Cartpt

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cartpt
Description: CART prepropeptide
Alias: Cart, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
Species: rat
Products:     Cartpt

Top Publications

  1. Hubert G, Kuhar M. Colocalization of CART peptide with prodynorphin and dopamine D1 receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens. Neuropeptides. 2006;40:409-15 pubmed
    b>CART peptide is a peptidergic neurotransmitter that is expressed in brain regions involved in critical biological processes such as feeding and stress, and in areas associated with drug reward and abuse including the dopamine-rich nucleus ..
  2. Baranowska B, Wolinska Witort E, Martynska L, Chmielowska M, Baranowska Bik A. Effects of cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) on hormone release. Regul Pept. 2004;122:55-9 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently described neuropeptide widely expressed in the rat brain. CART is abundant in hypothalamus nuclei controlling anterior pituitary function...
  3. Vicentic A, Hunter R, Kuhar M. Effect of corticosterone on CART peptide levels in rat blood. Peptides. 2005;26:531-3 pubmed
    We have recently demonstrated that CART peptides display a diurnal rhythm in blood that depends partly on glucocorticoids levels...
  4. Valera A, Cavalcante J, Elias C, Felicio L. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is overexpressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of pregnant rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:711-4 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is also related to reproductive control because CART immunoreactive fibres are in close apposition with GnRH ..
  5. Derks N, Gaszner B, Bernhardt K, Roubos E, Kozicz T. Sex-specific expression of BDNF and CART in the midbrain non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the rat. Peptides. 2009;30:2268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript peptide (CART) are sex-specifically involved in the stress response too, and are present in the human and rat npEW...
  6. Douglass J, McKinzie A, Couceyro P. PCR differential display identifies a rat brain mRNA that is transcriptionally regulated by cocaine and amphetamine. J Neurosci. 1995;15:2471-81 pubmed
    ..Basal expression of the RNA doublet is limited to neuroendocrine tissues, further implying that the protein product plays a functional role in both neuronal and endocrine tissues. ..
  7. King B, Furlong T, McNally G. Cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) inhibits context induced reinstatement of reward seeking. Behav Neurosci. 2010;124:423-7 pubmed publisher
    We studied the role of cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) in regulating context induced reinstatement (renewal) of reward seeking. Rats were trained to respond for alcoholic beer in context A before extinction in context B...
  8. Kim J, Creekmore E, Vezina P. Microinjection of CART peptide 55-102 into the nucleus accumbens blocks amphetamine-induced locomotion. Neuropeptides. 2003;37:369-73 pubmed
    The role played by the biologically active CART 55-102 peptide in NAcc AMPH induced locomotion was investigated. When microinjected alone into this site, none of the doses of CART 55-102 tested (0.1, 0.4, 1.0 or 2.5 microg/0...
  9. Mao P, Ardeshiri A, Jacks R, Yang S, Hurn P, Alkayed N. Mitochondrial mechanism of neuroprotection by CART. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:624-32 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is protective against focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and against neuronal cell death in culture induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Hubert G, Manvich D, Kuhar M. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript-containing neurons in the nucleus accumbens project to the ventral pallidum in the rat and may inhibit cocaine-induced locomotion. Neuroscience. 2010;165:179-87 pubmed publisher
    We have previously demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide colocalizes with GABA, dynorphin, D1 receptors, and substance P in some neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
  2. Kristensen P, Judge M, Thim L, Ribel U, Christjansen K, Wulff B, et al. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin. Nature. 1998;393:72-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely ..
  3. Vrang N, Larsen P, Tang Christensen M, Larsen L, Kristensen P. Hypothalamic cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is regulated by glucocorticoids. Brain Res. 2003;965:45-50 pubmed
    Cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the most abundantly expressed mRNAs in the rat hypothalamus...
  4. Xu Y, Zhang W, Klaus J, Young J, Koerner I, Sheldahl L, et al. Role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in estradiol-mediated neuroprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14489-94 pubmed
    ..response of the brain to estradiol, and we identified a transcript, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), that is highly induced in the cerebral cortex by estradiol under ischemic conditions...
  5. Fekete C, Wittmann G, Liposits Z, Lechan R. Origin of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-immunoreactive innervation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2004;469:340-50 pubmed
    Axons containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) densely innervate the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
  6. Larsen P, Seier V, Fink Jensen A, Holst J, Warberg J, Vrang N. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is present in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurones and is released to the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circuit. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:219-26 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is present in a number of hypothalamic nuclei. Besides actions in circuits regulating feeding behaviour and stress responses, the hypothalamic functions of CART are largely unknown...
  7. Balkan B, Keser A, Gozen O, Koylu E, Dagci T, Kuhar M, et al. Forced swim stress elicits region-specific changes in CART expression in the stress axis and stress regulatory brain areas. Brain Res. 2012;1432:56-65 pubmed publisher
    b>CART mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the anatomical structures composing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympatho-adrenal system...
  8. Bewick G, Dhillo W, Darch S, Murphy K, Gardiner J, Jethwa P, et al. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons coexpress the NOP1 receptor and nociceptin alters CART and AgRP release. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3526-34 pubmed
    ..containing peptides involved in the control of food intake such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), alphaMSH, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related protein (AgRP)...
  9. Scruggs P, Dun S, Dun N. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide attenuates phenylephrine-induced bradycardia in anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R1496-503 pubmed
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the origin of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactive (irCART) fibers observed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and assess the role of CART ..
  10. Ahn J, Dubern B, Lubrano Berthelier C, Clement K, Karsenty G. Cart overexpression is the only identifiable cause of high bone mass in melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3196-202 pubmed
    ..to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and thereby bone resorption is cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). CART expression in the hypothalamus is increased in mice lacking melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r(-/-) mice)...
  11. Bakhtazad A, Vousooghi N, Garmabi B, Zarrindast M. Evaluation of CART peptide level in rat plasma and CSF: Possible role as a biomarker in opioid addiction. Peptides. 2016;84:1-6 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown previously that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has a modulatory role and homeostatic regulatory effect in motivation to and reward of the drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants...
  12. Jelsing J, Larsen P, Vrang N. Identification of cannabinoid type 1 receptor expressing cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Neuroscience. 2008;154:641-52 pubmed publisher
    Recent data have indicated that the neuropeptide cocaine amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) may be a downstream mediator of the effect of CB1 receptor antagonist on appetite regulation...
  13. Job M, Perry J, Shen L, Kuhar M. Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide attenuates dopamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity in both male and female rats: lack of sex differences. Neuropeptides. 2014;48:75-81 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript peptide (CART peptide) is known for having an inhibitory effect on dopamine (DA)- and cocaine-mediated actions and is postulated to be a homeostatic, regulatory factor in the nucleus accumbens (..
  14. Elefteriou F, Ahn J, Takeda S, Starbuck M, Yang X, Liu X, et al. Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART. Nature. 2005;434:514-20 pubmed
    ..This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly ..
  15. Smith K, Gardiner J, Ward H, Kong W, Murphy K, Martin N, et al. Overexpression of CART in the PVN increases food intake and weight gain in rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:2239-44 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a hypothalamic neuropeptide, CART (55-102), which inhibits food intake...
  16. Jones D, Lakatos A, Rogge G, Kuhar M. Regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA expression by calcium-mediated signaling in GH3 cells. Neuroscience. 2009;160:339-47 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated-transcript (CART) peptides are associated with multiple physiological processes, including, feeding, body weight, and the response to drugs of abuse...
  17. Luo Y, Shen H, Liu H, Yu S, Reiner D, Harvey B, et al. CART peptide induces neuroregeneration in stroke rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013;33:300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..approach using the repeated intranasal administration of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide starting from day 3 poststroke for enhancing the functional recovery of injured brain...
  18. Sohn E, Wolden Hanson T, Matsumoto A. Testosterone (T)-induced changes in arcuate nucleus cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript and NPY mRNA are attenuated in old compared to young male brown Norway rats: contribution of T to age-related changes in cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transc. Endocrinology. 2002;143:954-63 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that reduced T levels contribute to altered hypothalamic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and NPY gene expression, the mRNA content of these neuropeptides was measured by in situ hybridization in sham-..
  19. Kasacka I, Piotrowska Å, KnaÅ› M, Lewandowska A. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension. Biotech Histochem. 2014;89:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity...
  20. Walder K, Morris C, Ravussin E. A polymorphism in the gene encoding CART is not associated with obesity in Pima Indians. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:520-1 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic peptide that may be involved in the regulation of food intake...
  21. Barrett P, Davidson J, Morgan P. CART gene promoter transcription is regulated by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element. Obes Res. 2002;10:1291-8 pubmed
    To define the regulatory DNA sequence controlling the expression of the cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression...
  22. Dandekar M, Singru P, Kokare D, Subhedar N. Transient up-regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) immunoreactivity following ethanol withdrawal in rat hypothalamus. Brain Res. 2008;1240:119-31 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the profile of CART immunoreactivity in some discrete hypothalamic nuclei following chronic ethanol treatment and withdrawal conditions...
  23. Thim L, Nielsen P, Judge M, Andersen A, Diers I, Egel Mitani M, et al. Purification and characterisation of a new hypothalamic satiety peptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), produced in yeast. FEBS Lett. 1998;428:263-8 pubmed
    b>Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is a newly discovered hypothalamic peptide with a potent appetite suppressing activity following intracerebroventricular administration...
  24. Yang S, Shieh K, Li H. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the nucleus accumbens participates in the regulation of feeding behavior in rats. Neuroscience. 2005;133:841-51 pubmed
    The present studies aimed to determine whether cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the nucleus of accumbens shell (AcbSh) is implicated in the regulation of food intake...
  25. James M, Charnley J, Jones E, Levi E, Yeoh J, Flynn J, et al. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) signaling within the paraventricular thalamus modulates cocaine-seeking behaviour. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12980 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse. A recent study demonstrated that i.c.v...
  26. Yoon H, Adachi N, Kunugi H. Microinjection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript 55-102 peptide into the nucleus accumbens could modulate anxiety-related behavior in rats. Neuropeptides. 2014;48:319-25 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is abundantly expressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and is involved in stress, anxiety and reward responses...
  27. Smedh U, Moran T. Peptides that regulate food intake: separable mechanisms for dorsal hindbrain CART peptide to inhibit gastric emptying and food intake. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1418-26 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate differential mediation of the feeding and gastric inhibitory effects of CARTp and suggest that CARTp-induced inhibition of gastric emptying does not contribute to this peptide's ability to inhibit food intake. ..
  28. Press D, Wall M. Expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides at climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in the rat vestibular cerebellum. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:39-46 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have a wide CNS distribution and appear to play an important role in a number of physiological processes including reward and reinforcement, feeding, locomotion, stress ..
  29. Raptis S, Fekete C, Sarkar S, Rand W, Emerson C, Nagy G, et al. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript co-contained in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates TRH-induced prolactin secretion. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1695-9 pubmed
    ..Recent data from our laboratories have demonstrated that TRH and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are co-contained only in hypophysiotropic neurons in the PVN...
  30. Xu W, Zhang Y, Bai M, Zhou F, Deng R, Ji X, et al. Glucose enhances rat islet function via stimulating CART expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;481:84-89 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorexigenic peptide widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in endocrine cells...
  31. Chuang C, Huang H, Chang C, Lee F, Wu J, Lee J, et al. Lipopolysaccharide enhanced renal vascular response to endothelin-1 through ETA overexpression in portal hypertensive rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;30:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS-induced renal vascular hyperreactivity in PVL rats was associated with upregulation of renal ETA and subsequent activation of ERK1/2 signaling. ..
  32. Stelmanska E, Sucajtys Szulc E. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Endokrynol Pol. 2014;65:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR...
  33. Upadhya M, Dandekar M, Kokare D, Singru P, Subhedar N. Evidence for the participation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats. Peptides. 2011;32:317-26 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) has a role in chronic pain, and also in the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) employed in the treatment of neuropathic pain...
  34. Kuhar M, Adams S, Dominguez G, Jaworski J, Balkan B. CART peptides. Neuropeptides. 2002;36:1-8 pubmed
  35. Kozsurek M, Lukácsi E, Fekete C, Puskar Z. Nonselective innervation of lamina I projection neurons by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-immunoreactive fibres in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2375-87 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have been implicated in spinal pain transmission...
  36. Kuriyama G, Takekoshi S, Tojo K, Nakai Y, Kuhar M, Osamura R. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the rat anterior pituitary gland is localized in gonadotrophs and suppresses prolactin secretion. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2542-50 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and CART peptide are abundant in the hypothalamic nuclei that control anterior pituitary function...
  37. Sathanoori R, Olde B, Erlinge D, Göransson O, Wierup N. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3208-18 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival...
  38. Iliff J, Alkayed N, Gloshani K, Traystman R, West G. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide: a vasoactive role in the cerebral circulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005;25:1376-85 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are known to be involved in the stress response and have been implicated in the regulation of the cardiovascular system...
  39. Armbruszt S, Abraham H, Figler M, Kozicz T, Hajnal A. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in feeding- and reward-related brain areas of young OLETF rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013;50-51:75-84 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in the control of appetite, drug reward and homeostatic regulation and it has an overall anorexigenic effect...
  40. Wortley K, Chang G, Davydova Z, Fried S, Leibowitz S. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the arcuate nucleus stimulates lipid metabolism to control body fat accrual on a high-fat diet. Regul Pept. 2004;117:89-99 pubmed
    Previous studies have indicated a relationship between cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) and leptin...
  41. Keating G, Kuhar M, Bliwise D, Rye D. Wake promoting effects of cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Neuropeptides. 2010;44:241-6 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides modulate anxiety, food intake, endocrine function, and mesolimbic dopamine related reward and reinforcement...
  42. Gonsalvez D, Kerman I, McAllen R, Anderson C. Chemical coding for cardiovascular sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rats. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11781-91 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is present in a subset of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the rat...
  43. Blanco E, Zúñiga J, Andrés M, Alvarez A, Gysling K. Corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein enters the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells and cortical neurons. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results show that CRF-BP is efficiently sorted to the regulated secretory pathway in two cellular contexts, suggesting that the extracellular levels of CRF-BP in the central nervous system depends on neuronal activity. ..
  44. Abraham H, Covasa M, Hajnal A. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide immunoreactivity in the brain of the CCK-1 receptor deficient obese OLETF rat. Exp Brain Res. 2009;196:545-56 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in homeostatic regulation and reward...
  45. Chmielowska M, Baranowska B, Wolinska Witort E, Martynska L, Kalisz M, Litwiniuk A, et al. The effect of CART on pituitary hormones release from cultured pituitary cells harvested from fasted and fed ad libitum male rats. Peptides. 2017;91:20-25 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and in several endocrine organs. CART is an important factor in the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  46. Caminos J, Bravo S, González C, Garcés M, Cepeda L, González A, et al. Food-intake-regulating-neuropeptides are expressed and regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction in rat placenta. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:14 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related peptide (AgRP), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and ..
  47. Lakatos A, Prinster S, Vicentic A, Hall R, Kuhar M. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in AtT20 cells via putative G-protein coupled receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2005;384:198-202 pubmed
    b>CART peptides are important neurotransmitters, but little is known about their receptors or signaling pathways in cells...
  48. Qiu B, Hu S, Liu L, Chen M, Wang L, Zeng X, et al. CART attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion through upregulating BDNF synthesis and secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:655-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), a neuropeptide, has shown strong neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and in vitro...
  49. Kasacka I, Piotrowska Z, Janiuk I, Zbucki R. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014;239:1292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the ..
  50. Chiu H, Lin H, Lai C. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide activates ERK pathways via NMDA receptors in rat spinal cord dorsal horn in an age-dependent manner. Regul Pept. 2010;164:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that CARTp activation of ERK signals via the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord dorsal horn was age-dependent. ..
  51. Bakhtazad A, Vousooghi N, Garmabi B, Zarrindast M. CART peptide and opioid addiction: Expression changes in male rat brain. Neuroscience. 2016;325:63-73 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown the prominence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants...
  52. Balkan B, Gozen O, Koylu E, Keser A, Kuhar M, Pogun S. Region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA in rat hypothalamic nuclei induced by forced swim stress. Brain Res. 2012;1479:62-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus...
  53. Philpot K, Dallvechia Adams S, Smith Y, Kuhar M. A cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript peptide projection from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience. 2005;135:915-25 pubmed
  54. Banke E, Riva M, Shcherbina L, Wierup N, Degerman E. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is expressed in adipocytes and regulate lipid- and glucose homeostasis. Regul Pept. 2013;182:35-40 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide expressed in the nervous system and in endocrine cells, e.g. in pancreatic islets...
  55. Morio A, Ujike H, Nomura A, Tanaka Y, Morita Y, Otani K, et al. No association between CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) gene and methamphetamine dependence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1074:411-7 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was originally discovered as a peptide that increased in the rat striatum after injection of a psychostimulant drug, such as cocaine or amphetamine, and is suggested to play potential ..
  56. Bharne A, Borkar C, Bodakuntla S, Lahiri M, Subhedar N, Kokare D. Pro-cognitive action of CART is mediated via ERK in the hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2016;26:1313-27 pubmed publisher
    Although cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is detected in several cortical and subcortical areas, its role in higher functions has been largely ignored...
  57. de Lartigue G, Dimaline R, Varro A, Raybould H, De la Serre C, Dockray G. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mediates the actions of cholecystokinin on rat vagal afferent neurons. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..gastric emptying; it also increases expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), but the significance of this is unknown. We investigated the role of CARTp in vagal afferent neurons...
  58. Archer Z, Rayner D, Duncan J, Bell L, Mercer J. Introduction of a high-energy diet acutely up-regulates hypothalamic cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, Mc4R and brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1 gene expression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:10-7 pubmed
    ..Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Mc4R gene expression in the hypothalamus were increased after 12 h and 24 h on an HE diet, respectively...
  59. Matsumura K, Tsuchihashi T, Abe I. Central human cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide 55-102 increases arterial pressure in conscious rabbits. Hypertension. 2001;38:1096-100 pubmed
    ..responses to intracerebroventricular administration of human cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide 55-102 in conscious rabbits...
  60. Iliff J, Alkayed N, Golshani K, Weinstein J, Traystman R, West G. In vivo cerebrovascular effects of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;52:82-9 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and its associated peptides have been implicated in a number of physiologic processes including modulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cardiovascular regulation...
  61. Rothman R, Vu N, Wang X, Xu H. Endogenous CART peptide regulates mu opioid and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors. Peptides. 2003;24:413-7 pubmed
    ..To further test this hypothesis, we administered anti-CART peptide (the peptide product of cocaine amphetamine related transcript) IgG to rats via the i.c.v...
  62. Romanova I, Chesnokova A, Mikhrina A. [Immunohistochemical study of CART-peptide in striato-nigral projections at dopamine loss]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2012;98:980-9 pubmed
    The increase of CART-peptide optical density was found immunohistochemically in nucleus accumbens neurons and in their terminals in substantia nigra in Wistar rats after 28% reduction of dopaminergic neurons in a substantia nigra (in the ..
  63. Yuan X, Huang Y, Shah S, Wu H, Gautron L. Levels of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript in Vagal Afferents in the Mouse Are Unaltered in Response to Metabolic Challenges. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in vagal afferents, including those involved in regulating feeding...
  64. del Giudice E, Santoro N, Cirillo G, D Urso L, Di Toro R, Perrone L. Mutational screening of the CART gene in obese children: identifying a mutation (Leu34Phe) associated with reduced resting energy expenditure and cosegregating with obesity phenotype in a large family. Diabetes. 2001;50:2157-60 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) inhibits feeding and induces the expression of c-Fos in hypothalamic areas implicated in appetite regulation...
  65. Akhmadeev A, Kalimullina L. Expression of CART peptide in the paleoamygdala neurons and its relationship with sex hormone levels. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:394-6 pubmed
    The location of CART peptide in the paleoamygdala neurons was studied by immunocytochemical reaction...
  66. Hunter R, Bellani R, Bloss E, Costa A, Romeo R, McEwen B. Regulation of CART mRNA by stress and corticosteroids in the hippocampus and amygdala. Brain Res. 2007;1152:234-40 pubmed
    b>CART (Cocaine-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) has been shown to be regulated by corticosteroids in the hypothalamus, but its regulation by corticosteroids and stress has not been well examined in the hippocampus or the amygdala...
  67. Hou J, Zheng D, Zhou J, Zhou S. Orexigenic effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) after injection into hypothalamic nuclei in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present study was to investigate the orexigenic effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide on feeding regulation following its injection into discrete nuclei of the hypothalamus. 2...
  68. Hubert G, Kuhar M. Colocalization of CART with substance P but not enkephalin in the rat nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 2005;1050:8-14 pubmed
    b>CART peptide is a novel neurotransmitter that, due to its distribution in the brain and its modulation of dopamine systems, may be involved in aspects of reward and drug abuse...
  69. Arumugam R, Fleenor D, Freemark M. Lactogenic and somatogenic hormones regulate the expression of neuropeptide Y and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells: interactions with glucose and glucocorticoids. Endocrinology. 2007;148:258-67 pubmed
    ..INS-1 cells express mRNA for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) but little or no agouti-related peptide or proopiomelanocortin...
  70. Brischoux F, Griffond B, Fellmann D, Risold P. Early and transient ontogenetic expression of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the rat mesencephalon: correlation with tyrosine hydroxylase expression. J Neurobiol. 2002;52:221-9 pubmed
    The ontogeny of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression has been analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the mesencephalon of the rat central nervous system, and compared to the pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase- (TH-) ..
  71. Sousa Ferreira L, Alvaro A, Aveleira C, Santana M, Brandão I, Kügler S, et al. Proliferative hypothalamic neurospheres express NPY, AGRP, POMC, CART and Orexin-A and differentiate to functional neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19745 pubmed publisher
    ..Y (NPY), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP), Pro-OpioMelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript (CART) and Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1...
  72. Reeber S, Sillitoe R. Patterned expression of a cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide reveals complex circuit topography in the rodent cerebellar cortex. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1781-96 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate in adult mice and rats that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression can be used to partition sensory-motor projections into complex topographic maps...
  73. Wiehager S, Beiderbeck D, Gruber S, El Khoury A, Wamsteeker J, Neumann I, et al. Increased levels of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript in two animal models of depression and anxiety. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;34:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) was shown to induce anxiety-like behavior in rodents, and mutations in the human CART ..
  74. Wierup N, Björkqvist M, Kuhar M, Mulder H, Sundler F. CART regulates islet hormone secretion and is expressed in the beta-cells of type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2006;55:305-11 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorexigenic peptide widely expressed in the central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems...
  75. Kappeler L, Gautron L, Laye S, Dantzer R, Zizzari P, Epelbaum J, et al. Pituitary cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript expression depends on the strain, sex and oestrous cycle in the rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:426-33 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are abundant in the adenohypophysis, but their role in pituitary function has not yet been elucidated...
  76. Dun S, Ng Y, Brailoiu G, Ling E, Dun N. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide-immunoreactivity in adrenergic C1 neurons projecting to the intermediolateral cell column of the rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 2002;23:123-32 pubmed
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide-immunoreactivity was detected in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), but few in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM)...
  77. Chmielowska M, Baranowska Bik A, Baranowska B, Wolinska Witort E, Martynska L, Bik W. The influence of cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) on pituitary hormones, corticosterone and leptin levels in starved rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011;32:82-9 pubmed
    b>CART is involved in the control of food intake and hormonal secretion. We aimed to evaluate the effects of CART on hormonal profile in starved rats. Study group included 100 male rats...
  78. Balkan B, Gozen O, Yararbas G, Koylu E, Akinturk S, Kuhar M, et al. CART expression in limbic regions of rat brain following forced swim stress: sex differences. Neuropeptides. 2006;40:185-93 pubmed
    Our previous studies showed the modulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) positive neurons and CART mRNA by adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement in hypothalamic nuclei of male rat brain...
  79. Echwald S, Sørensen T, Andersen T, Hansen C, Tommerup N, Pedersen O. Sequence variants in the human cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene in subjects with early onset obesity. Obes Res. 1999;7:532-6 pubmed
    The cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is expressed in the brain of rodents and humans, and intracerebroventricular injection of the peptide in rats reduces food intake...
  80. True C, Verma S, Grove K, Smith M. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript is a potent stimulator of GnRH and kisspeptin cells and may contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition in females. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2821-32 pubmed publisher
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide implicated in both metabolic and reproductive regulation, raising the possibility that CART plays a role in reproductive inhibition during negative ..