Gene Symbol: Calm1
Description: calmodulin 1
Alias: CaMI, Calm, Cam1, calmodulin-1, Calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta), caM, calmodulin I
Species: rat
Products:     Calm1

Top Publications

  1. Akyol Z, Bartos J, Merrill M, Faga L, Jaren O, Shea M, et al. Apo-calmodulin binds with its C-terminal domain to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 C0 region. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2166-75 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) is the major Ca2+ sensor in eukaryotic cells. It consists of four EF-hand Ca2+ binding motifs, two in its N-terminal domain and two in its C-terminal domain...
  2. Izumi Y, Watanabe H, Watanabe N, Aoyama A, Jinbo Y, Hayashi N. Solution X-ray scattering reveals a novel structure of calmodulin complexed with a binding domain peptide from the HIV-1 matrix protein p17. Biochemistry. 2008;47:7158-66 pubmed publisher
    The solution structures of complexes between calcium-saturated calmodulin (Ca (2+)/CaM) and a CaM-binding domain of the HIV-1 matrix protein p17 have been determined by small-angle X-ray scattering with use of synchrotron radiation as an ..
  3. Alaimo A, Gómez Posada J, Aivar P, Etxeberria A, Rodriguez Alfaro J, Areso P, et al. Calmodulin activation limits the rate of KCNQ2 K+ channel exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20668-75 pubmed publisher
    The potential regulation of protein trafficking by calmodulin (CaM) is a novel concept that remains to be substantiated. We proposed that KCNQ2 K+ channel trafficking is regulated by CaM binding to the C-terminal A and B helices...
  4. Schumacher M, Crum M, Miller M. Crystal structures of apocalmodulin and an apocalmodulin/SK potassium channel gating domain complex. Structure. 2004;12:849-60 pubmed
    ..conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are composed of the pore-forming alpha subunit and calmodulin (CaM)...
  5. Prichard L, Deloulme J, Storm D. Interactions between neurogranin and calmodulin in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7689-94 pubmed
    Neurogranin is a neural-specific, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) within its IQ domain at serine 36...
  6. Huang K, Huang F, Chen H. Characterization of a 7.5-kDa protein kinase C substrate (RC3 protein, neurogranin) from rat brain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;305:570-80 pubmed
    ..A single site, Ser36, which is adjacent to the predicted calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain, was phosphorylated by these enzymes...
  7. Chagot B, Chazin W. Solution NMR structure of Apo-calmodulin in complex with the IQ motif of human cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5. J Mol Biol. 2011;406:106-19 pubmed publisher
    ..5 is regulated in part by intracellular calcium signals. The ubiquitous calcium sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) is an important part of the complex calcium-sensing apparatus in Na(V)1.5...
  8. Schumacher M, Rivard A, Bachinger H, Adelman J. Structure of the gating domain of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel complexed with Ca2+/calmodulin. Nature. 2001;410:1120-4 pubmed
    ..are heteromeric complexes that comprise pore-forming alpha-subunits and the Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM)...
  9. Wen H, Levitan I. Calmodulin is an auxiliary subunit of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7991-8001 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) was identified as a KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 potassium channel-binding protein, using a yeast two-hybrid screen...

More Information


  1. Clapham D. Calcium signaling. Cell. 2007;131:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Also discussed is the highly localized nature of Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction and its specific roles in excitability, exocytosis, motility, apoptosis, and transcription. ..
  2. Mori M, Erickson M, Yue D. Functional stoichiometry and local enrichment of calmodulin interacting with Ca2+ channels. Science. 2004;304:432-5 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) interactions with Ca2+ channels mediate both Ca2+ regulation of channels and local Ca2+ triggering of transcription factors implicated in neuronal memory...
  3. Kosenko A, Kang S, Smith I, Greene D, Langeberg L, Scott J, et al. Coordinated signal integration at the M-type potassium channel upon muscarinic stimulation. EMBO J. 2012;31:3147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway enhances the effect of concomitant reduction of PIP2, which leads to disruption of the M-channel function. These findings clarify how a common lipid cofactor, such as PIP2, can selectively regulate ion channels. ..
  4. Yus Najera E, Santana Castro I, Villarroel A. The identification and characterization of a noncontinuous calmodulin-binding site in noninactivating voltage-dependent KCNQ potassium channels. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28545-53 pubmed
    We show here that in a yeast two-hybrid assay calmodulin (CaM) interacts with the intracellular C-terminal region of several members of the KCNQ family of potassium channels...
  5. Xu X, Yano M, Uchinoumi H, Hino A, Suetomi T, Ono M, et al. Defective calmodulin binding to the cardiac ryanodine receptor plays a key role in CPVT-associated channel dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:660-6 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM), one of the accessory proteins of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), is known to play a significant role in the channel regulation of the RyR2...
  6. Wang F, Liu Z, Zhang J, DI J. [Effects of lead exposure on protein kinase C and calmodulin expression in hippocampus and neurobehavioral function of baby rats]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2008;26:139-42 pubmed
    To observe the effect of chronic lead contaminant on mRNA expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin (CaM) in hippocampus of baby rats...
  7. Li W, Aldrich R. Activation of the SK potassium channel-calmodulin complex by nanomolar concentrations of terbium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1075-80 pubmed publisher
  8. Erdmann F, Sch uble N, Lang S, Jung M, Honigmann A, Ahmad M, et al. Interaction of calmodulin with Sec61? limits Ca2+ leakage from the endoplasmic reticulum. EMBO J. 2011;30:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a calmodulin (CaM)-binding motif in the cytosolic N-terminus of mammalian Sec61? that bound CaM but not Ca2+-free apocalmodulin with ..
  9. Tsang W, Spektor A, Luciano D, Indjeian V, Chen Z, Salisbury J, et al. CP110 cooperates with two calcium-binding proteins to regulate cytokinesis and genome stability. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3423-34 pubmed
    ..and biochemical analyses, we report that CP110 interacts with two different Ca2+-binding proteins, calmodulin (CaM) and centrin, in vivo...
  10. Yao L, Sakaba T. Activity-dependent modulation of endocytosis by calmodulin at a large central synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:291-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Navarro G, Aymerich M, Marcellino D, Cortés A, Casado V, Mallol J, et al. Interactions between calmodulin, adenosine A2A, and dopamine D2 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28058-68 pubmed publisher
    The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has been shown to bind directly to cytoplasmic domains of some G protein-coupled receptors, including the dopamine D(2) receptor...
  12. Ruiz Hurtado G, Dominguez Rodriguez A, Pereira L, Fernandez Velasco M, Cassan C, Lezoualc h F, et al. Sustained Epac activation induces calmodulin dependent positive inotropic effect in adult cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..or when the downstream effectors of calmodulin (CaMKII or calcineurin) were inhibited, pointing to calmodulin (CaM) as an important downstream protein in Epac sustained actions...
  13. Köster S, Pavkov Keller T, Kuhlbrandt W, Yildiz O. Structure of human Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulatory region in complex with calmodulin and Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A major interaction partner is calmodulin (CaM), which binds to two neighboring regions of NHE1 in a strongly Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
  14. Barbelanne M, Song J, Ahmadzai M, Tsang W. Pathogenic NPHP5 mutations impair protein interaction with Cep290, a prerequisite for ciliogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2482-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional dissection of NPHP5 interactions with Cep290 and CaM reveals a requirement of the former for ciliogenesis, while the latter prevents NPHP5 self-aggregation...
  15. Aoyagi M, Arvai A, Tainer J, Getzoff E. Structural basis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase binding to calmodulin. EMBO J. 2003;22:766-75 pubmed
    The enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is exquisitely regulated in vivo by the Ca(2+) sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) to control production of NO, a key signaling molecule and cytotoxin...
  16. Li H, Sánchez Torres J, del Carpio A, Nogales González A, Molina Ortiz P, Moreno M, et al. The adaptor Grb7 is a novel calmodulin-binding protein: functional implications of the interaction of calmodulin with Grb7. Oncogene. 2005;24:4206-19 pubmed
    We demonstrate using Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography and overlay with biotinylated CaM that the adaptor proteins growth factor receptor bound (Grb)7 and Grb7V (a naturally occurring variant lacking the Src ..
  17. Alaimo A, Alberdi A, Gomis Pèrez C, Fernandez Orth J, Bernardo Seisdedos G, Malo C, et al. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86711 pubmed publisher
    ..Calmodulin (CaM) binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7...
  18. Chin D, Means A. Calmodulin: a prototypical calcium sensor. Trends Cell Biol. 2000;10:322-8 pubmed
    ..The calmodulin-dependent regulation of protein kinases illustrates the potential mechanisms by which Ca2+-sensing proteins can recognize and generate affinity and specificity for effectors in a Ca2+-dependent manner. ..
  19. Boczek N, Gómez Hurtado N, Ye D, Calvert M, Tester D, Kryshtal D, et al. Spectrum and Prevalence of CALM1-, CALM2-, and CALM3-Encoded Calmodulin Variants in Long QT Syndrome and Functional Characterization of a Novel Long QT Syndrome-Associated Calmodulin Missense Variant, E141G. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2016;9:136-146 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) is encoded by 3 genes, CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3, all of which harbor pathogenic variants linked to long QT syndrome (LQTS) with early and severe expressivity...
  20. York B, Lou D, Panettieri R, Krymskaya V, Vanaman T, Noonan D. Cross-talk between tuberin, calmodulin, and estrogen signaling pathways. FASEB J. 2005;19:1202-4 pubmed
    ..had previously been shown to serve as a binding domain for the intracellular calcium signaling molecule calmodulin (CaM)...
  21. Ni B, Rush S, Gurd J, Brown I. Molecular cloning of calmodulin mRNA species which are preferentially expressed in neurons in the rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1992;13:7-17 pubmed
    ..The open reading frame encodes a calmodulin protein of 148 amino acids. Both mRNA species are derived from the rat CaMI gene by utilization of different polyadenylation addition sites...
  22. Boczek T, Kozaczuk A, Ferenc B, Kosiorek M, Pikula S, Zylinska L. Gene expression pattern in PC12 cells with reduced PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoform: selective up-regulation of calmodulin and neuromodulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;360:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In PMCA-suppressed lines total CaM increased, and the calm I and calm II genes appeared to be responsible for this effect...
  23. Fruen B, Balog E, Schafer J, Nitu F, Thomas D, Cornea R. Direct detection of calmodulin tuning by ryanodine receptor channel targets using a Ca2+-sensitive acrylodan-labeled calmodulin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:278-84 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) at nanomolar Ca(2+) concentrations but inhibits it at micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating that binding of Ca(2+) to CaM may provide a molecular switch for ..
  24. Ye Q, Feng Y, Yin Y, Faucher F, Currie M, Rahman M, et al. Structural basis of calcineurin activation by calmodulin. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2661-7 pubmed publisher
    Calcineurin is the only known calmodulin (CaM) activated protein phosphatase, which is involved in the regulation of numerous cellular and developmental processes and in calcium-dependent signal transduction...
  25. MacDougall D, Wachten S, Ciruela A, Sinz A, Cooper D. Separate elements within a single IQ-like motif in adenylyl cyclase type 8 impart ca2+/calmodulin binding and autoinhibition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15573-88 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) fulfills its numerous signaling functions through a wide range of modular binding and activation mechanisms...
  26. Lefevre J, Savarin P, Gans P, Hamon L, Clément M, David M, et al. Structural basis for the association of MAP6 protein with microtubules and its regulation by calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24910-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This result accounts for the regulation of microtubule stability in cold condition by Ca(2+)-calmodulin. ..
  27. Russo L, Asega A, Castro L, Negraes P, Cruz L, Gozzo F, et al. Natural intracellular peptides can modulate the interactions of mouse brain proteins and thimet oligopeptidase with 14-3-3? and calmodulin. Proteomics. 2012;12:2641-55 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular peptides as putative modulators of protein interactions that are related to Ca(2+) -calmodulin (CaM) and 14-3-3?, which are proteins that are related to the spatial organization of signal transduction within cells...
  28. Li H, Alavian K, Lazrove E, Mehta N, Jones A, Zhang P, et al. A Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex regulates synaptic vesicle membrane dynamics during endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutagenesis studies suggest that formation of the Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex is necessary for the enhanced rate of vesicle endocytosis produced by Bcl-xL, thus providing a mechanism for presynaptic plasticity. ..
  29. Howarth F, Qureshi M, Hassan Z, Al Kury L, Isaev D, Parekh K, et al. Changing pattern of gene expression is associated with ventricular myocyte dysfunction and altered mechanisms of Ca2+ signalling in young type 2 Zucker diabetic fatty rat heart. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:325-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Myh7) were upregulated, and genes encoding intracellular Ca(2+) transport regulatory proteins (Atp2a2 and Calm1) and some cardiac muscle proteins (Myh6, Myl2, Actc1, Tnni3, Tnn2, and Tnnc1) were downregulated in ZDF heart ..
  30. Li H, Villalobo A. Evidence for the direct interaction between calmodulin and the human epidermal growth factor receptor. Biochem J. 2002;362:499-505 pubmed
  31. Sidhu R, Clough R, Bhullar R. Regulation of phospholipase C-delta1 through direct interactions with the small GTPase Ral and calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21933-41 pubmed
    ..that involves direct interaction of the small GTPase Ral and the universal calcium-signaling molecule calmodulin (CaM) with PLC-delta1...
  32. Drum C, Yan S, Bard J, Shen Y, Lu D, Soelaiman S, et al. Structural basis for the activation of anthrax adenylyl cyclase exotoxin by calmodulin. Nature. 2002;415:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These allosteric changes provide the first molecular details of how calmodulin modulates one of its targets...
  33. Oda T, Yang Y, Nitu F, Svensson B, Lu X, Fruen B, et al. In cardiomyocytes, binding of unzipping peptide activates ryanodine receptor 2 and reciprocally inhibits calmodulin binding. Circ Res. 2013;112:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Calmodulin (CaM) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6) bind to RyR2 and stabilize the closed channel...
  34. Brushia R, Walsh D. Phosphorylase kinase: the complexity of its regulation is reflected in the complexity of its structure. Front Biosci. 1999;4:D618-41 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms of regulation are currently poorly understood, but new insights are beginning to emerge. This review discusses current knowledge and concepts of the structure, function and regulation of Phk. ..
  35. Furuya Y, Denda M, Sakane K, Ogusu T, Takahashi S, Magari M, et al. Identification of striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel calmodulin target by a newly developed genome-wide screen. Cell Calcium. 2016;60:32-40 pubmed publisher
    To search for novel target(s) of the Ca(2+)-signaling transducer, calmodulin (CaM), we performed a newly developed genome-wide CaM interaction screening of 19,676 GST-fused proteins expressed in human...
  36. Nojima H. Structural organization of multiple rat calmodulin genes. J Mol Biol. 1989;208:269-82 pubmed
    ..The original calmodulin gene is named CaM I (pRCM1) and the newly discovered calmodulin genes are named CaM II (pRCM3) and CaM III (pRCM4)...
  37. Mahon M, Shimada M. Calmodulin interacts with the cytoplasmic tails of the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor and a sub-set of class b G-protein coupled receptors. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:803-7 pubmed
    ..Fluphenazine, a calmodulin antagonist, enhances PTH-mediated accumulation of total inositol phosphates, suggesting that calmodulin regulates signaling via phospholipase C. ..
  38. Yurimoto S, Hatano N, Tsuchiya M, Kato K, Fujimoto T, Masaki T, et al. Identification and characterization of wolframin, the product of the wolfram syndrome gene (WFS1), as a novel calmodulin-binding protein. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3946-55 pubmed publisher
    To search for calmodulin (CaM) targets, we performed affinity chromatography purification of a rat brain extract using CaM fused with GST as the affinity ligand. Proteomic analysis was then carried out to identify CaM-binding proteins...
  39. Xu J, Zhang Q, Li C, Zhang G. Subtoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury through TrkB receptor- and calmodulin-mediated PI-3K/Akt pathway activation. Hippocampus. 2007;17:525-37 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, we found that NMDA enhanced the binding of Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) to p85 (the regulation subunit of PI-3K), which led to the activation of Akt...
  40. Kubota Y, Putkey J, Shouval H, Waxham M. IQ-motif proteins influence intracellular free Ca2+ in hippocampal neurons through their interactions with calmodulin. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:264-76 pubmed
    Calmodulin (CaM) is most recognized for its role in activating Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent enzymes following increased intracellular Ca(2+)...
  41. Yu C, Ko J, Ai T, Tsai W, Chen Z, Rubart M, et al. Arrhythmogenic calmodulin mutations impede activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:1716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..4-93.3 ms] to 121.8 ms [97.9-127.2 ms]; P = .010) in hearts pretreated with anemone toxin but not in control hearts. Human arrhythmogenic calmodulin mutations impede the activation of SK2 channels in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ..
  42. Majava V, Wang C, Myllykoski M, Kangas S, Kang S, Hayashi N, et al. Structural analysis of the complex between calmodulin and full-length myelin basic protein, an intrinsically disordered molecule. Amino Acids. 2010;39:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the best-characterized protein ligands for MBP is calmodulin (CaM), a highly acidic calcium sensor...
  43. Tan R, Mabuchi Y, Grabarek Z. Blocking the Ca2+-induced conformational transitions in calmodulin with disulfide bonds. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7479-83 pubmed
    ..Calmodulin (CaM) and troponin C, the two best characterized Ca2+-regulatory proteins, are members of the family of Ca2+-binding ..
  44. Edlund M, Blikstad I, Obrink B. Calmodulin binds to specific sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of C-CAM and down-regulates C-CAM self-association. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1393-9 pubmed
    ..Two major isoforms, C-CAM1 and C-CAM2, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains, have been identified...
  45. Natsukari N, Zhang S, Nichols R, Weiss B. Immunocytochemical localization of calmodulin in PC12 cells and its possible interaction with histones. Neurochem Int. 1995;26:465-76 pubmed
  46. Rasmussen C, Means A. Calmodulin is required for cell-cycle progression during G1 and mitosis. EMBO J. 1989;8:73-82 pubmed
    In order to examine the consequences of a transient increase or decrease in intracellular calmodulin (CaM) levels, two bovine-papilloma-virus (BPV)-based expression vectors capable of inducibly synthesizing CaM sense (BPV-MCM) or anti-..
  47. Xue J, Graham M, Novelle A, Sue N, Gray N, McNiven M, et al. Calcineurin selectively docks with the dynamin Ixb splice variant to regulate activity-dependent bulk endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Ca(2+) influx regulates assembly of a fully active CaN-calmodulin complex selectively on the tail of dynIxb and that the complex is recruited to sites of ADBE in nerve terminals. ..
  48. Park H, Kim S, Korlach J, Rhoades E, Kwok L, Zipfel W, et al. Conformational changes of calmodulin upon Ca2+ binding studied with a microfluidic mixer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:542-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss possible mechanisms for the two distinct events and the biological role of the stable intermediate, half-saturated calmodulin. ..
  49. Michelhaugh S, Gnegy M. Differential regulation of calmodulin content and calmodulin messenger RNA levels by acute and repeated, intermittent amphetamine in dopaminergic terminal and midbrain areas. Neuroscience. 2000;98:275-85 pubmed
    ..Acute amphetamine increased calmodulin 1.7-fold in the striatum and threefold in the ventral mesencephalon, with corresponding elevations in calmodulin ..
  50. Lu Z, Shen M, Cao Y, Zhang H, Yao L, Li X. Calmodulin bound to the first IQ motif is responsible for calcium-dependent regulation of myosin 5a. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16530-40 pubmed publisher
    ..ATPase activity of myosin 5a is stimulated by micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and that calmodulin (CaM) binds to IQ motifs of the myosin 5a heavy chain indicates that Ca(2+) regulates myosin 5a function via bound CaM...
  51. Olson J, Li G, Wang L, Lu L. Volume-regulated anion conductance in cultured rat cerebral astrocytes requires calmodulin activity. Glia. 2004;46:391-401 pubmed
    ..The data indicate calmodulin activity is critical for activation of volume-regulated anion channels in rat cerebral astrocytes. ..
  52. Kang S, Xu M, Cooper E, Hoshi N. Channel-anchored protein kinase CK2 and protein phosphatase 1 reciprocally regulate KCNQ2-containing M-channels via phosphorylation of calmodulin. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:11536-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of calmodulin regulates the M-current, which is tonically regulated by CK2 and PP1 anchored to the KCNQ2 channel complex. ..
  53. Rokita A, Anderson M. New therapeutic targets in cardiology: arrhythmias and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Circulation. 2012;126:2125-39 pubmed publisher