308 pubmed
    ..These results establish that a truncated form of Rb can display an antiapoptotic activity, rather than just being a by-product of Rb degradation. ..
  38. Wang X, Narayanan M, Bruey J, Rigamonti D, Cattaneo E, Reed J, et al. Protective role of Cop in Rip2/caspase-1/caspase-4-mediated HeLa cell death. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762:742-54 pubmed
    ..Cop, as an inhibitor of an important apical caspase cell death axis, may provide a tool for modulating pathological cell death. ..
  39. Soldati R, Wargon V, Cerliani J, Giulianelli S, Vanzulli S, Gorostiaga M, et al. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth by estrogens: is there a specific role for estrogen receptors alpha and beta?. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;123:709-24 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) expression was increased in DPN-treated tumors, while active caspase 9 was up-regulated in PPT-treated mice, demonstrating the involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in ..
  40. Sharangpani A, Takanohashi A, Bell M. Caspase activation in fetal rat brain following experimental intrauterine inflammation. Brain Res. 2008;1200:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of cell death in models of intrauterine inflammation may affect development of future strategies to mitigate these injuries in children. ..
  41. Ding C, He Q, LI P. Activation of cell death pathway after a brief period of global ischemia in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Exp Neurol. 2004;188:421-9 pubmed
  42. Xu Q, Wei A, Zhang Y, Yu Z, Xue C. [Changes of caspase-9 in rat retina caused by Nd:YAG laser injury]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010;39:419-22 pubmed
    ..05). Caspase-9 in the retina of LE rat was activated by Nd:YAG laser irradiation. ..
  43. Kumar S. Caspase function in programmed cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:32-43 pubmed
    ..In this article, I will specifically focus on caspases that function primarily in cell death execution. In particular, the physiological function of caspases in apoptosis is discussed using examples from the worm, fly and mammals. ..
  44. Cao G, Xiao M, Sun F, Xiao X, Pei W, Li J, et al. Cloning of a novel Apaf-1-interacting protein: a potent suppressor of apoptosis and ischemic neuronal cell death. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6189-201 pubmed
  45. Kim K, Ha K, Lee J, Rhyu K, An H, Woo Y. The apoptotic effects of oxidative stress and antiapoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on rat notochordal cells. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2443-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that inhibition of inappropriate or premature oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of notochordal cells may delay the starting point of disc degeneration. ..
  46. Jarvinen K, Hotti A, Santos L, Nummela P, Hölttä E. Caspase-8, c-FLIP, and caspase-9 in c-Myc-induced apoptosis of fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2602-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ectopic expression of c-FLIP(L) inhibited the c-Myc-induced apoptosis. ..
  47. Sodhi R, Singh M, Singh N, Jaggi A. Protective effects of caspase-9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:1037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it may be concluded that inhibition of caspase-9 and PARP prevent ischemia and reperfusion-induced activation of apoptotic cascade and necrosis in rat myocardium. ..
  48. Mogi M, Kondo A. Activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 are required for PC12 cells differentiation. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2015;36:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, present results confirm a unique role for the caspase-8 and caspase-9 mediated signal cascade in the differentiation of PC12 cells. ..
  49. Kwon Y, Magnuson B. Age-related differential responses to curcumin-induced apoptosis during the initiation of colon cancer in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Hsp70 expression was not related with resistance to curcumin-induced apoptosis. Understanding age-related differences in the apoptotic response may lead to improved translation from pre-clinical animal studies to humans. ..
  50. Druzhyna N, Musiyenko S, Wilson G, LeDoux S. Cytokines induce nitric oxide-mediated mtDNA damage and apoptosis in oligodendrocytes. Protective role of targeting 8-oxoguanine glycosylase to mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21673-9 pubmed
    ..Subsequent experiments revealed that targeting hOGG1 to mitochondria reduces the activation of caspase-9, showing that this recombinant protein works to reduce apoptosis that is occurring through a mitochondria-based pathway. ..
  51. Kermer P, Ankerhold R, Klocker N, Krajewski S, Reed J, Bahr M. Caspase-9: involvement in secondary death of axotomized rat retinal ganglion cells in vivo. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;85:144-50 pubmed
  52. Agca C, Tuzcu M, Gencoglu H, Akdemir F, Ali S, Sahin K, et al. Lycopene counteracts the hepatic response to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene by altering the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspases, and oxidative stress biomarkers. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2 nmol/g tissue. The study reports that lycopene counteracts the hepatic response to DMBA by altering the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspases, and oxidative stress biomarkers in animal model. ..
  53. Wang F, Wei Z, Sun X, Zhang Q, Zhang C, Jiang W, et al. Apoptosis Inducing Factor Is Involved in Stretch-Induced Apoptosis of Myoblast via a Caspase-9 Independent Pathway. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:829-838 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 829-838, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  54. Liu X, Lei J, Wang K, Ma L, Liu D, Du Y, et al. Mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 Promotes Caspase Activation Through Cleavage of HAX-1 in Aging Heart. Rejuvenation Res. 2017;20:183-192 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, Omi/HtrA2-HAX-1 chain played a significant role in mitochondrial homeostasis. ..
  55. Gukovskaya A, Gukovsky I, Jung Y, Mouria M, Pandol S. Cholecystokinin induces caspase activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic acinar cells. Roles in cell injury processes of pancreatitis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22595-604 pubmed
    ..Protection against necrosis and trypsin activation by caspases can explain why the severity of pancreatitis in experimental models correlates inversely with the extent of apoptosis. ..
  56. Das A, Guyton M, Matzelle D, Ray S, Banik N. Time-dependent increases in protease activities for neuronal apoptosis in spinal cords of Lewis rats during development of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:2992-3001 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings, we conclude that increases in calpain and caspase activities play crucial roles in neuronal apoptosis during the development of acute EAE. ..
  57. Yin Y, Huang W, Lin C, Chen H, MacKenzie A, Ma L. Estrogen suppresses uterine epithelial apoptosis by inducing birc1 expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:113-25 pubmed
    ..These results for the first time establish Birc1 proteins as functional targets of estrogen in suppressing apoptosis in the uterus. ..
  58. Cao G, Luo Y, Nagayama T, Pei W, Stetler R, Graham S, et al. Cloning and characterization of rat caspase-9: implications for a role in mediating caspase-3 activation and hippocampal cell death after transient cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:534-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the caspase-9-dependent intrinsic pathway may be the primary mechanism responsible for the activation of caspase-3 in ischemic hippocampal neurons. ..
  59. Tsai N, Chen Y, Lee C, Lin P, Cheng Y, Chang W, et al. The natural compound n-butylidenephthalide derived from Angelica sinensis inhibits malignant brain tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1251-62 pubmed
    ..These in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects indicate that BP could serve as a new anti-brain tumor drug...
  60. Ma C, Pan Y, Yang Z, Meng Z, Sun R, Wang T, et al. Pre-administration of BAX-inhibiting peptides decrease the loss of the nigral dopaminergic neurons in rats. Life Sci. 2016;144:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Bip-V5 intrastriatal preadministration not only significantly decreased the expression of activated caspase 9 and activated caspase 3 but also decreased the enhanced expression of AIF and its nuclear translocation in the ..
  61. Blandini F, Sinforiani E, Pacchetti C, Samuele A, Bazzini E, Zangaglia R, et al. Peripheral proteasome and caspase activity in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006;66:529-34 pubmed
  62. Kanno T, Nishizaki T. Sphingosine induces apoptosis in hippocampal neurons and astrocytes by activating caspase-3/-9 via a mitochondrial pathway linked to SDK/14-3-3 protein/Bax/cytochrome c. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2329-37 pubmed publisher
  63. Raina D, Pandey P, Ahmad R, Bharti A, Ren J, Kharbanda S, et al. c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates caspase-9 autocleavage in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11147-51 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that caspase-9 autoprocessing is regulated by c-Abl in the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. ..
  64. Narkilahti S, Pitkanen A. Caspase 6 expression in the rat hippocampus during epileptogenesis and epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2005;131:887-97 pubmed
    ..Further, caspase 6 protein is not exclusively located in the somata of neurons, but also in dendrites. These data suggest that caspase 6 has functions other than execution of programmed cell death in epileptogenic hippocampus. ..
  65. Russell J, Whiting H, Szuflita N, Hossain M. Nuclear translocation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) determines cell fate after hypoxia ischemia in neonatal brain. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is evidenced by the enhanced caspase 3 activity and neuronal death. Our findings implicate XIAP nuclear translocation in neuronal death and point to a novel mechanism in the regulation of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. ..
  66. Hu X, Chang N, Wang X, Zhou F, Zhou X, Zhu X, et al. Heritable gene-targeting with gRNA/Cas9 in rats. Cell Res. 2013;23:1322-5 pubmed publisher
  67. Montazeri F, Esmaeili A, Miroliaei M, Moshtaghian S. Messenger RNA expression patterns of p75 neurotrophin receptor and tropomyosin-receptor-kinase A following spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013;36:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that the role of p75NTR is to eliminate damaged cells by activating the apoptotic machinery, especially at the center of damage and during first week after injury. ..
  68. Ghosh S, Pulinilkunnil T, Yuen G, Kewalramani G, An D, Qi D, et al. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by short-term diabetes requires mitochondrial GSH depletion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H768-76 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest for the first time that mGSH is crucial for modulating the cell suicide program in short-term diabetic rat hearts. ..
  69. Lee S, Won J, Lee H, Lee H, Youn S, Lee J, et al. Angiopoietin-1 protects heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through VE-cadherin dephosphorylation and myocardiac integrin-?1/ERK/caspase-9 phosphorylation cascade. Mol Med. 2011;17:1095-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest the novel cardioprotective mechanisms of angiopoietin-1 that are achieved by reducing both vascular leakage and cardiomyocyte death after ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  70. Goehe R, Shultz J, Murudkar C, Usanovic S, Lamour N, Massey D, et al. hnRNP L regulates the tumorigenic capacity of lung cancer xenografts in mice via caspase-9 pre-mRNA processing. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3923-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a cancer-specific mechanism of hnRNP L phosphorylation and subsequent lowering of the caspase-9a/9b ratio, which is required for the tumorigenic capacity of NSCLC cells. ..
  71. Schamberger C, Gerner C, Cerni C. Caspase-9 plays a marginal role in serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2005;302:115-28 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these findings provide evidence that serum starvation-induced apoptosis may occur independently of the intrinsic pathway and that caspase-9 sequestration potentially represents a novel biological antiapoptotic strategy. ..
  72. Berube C, Boucher L, Ma W, Wakeham A, Salmena L, Hakem R, et al. Apoptosis caused by p53-induced protein with death domain (PIDD) depends on the death adapter protein RAIDD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14314-20 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that caspase-2 contributes to PIDD-mediated cell death, but that it is not the sole effector of this pathway. ..
  73. D Sa Eipper C, Leonard J, Putcha G, Zheng T, Flavell R, Rakic P, et al. DNA damage-induced neural precursor cell apoptosis requires p53 and caspase 9 but neither Bax nor caspase 3. Development. 2001;128:137-46 pubmed
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