Gene Symbol: Calm3
Description: calmodulin 3
Alias: CaMIII, Cam3, Camc, RNCAMIII, calmodulin-3, Calmodulin III, caM
Species: rat
Products:     Calm3

Top Publications

  1. Schumacher M, Rivard A, Bachinger H, Adelman J. Structure of the gating domain of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel complexed with Ca2+/calmodulin. Nature. 2001;410:1120-4 pubmed
    ..are heteromeric complexes that comprise pore-forming alpha-subunits and the Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM)...
  2. Clapham D. Calcium signaling. Cell. 2007;131:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Also discussed is the highly localized nature of Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction and its specific roles in excitability, exocytosis, motility, apoptosis, and transcription. ..
  3. Kubota Y, Putkey J, Shouval H, Waxham M. IQ-motif proteins influence intracellular free Ca2+ in hippocampal neurons through their interactions with calmodulin. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:264-76 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) is most recognized for its role in activating Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent enzymes following increased intracellular Ca(2+)...
  4. Brushia R, Walsh D. Phosphorylase kinase: the complexity of its regulation is reflected in the complexity of its structure. Front Biosci. 1999;4:D618-41 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms of regulation are currently poorly understood, but new insights are beginning to emerge. This review discusses current knowledge and concepts of the structure, function and regulation of Phk. ..
  5. Majava V, Wang C, Myllykoski M, Kangas S, Kang S, Hayashi N, et al. Structural analysis of the complex between calmodulin and full-length myelin basic protein, an intrinsically disordered molecule. Amino Acids. 2010;39:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the best-characterized protein ligands for MBP is calmodulin (CaM), a highly acidic calcium sensor...
  6. Natsukari N, Zhang S, Nichols R, Weiss B. Immunocytochemical localization of calmodulin in PC12 cells and its possible interaction with histones. Neurochem Int. 1995;26:465-76 pubmed
  7. Tan R, Mabuchi Y, Grabarek Z. Blocking the Ca2+-induced conformational transitions in calmodulin with disulfide bonds. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7479-83 pubmed
    ..Calmodulin (CaM) and troponin C, the two best characterized Ca2+-regulatory proteins, are members of the family of Ca2+-binding ..
  8. Rasmussen C, Means A. Calmodulin is required for cell-cycle progression during G1 and mitosis. EMBO J. 1989;8:73-82 pubmed
    In order to examine the consequences of a transient increase or decrease in intracellular calmodulin (CaM) levels, two bovine-papilloma-virus (BPV)-based expression vectors capable of inducibly synthesizing CaM sense (BPV-MCM) or anti-..
  9. Yurimoto S, Hatano N, Tsuchiya M, Kato K, Fujimoto T, Masaki T, et al. Identification and characterization of wolframin, the product of the wolfram syndrome gene (WFS1), as a novel calmodulin-binding protein. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3946-55 pubmed publisher
    To search for calmodulin (CaM) targets, we performed affinity chromatography purification of a rat brain extract using CaM fused with GST as the affinity ligand. Proteomic analysis was then carried out to identify CaM-binding proteins...

More Information


  1. Junge H, Rhee J, Jahn O, Varoqueaux F, Spiess J, Waxham M, et al. Calmodulin and Munc13 form a Ca2+ sensor/effector complex that controls short-term synaptic plasticity. Cell. 2004;118:389-401 pubmed
  2. Sherbany A, Parent A, Brosius J. Rat calmodulin cDNA. DNA. 1987;6:267-72 pubmed
    ..75 kb in length by RNA blot analysis. Furthermore, the mRNA is highly enriched in brain tissue, compared to liver or kidney. A variant (GATAAA) of the putative poly(A) addition signal is observed at the 3' end of one of the mRNA species. ..
  3. Yu C, Ko J, Ai T, Tsai W, Chen Z, Rubart M, et al. Arrhythmogenic calmodulin mutations impede activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:1716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..4-93.3 ms] to 121.8 ms [97.9-127.2 ms]; P = .010) in hearts pretreated with anemone toxin but not in control hearts. Human arrhythmogenic calmodulin mutations impede the activation of SK2 channels in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ..
  4. Nojima H. Structural organization of multiple rat calmodulin genes. J Mol Biol. 1989;208:269-82 pubmed
    ..The original calmodulin gene is named CaM I (pRCM1) and the newly discovered calmodulin genes are named CaM II (pRCM3) and CaM III (pRCM4)...
  5. Guo T, Fruen B, Nitu F, Nguyen T, Yang Y, Cornea R, et al. FRET detection of calmodulin binding to the cardiac RyR2 calcium release channel. Biophys J. 2011;101:2170-7 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) regulates Ca release from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)...
  6. Coultrap S, Bayer K. CaMKII regulation in information processing and storage. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:607-18 pubmed publisher
    The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by Ca(2+)/CaM, but becomes partially autonomous (Ca(2+)-independent) upon autophosphorylation at T286...
  7. Russo L, Asega A, Castro L, Negraes P, Cruz L, Gozzo F, et al. Natural intracellular peptides can modulate the interactions of mouse brain proteins and thimet oligopeptidase with 14-3-3? and calmodulin. Proteomics. 2012;12:2641-55 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular peptides as putative modulators of protein interactions that are related to Ca(2+) -calmodulin (CaM) and 14-3-3?, which are proteins that are related to the spatial organization of signal transduction within cells...
  8. Li H, Villalobo A. Evidence for the direct interaction between calmodulin and the human epidermal growth factor receptor. Biochem J. 2002;362:499-505 pubmed
  9. Li H, Alavian K, Lazrove E, Mehta N, Jones A, Zhang P, et al. A Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex regulates synaptic vesicle membrane dynamics during endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutagenesis studies suggest that formation of the Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex is necessary for the enhanced rate of vesicle endocytosis produced by Bcl-xL, thus providing a mechanism for presynaptic plasticity. ..
  10. Wen H, Levitan I. Calmodulin is an auxiliary subunit of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7991-8001 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) was identified as a KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 potassium channel-binding protein, using a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  11. Drum C, Yan S, Bard J, Shen Y, Lu D, Soelaiman S, et al. Structural basis for the activation of anthrax adenylyl cyclase exotoxin by calmodulin. Nature. 2002;415:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These allosteric changes provide the first molecular details of how calmodulin modulates one of its targets...
  12. Rokita A, Anderson M. New therapeutic targets in cardiology: arrhythmias and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Circulation. 2012;126:2125-39 pubmed publisher
  13. Oda T, Yang Y, Nitu F, Svensson B, Lu X, Fruen B, et al. In cardiomyocytes, binding of unzipping peptide activates ryanodine receptor 2 and reciprocally inhibits calmodulin binding. Circ Res. 2013;112:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Calmodulin (CaM) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6) bind to RyR2 and stabilize the closed channel...
  14. Gómez Hurtado N, Boczek N, Kryshtal D, Johnson C, Sun J, Nitu F, et al. Novel CPVT-Associated Calmodulin Mutation in CALM3 (CALM3-A103V) Activates Arrhythmogenic Ca Waves and Sparks. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2016;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We performed mutational analysis of CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3 gene-coding regions, in vitro measurement of CaM-Ca(2+) (Ca)-binding affinity, ryanodine receptor 2-CaM binding, ..
  15. Liu Y, Zheng X, Mueller G, Sobhany M, Derose E, Zhang Y, et al. Crystal structure of calmodulin binding domain of orai1 in complex with Ca2+ calmodulin displays a unique binding mode. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43030-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This is followed by a fast Ca(2+)·calmodulin (CaM)-dependent inhibition, resulting from CaM binding to an Orai1 region called the calmodulin binding domain (CMBD)...
  16. Grant L, Fuchs P. Calcium- and calmodulin-dependent inactivation of calcium channels in inner hair cells of the rat cochlea. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:2183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..CDI provides a means for the rate of spontaneous transmitter release to be adjusted to variations in hair cell resting potential and steady state calcium influx. ..
  17. Gautel M, Castiglione Morelli M, Pfuhl M, Motta A, Pastore A. A calmodulin-binding sequence in the C-terminus of human cardiac titin kinase. Eur J Biochem. 1995;230:752-9 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, propose that this calmodulin-binding region of titin could play a regulatory role for the enzyme, the substrate of which still remains to be identified. ..
  18. Michelhaugh S, Gnegy M. Differential regulation of calmodulin content and calmodulin messenger RNA levels by acute and repeated, intermittent amphetamine in dopaminergic terminal and midbrain areas. Neuroscience. 2000;98:275-85 pubmed
    ..The alterations in calmodulin content and synthesis could contribute to changes in patterns or duration of behaviors that occur upon cessation of repeated amphetamine. ..
  19. Matsubara M, Jing T, Kawamura K, Shimojo N, Titani K, Hashimoto K, et al. Myristoyl moiety of HIV Nef is involved in regulation of the interaction with calmodulin in vivo. Protein Sci. 2005;14:494-503 pubmed
    ..These results for the interaction between HIV Nef and calmodulin in the cells suggested that the Nef might interfere with intracellular Ca(2+) signaling through calmodulin-mediated interactions in infected cells. ..
  20. Edlund M, Blikstad I, Obrink B. Calmodulin binds to specific sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of C-CAM and down-regulates C-CAM self-association. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1393-9 pubmed
    C-CAM is a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family and is known to mediate calcium-independent homophilic cell-cell binding...
  21. Kosenko A, Kang S, Smith I, Greene D, Langeberg L, Scott J, et al. Coordinated signal integration at the M-type potassium channel upon muscarinic stimulation. EMBO J. 2012;31:3147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway enhances the effect of concomitant reduction of PIP2, which leads to disruption of the M-channel function. These findings clarify how a common lipid cofactor, such as PIP2, can selectively regulate ion channels. ..
  22. Boehning D, Sedaghat L, Sedlak T, Snyder S. Heme oxygenase-2 is activated by calcium-calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30927-30 pubmed
    ..Calcium-calmodulin provides a mechanism for rapid and transient activation of HO2 during neuronal activity. ..
  23. Tsang W, Spektor A, Luciano D, Indjeian V, Chen Z, Salisbury J, et al. CP110 cooperates with two calcium-binding proteins to regulate cytokinesis and genome stability. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3423-34 pubmed
    ..and biochemical analyses, we report that CP110 interacts with two different Ca2+-binding proteins, calmodulin (CaM) and centrin, in vivo...
  24. Hawley S, Pan D, Mustard K, Ross L, Bain J, Edelman A, et al. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase. Cell Metab. 2005;2:9-19 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a potential Ca(2+)-dependent neuroprotective pathway involving phosphorylation and activation of AMPK by CaMKKbeta. ..
  25. Schumacher M, Crum M, Miller M. Crystal structures of apocalmodulin and an apocalmodulin/SK potassium channel gating domain complex. Structure. 2004;12:849-60 pubmed
    ..conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are composed of the pore-forming alpha subunit and calmodulin (CaM)...
  26. Phan N, Wang C, Lin Y. The novel regulations of MEF2A, CAMKK2, CALM3, and TNNI3 in ventricular hypertrophy induced by arsenic exposure in rats. Toxicology. 2014;324:123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, based on our real-time PCR and western blot data strongly suggest that calcium homeostasis may also go through MEF2A, TNNI3, CAMKK2, CALM3 and cardiac hypertrophy relative signaling pathway.
  27. Samso M, Wagenknecht T. Apocalmodulin and Ca2+-calmodulin bind to neighboring locations on the ryanodine receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1349-53 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) binds to the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel of skeletal muscle (RyR1), both in the absence and presence of Ca(2+), and regulates the activity of the channel activity by activating and inhibiting it, ..
  28. Barbelanne M, Song J, Ahmadzai M, Tsang W. Pathogenic NPHP5 mutations impair protein interaction with Cep290, a prerequisite for ciliogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2482-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional dissection of NPHP5 interactions with Cep290 and CaM reveals a requirement of the former for ciliogenesis, while the latter prevents NPHP5 self-aggregation...
  29. Zhong L, Gerges N. Neurogranin targets calmodulin and lowers the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41275 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the targeting of calmodulin by neurogranin results in lowering the threshold for LTP induction. These findings highlight the significance of calmodulin targeting within the spine in synaptic plasticity. ..
  30. Chagot B, Chazin W. Solution NMR structure of Apo-calmodulin in complex with the IQ motif of human cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5. J Mol Biol. 2011;406:106-19 pubmed publisher
    ..5 is regulated in part by intracellular calcium signals. The ubiquitous calcium sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) is an important part of the complex calcium-sensing apparatus in Na(V)1.5...
  31. Chang L, Zhang J, Tseng Y, Xie C, Ilany J, Bruning J, et al. Rad GTPase deficiency leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation. 2007;116:2976-2983 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study will have significant implications for understanding the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and setting the basis for the development of new strategies for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  32. Erdmann F, Sch uble N, Lang S, Jung M, Honigmann A, Ahmad M, et al. Interaction of calmodulin with Sec61? limits Ca2+ leakage from the endoplasmic reticulum. EMBO J. 2011;30:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a calmodulin (CaM)-binding motif in the cytosolic N-terminus of mammalian Sec61? that bound CaM but not Ca2+-free apocalmodulin with ..
  33. Dai Y, Dudek N, Li Q, Muma N. Phospholipase C, Ca2+, and calmodulin signaling are required for 5-HT2A receptor-mediated transamidation of Rac1 by transglutaminase. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;213:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..A1A1v cells were pretreated with pharmacological inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) or calmodulin (CaM), and then stimulated by the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
  34. Xu X, Yano M, Uchinoumi H, Hino A, Suetomi T, Ono M, et al. Defective calmodulin binding to the cardiac ryanodine receptor plays a key role in CPVT-associated channel dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:660-6 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM), one of the accessory proteins of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), is known to play a significant role in the channel regulation of the RyR2...
  35. Sorensen S, Macek T, Cai Z, Saugstad J, Conn P. Dissociation of protein kinase-mediated regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) interactions with calmodulin and regulation of mGluR7 function. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;61:1303-12 pubmed
    ..kinase C (PKC), cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) can inhibit calmodulin (CaM) interactions with the carboxyl-terminal tail of mGluR7...
  36. Nyegaard M, Overgaard M, Søndergaard M, Vranas M, Behr E, Hildebrandt L, et al. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;91:703-12 pubmed publisher
  37. Boczek T, Lisek M, Ferenc B, Zylinska L. Cross talk among PMCA, calcineurin and NFAT transcription factors in control of calmodulin gene expression in differentiating PC12 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:502-515 pubmed publisher
    ..CaM encoded by three genes Calm1, Calm2, Calm3, works to translate Ca2+ signal into changes in frequently opposite cellular activities...
  38. Strulovich R, Tobelaim W, Attali B, Hirsch J. Structural Insights into the M-Channel Proximal C-Terminus/Calmodulin Complex. Biochemistry. 2016;55:5353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Kv7 channels have a unique intracellular C-terminal (CT) domain bound constitutively by calmodulin (CaM). This domain plays key functions in channel tetramerization, trafficking, and gating...
  39. Tejero J, Haque M, Durra D, Stuehr D. A bridging interaction allows calmodulin to activate NO synthase through a bi-modal mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25941-9 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) by a mechanism that is not completely understood. A recent crystal structure showed that bound CaM engages in a bridging interaction with the NOS FMN subdomain...
  40. Morsink M, Steenbergen P, Vos J, Karst H, Joels M, de Kloet E, et al. Acute activation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors results in different waves of gene expression throughout time. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:239-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a number of interesting candidate genes which may underlie the glucocorticoid-mediated effects on hippocampal cell function. ..
  41. Friedberg F, Rhoads A. Sequence homology of the 3'-untranslated region of calmodulin III in mammals. Mol Biol Rep. 2001;28:27-30 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) has three separate nonallelic genes that encode for three identical proteins. These genes differ considerably in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) and in the promoter region...
  42. Boczek T, Kozaczuk A, Ferenc B, Kosiorek M, Pikula S, Zylinska L. Gene expression pattern in PC12 cells with reduced PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform: selective up-regulation of calmodulin and neuromodulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;360:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..we analyzed the effect of PMCA2 or PMCA3 reduction in PC12 cells on gene expression, with emphasis on calmodulin (CaM), neuromodulin (GAP43) and MAP kinases...
  43. Boczek N, Gómez Hurtado N, Ye D, Calvert M, Tester D, Kryshtal D, et al. Spectrum and Prevalence of CALM1-, CALM2-, and CALM3-Encoded Calmodulin Variants in Long QT Syndrome and Functional Characterization of a Novel Long QT Syndrome-Associated Calmodulin Missense Variant, E141G. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2016;9:136-146 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) is encoded by 3 genes, CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3, all of which harbor pathogenic variants linked to long QT syndrome (LQTS) with early and severe expressivity...
  44. Chin D, Means A. Calmodulin: a prototypical calcium sensor. Trends Cell Biol. 2000;10:322-8 pubmed
    ..The calmodulin-dependent regulation of protein kinases illustrates the potential mechanisms by which Ca2+-sensing proteins can recognize and generate affinity and specificity for effectors in a Ca2+-dependent manner. ..
  45. Rellos P, Pike A, Niesen F, Salah E, Lee W, von Delft F, et al. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000426 pubmed publisher
    ..LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)...
  46. Fruen B, Balog E, Schafer J, Nitu F, Thomas D, Cornea R. Direct detection of calmodulin tuning by ryanodine receptor channel targets using a Ca2+-sensitive acrylodan-labeled calmodulin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:278-84 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) at nanomolar Ca(2+) concentrations but inhibits it at micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating that binding of Ca(2+) to CaM may provide a molecular switch for ..
  47. Vassilakopoulou V, Calver B, Thanassoulas A, Beck K, Hu H, Buntwal L, et al. Distinctive malfunctions of calmodulin mutations associated with heart RyR2-mediated arrhythmic disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:2168-76 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytoplasmic calcium sensor that interacts with the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a large Ca(2+) channel complex that mediates Ca(2+) efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to activate cardiac muscle ..
  48. Russo L, Goñi C, Castro L, Asega A, Camargo A, Trujillo C, et al. Interaction with calmodulin is important for the secretion of thimet oligopeptidase following stimulation. FEBS J. 2009;276:4358-71 pubmed publisher
    ..15 secretion. Together, these data suggest that the interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin is regulated within cells and is important for the stimulated secretion of EP24.15 from HEK293 cells. ..
  49. MacDougall D, Wachten S, Ciruela A, Sinz A, Cooper D. Separate elements within a single IQ-like motif in adenylyl cyclase type 8 impart ca2+/calmodulin binding and autoinhibition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15573-88 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) fulfills its numerous signaling functions through a wide range of modular binding and activation mechanisms...
  50. Li H, Sánchez Torres J, del Carpio A, Nogales González A, Molina Ortiz P, Moreno M, et al. The adaptor Grb7 is a novel calmodulin-binding protein: functional implications of the interaction of calmodulin with Grb7. Oncogene. 2005;24:4206-19 pubmed
    We demonstrate using Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography and overlay with biotinylated CaM that the adaptor proteins growth factor receptor bound (Grb)7 and Grb7V (a naturally occurring variant lacking the Src ..