Gene Symbol: Car2
Description: carbonic anhydrase 2
Alias: Ca2, carbonic anhydrase 2, CA-II, carbonate dehydratase II, carbonic anhydrase II
Species: rat
Products:     Car2

Top Publications

  1. Dou H, Xu J, Wang Z, Smith A, Soleimani M, Karet F, et al. Co-expression of pendrin, vacuolar H+-ATPase alpha4-subunit and carbonic anhydrase II in epithelial cells of the murine endolymphatic sac. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:1377-84 pubmed
    ..Pendrin- and vH+-ATPase-positive cells also expressed cytoplasmic CA II. Co-expression of pendrin, vH+-ATPase, and CA II in the same subgroup of ES cells suggests that this specific type ..
  2. Toyosawa S, Ogawa Y, Inagaki T, Ijuhin N. Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II in rat incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 1996;285:217-25 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) was purified from erythrocytes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its localization in rat maxillary incisor epithelial cells at various stages of amelogenesis was studied by means of immunoperoxidase staining ..
  3. Lehtonen J, Shen B, Vihinen M, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Supuran C, et al. Characterization of CA XIII, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase isozyme family. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2719-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the predicted amino acid sequence, structural model, distribution, and activity data suggest that CA XIII represents a novel enzyme, which may play important physiological roles in several organs. ..
  4. Sly W, Hu P. Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:375-401 pubmed
    ..Analyses of human and animal CA deficiencies provide unique opportunities to understand the individual contributions of different isozymes to these processes. ..
  5. Lehenkari P, Hentunen T, Laitala Leinonen T, Tuukkanen J, Vaananen H. Carbonic anhydrase II plays a major role in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by effecting the steady state intracellular pH and Ca2+. Exp Cell Res. 1998;242:128-37 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) expression in characteristic for the early stage of osteoclast differentiation...
  6. Chen J, Huang L, Xia Q, He C. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the mRNA expression of CAII and RANK in ovariectomized rats. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:1527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..designed to determine the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the mRNA expression of the carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) in ovariectomized rats...
  7. Engstrand C, Jonsson B, Lindskog S. Catalytic and inhibitor-binding properties of some active-site mutants of human carbonic anhydrase I. Eur J Biochem. 1995;229:696-702 pubmed
    ..I, Val62, His67, and His200, have been changed by site-directed mutagenesis to their counterparts in human carbonic anhydrase II, Asn62, Asn67, and Thr200...
  8. Wilhelm B, Meinhardt A, Renneberg H, Linder D, Gabius H, Aumuller G, et al. Serum albumin as a potential carrier for the apocrine secretion of proteins in the rat coagulating gland. Eur J Cell Biol. 1999;78:256-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, overlay blots proved that the 66k protein binds to the apocrine proteins carbonic anhydrase II and secretory transglutaminase and vice versa...
  9. Sul D, Kim H, Oh E, Phark S, Cho E, Choi S, et al. Gene expression profiling in lung tissues from rats exposed to formaldehyde. Arch Toxicol. 2007;81:589-97 pubmed
    ..these genes, the mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, glutathione reductase, carbonic anhydrase 2, natriuretic peptide receptor 3, lysosomal associated protein transmembrane 5, regulator of G-protein ..

More Information


  1. Torella D, Ellison G, Torella M, Vicinanza C, Aquila I, Iaconetti C, et al. Carbonic anhydrase activation is associated with worsened pathological remodeling in human ischemic diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e000434 pubmed publisher
    ..Myocardial CA activation is significantly elevated in human diabetic ischemic cardiomyopathy. These data may open new avenues for targeted treatment of diabetic heart failure. ..
  2. Zhang Q, Liang X, Zhu B, Dong Q, Xu L, Xia L, et al. Effects of fluid shear stress on mRNA expression of carbonic anhydrase II in polarized rat osteoclasts. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:714-20 pubmed
    The present study was designed to determine the effects of fluid shear stress on the mRNA expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) in polarized rat osteoclasts...
  3. Forsman C, Behravan G, Jonsson B, Liang Z, Lindskog S, Ren X, et al. Histidine 64 is not required for high CO2 hydration activity of human carbonic anhydrase II. FEBS Lett. 1988;229:360-2 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that histidine 64 in carbonic anhydrase II has a crucial role as a 'proton shuttle group' during catalysis of CO2-HCO3- interconversion, this residue was replaced by lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid and alanine by ..
  4. Cammer W, Tansey F. Immunocytochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase in myelinated fibers in peripheral nerves of rat and mouse. J Histochem Cytochem. 1987;35:865-70 pubmed
    Rat sciatic nerve, spinal root, and cranial nerve were immunostained with an antibody against rat brain carbonic anhydrase II (ca), to determine the localization of ca in the rat peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
  5. Feldstein J, Silverman D. Purification and characterization of carbonic anhydrase from the saliva of the rat. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:5447-53 pubmed
    Carbonic anhydrase purified from the saliva of the rat had kinetic properties identical with those of carbonic anhydrase II from rat red cells, but its molecular properties were distinctly different from the type II isozyme...
  6. Ohba Y, Ohba T, Sumitani K, Tagami Kondoh K, Hiura K, Miki Y, et al. Inhibitory mechanisms of H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor acetazolamide on experimental bone resorption. FEBS Lett. 1996;387:175-8 pubmed
    The effects of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (baf.A1) and the carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) on bone resorption and procathepsin L secretion of rat osteoclasts were investigated using the bone ..
  7. Laitala Leinonen T, Lowik C, Papapoulos S, Vaananen H. Inhibition of intravacuolar acidification by antisense RNA decreases osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 21):3657-66 pubmed osteoclast differentiation was studied in vitro by inhibiting the transcription/translation of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) by antisense RNA molecules...
  8. Ruusuvuori E, Huebner A, Kirilkin I, Yukin A, Blaesse P, Helmy M, et al. Neuronal carbonic anhydrase VII provides GABAergic excitatory drive to exacerbate febrile seizures. EMBO J. 2013;32:2275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a novel CA VII (Car7) knockout (KO) mouse as well as a CA II (Car2) KO and a CA II/VII double KO, we show that mature hippocampal pyramidal neurons are endowed with two ..
  9. Kim J, Tisher C, Linser P, Madsen K. Ultrastructural localization of carbonic anhydrase II in subpopulations of intercalated cells of the rat kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1990;1:245-56 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the relative content and intracellular distribution of carbonic anhydrase II in the various subpopulations of intercalated cells in the rat collecting duct...
  10. Villafuerte F, Swietach P, Youm J, Ford K, Cardenas R, Supuran C, et al. Facilitation by intracellular carbonic anhydrase of Na+ -HCO3- co-transport but not Na+ / H+ exchange activity in the mammalian ventricular myocyte. J Physiol. 2014;592:991-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a selective CA facilitation of acid/base transporters in the ventricular myocyte, implying a specific role for the intracellular enzyme in HCO3- transport, and hence pHi regulation in the heart. ..
  11. Hu P, Roth D, Skaggs L, Venta P, Tashian R, Guibaud P, et al. A splice junction mutation in intron 2 of the carbonic anhydrase II gene of osteopetrosis patients from Arabic countries. Hum Mutat. 1992;1:288-92 pubmed
    ..Of the 39 reported cases of the carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, 72% were patients from North African and Middle Eastern countries, most, if not all, ..
  12. McGowan M, Neubauer J, Stolle C. Characterization of the rat carbonic anhydrase II gene structure: sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region and 3' UTR. Gene. 1997;186:181-8 pubmed
    The rat carbonic anhydrase II gene was characterized and found to be approximately 15.5 kb in length and to contain 7 exons and 6 introns...
  13. Eriksson A, Kylsten P, Jones T, Liljas A. Crystallographic studies of inhibitor binding sites in human carbonic anhydrase II: a pentacoordinated binding of the SCN- ion to the zinc at high pH. Proteins. 1988;4:283-93 pubmed
    ..3-acetoxymercuri-4-aminobenzenesulfonamide (AMS), acetazolamide (Diamox), and thiocyanate ion--to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) has been studied with X-ray crystallography. The binding of mercury to HCA II at pH 7...
  14. Wilhelm B, Geyer H, Geyer R, Schwaeble W, Linder M, Linder D, et al. Molecular comparison of apocrine released and cytoplasmic resident carbonic anhydrase II. Biochimie. 2003;85:939-46 pubmed
    We have previously shown that carbonic anhydrase II usually described as a cytoplasmic resident isoform (cCAH II) is secreted by the rat coagulating gland (sCAH II) via the apocrine secretion mode...
  15. Roussel G, Delaunoy J, Nussbaum J, Mandel P. Demonstration of a specific localization of carbonic anhydrase C in the glial cells of rat CNS by an immunohistochemical method. Brain Res. 1979;160:47-55 pubmed
    ..Neuronal cell bodies do not stain at all. A strong positive reaction to the antiserum was also observed in the choroid plexus. ..
  16. Caldarelli A, Diel P, Vollmer G. Effect of phytoestrogens on gene expression of carbonic anhydrase II in rat uterus and liver. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:251-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to characterize carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), as novel estrogen responsive gene, towards its usefulness to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of phytoestrogen action...
  17. Ogata T. Bicarbonate secretion by rat bile duct brush cells indicated by immunohistochemical localization of CFTR, anion exchanger AE2, Na+/HCO3 -cotransporter, carbonic anhydrase II, Na+/H+ exchangers NHE1 and NHE3, H+/K+-ATPase, and Na+/K+-ATPase. Med Mol Morphol. 2006;39:44-8 pubmed
    ..Na(+)/HCO(3) (-) cotransporter (NBC), was found along the BLM but was absent on the MV, whereas carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) was observed on the MV and along the BLM...
  18. Tanimoto T, Takeda M, Nasu M, Kadoi J, Matsumoto S. Immunohistochemical co-expression of carbonic anhydrase II with Kv1.4 and TRPV1 in rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2005;1044:262-5 pubmed
    The co-expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) with the voltage-gated potassium channel subtype 1.4 (Kv1...
  19. Simpson J, Walker N, Supuran C, Soleimani M, Clarke L. Putative anion transporter-1 (Pat-1, Slc26a6) contributes to intracellular pH regulation during H+-dipeptide transport in duodenal villous epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Pat-1 interacts with carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), and studies using CAII(-) intestine or the pharmacological inhibitor methazolamide on WT intestine ..
  20. Vargas L, Díaz R, Swenson E, Perez N, Alvarez B. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase prevents the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1-dependent slow force response to rat myocardial stretch. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binds to the extreme COOH terminus of NHE1 and regulates its transport activity...
  21. Chen J, Lecuona E, Briva A, Welch L, Sznajder J. Carbonic anhydrase II and alveolar fluid reabsorption during hypercapnia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:32-7 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) plays an important role in carbon dioxide metabolism and intracellular pH regulation...
  22. Leppilampi M, Parkkila S, Karttunen T, Gut M, Gros G, Sjöblom M. Carbonic anhydrase isozyme-II-deficient mice lack the duodenal bicarbonate secretory response to prostaglandin E2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15247-52 pubmed
    ..b>CA II- and IX-deficient mice and different combinations of their heterozygous and WT counterparts were studied...
  23. Reibring C, El Shahawy M, Hallberg K, Kannius Janson M, Nilsson J, Parkkila S, et al. Expression patterns and subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrases are developmentally regulated during tooth formation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96007 pubmed publisher
    ..The most salient findings include expression of CAII/Car2 not only in maturation-stage ameloblasts (MA) but also in the papillary layer, dental papilla mesenchyme, ..
  24. Jouret F, Igarashi T, Gofflot F, Wilson P, Karet F, Thakker R, et al. Comparative ontogeny, processing, and segmental distribution of the renal chloride channel, ClC-5. Kidney Int. 2004;65:198-208 pubmed
    ..These data give insight into PT and IC maturation, and explain early phenotypic variants of Dent's disease. ..
  25. de Water R, Noordermeer C, Houtsmuller A, Nigg A, Stijnen T, Schroder F, et al. Role of macrophages in nephrolithiasis in rats: an analysis of the renal interstitium. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:615-25 pubmed
    ..The crystals in these cells were moderately positive for acid phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase II. It is concluded that interstitial CaOx crystals can be removed under normo-oxaluric conditions and that, ..
  26. Kumpulainen T. Immunohistochemical localization of human carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C. Histochemistry. 1979;62:271-80 pubmed
    ..Correlations of present findings with those obtained with the traditional histochemical methods for demonstration of carbonic anhydrase activity are discussed. ..
  27. Harkonen P, Mäkelä S, Valve E, Karhukorpi E, Vaananen H. Differential regulation of carbonic anhydrase II by androgen and estrogen in dorsal and lateral prostate of the rat. Endocrinology. 1991;128:3219-27 pubmed
    Hormone regulation of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) was studied in rat dorsal and lateral prostate. CA II is a major soluble protein in these accessory sex glands...
  28. Karashima S, Hattori S, Ushijima T, Furuse A, Nakazato H, Matsuda I. Developmental changes in carbonic anhydrase II in the rat kidney. Pediatr Nephrol. 1998;12:263-8 pubmed
    We examined the distribution and maturational changes of carbonic anhydrase I (CAI) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) in microdissected nephron segments of Sprague-Dawley rats...
  29. Schwartz G, Brown D, Mankus R, Alexander E, Schwartz J. Low pH enhances expression of carbonic anhydrase II by cultured rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:C508-14 pubmed
    ..found that inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells cultured from rat kidney secrete protons and express CA II. Incubation of IMCD cells in acidic medium for 48 h has been shown to stimulate the secretion of protons by a ..
  30. Stolle C, McGowan M, Heim R, Varia M, Neubauer J. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding rat brain carbonic anhydrase II and its deduced amino acid sequence. Gene. 1991;109:265-7 pubmed
    A carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from a rat brain lambda gt11 library. The 1459-bp cDNA codes for 260 amino acids with sequence similarity to mouse and human CAII and hybridizes to a single 1.7-kb mRNA.
  31. Liu C, Zhang L, Jiang Y, Chatterjee D, Croce C, Huebner K, et al. Modulation of gene expression in precancerous rat esophagus by dietary zinc deficit and replenishment. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7790-9 pubmed
    ..Keratin 14 (KRT14, a biomarker in esophageal tumorigenesis), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, a regulator of acid-base homeostasis), and cyclin B were up-regulated >4-fold...
  32. Alvarez B, Vilas G, Casey J. Metabolon disruption: a mechanism that regulates bicarbonate transport. EMBO J. 2005;24:2499-511 pubmed
    ..PKC therefore reduces CAII/SLC26A6 interaction, reducing bicarbonate transport rate. Taken together, our data support a mechanism for acute regulation of membrane transport: metabolon disruption. ..
  33. Whittington D, Grubb J, Waheed A, Shah G, Sly W, Christianson D. Expression, assay, and structure of the extracellular domain of murine carbonic anhydrase XIV: implications for selective inhibition of membrane-associated isozymes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7223-8 pubmed