Gene Symbol: Bmp4
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 4
Alias: BOMPR4A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, BMP-2B, BMP-4, bone morphogenetic protein 2B
Species: rat
Products:     Bmp4

Top Publications

  1. Vainio S, Karavanova I, Jowett A, Thesleff I. Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Cell. 1993;75:45-58 pubmed
    ..b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is expressed in the presumptive ..
  2. Liu W, Selever J, Wang D, Lu M, Moses K, Schwartz R, et al. Bmp4 signaling is required for outflow-tract septation and branchial-arch artery remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4489-94 pubmed
    The Bmp4 signaling molecule is expressed in ventral splanchnic and branchial-arch mesoderm and outflow-tract (OFT) myocardium, suggesting a role for Bmp4 in OFT development...
  3. Furuta Y, Hogan B. BMP4 is essential for lens induction in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3764-75 pubmed
    ..Little is known, however, about the molecules mediating such inductive events. Here, we show that Bmp4, which is expressed strongly in the optic vesicle and weakly in the surrounding mesenchyme and surface ectoderm, ..
  4. Jiao K, Kulessa H, Tompkins K, Zhou Y, Batts L, Baldwin H, et al. An essential role of Bmp4 in the atrioventricular septation of the mouse heart. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2362-7 pubmed
    ..By combining use of a hypomorphic Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) allele with conditional gene inactivation, we here identify Bmp4 as a signal from the myocardium ..
  5. McCulley D, Kang J, Martin J, Black B. BMP4 is required in the anterior heart field and its derivatives for endocardial cushion remodeling, outflow tract septation, and semilunar valve development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for endocardial cushion development and for normal septation of the OFT...
  6. Wozney J, Rosen V, Celeste A, Mitsock L, Whitters M, Kriz R, et al. Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities. Science. 1988;242:1528-34 pubmed
    ..Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule. ..
  7. Dunn N, Winnier G, Hargett L, Schrick J, Fogo A, Hogan B. Haploinsufficient phenotypes in Bmp4 heterozygous null mice and modification by mutations in Gli3 and Alx4. Dev Biol. 1997;188:235-47 pubmed
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), a vertebrate homolog of Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp), encodes a signaling protein with multiple functions during embryogenesis...
  8. Miller R, Dinsio K, Wang R, Geertman R, Maier C, Hall A. Patterning of spinal cord oligodendrocyte development by dorsally derived BMP4. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:9-19 pubmed
    ..We show that during the initial appearance and subsequent maturation of OPCs, BMP4 was expressed specifically in the dorsal midline and its expression was correlated spatially and temporally with ..
  9. Winnier G, Blessing M, Labosky P, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is required for mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2105-16 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in the presumed absence of zygotic ligand, it appears that homozygous mutants can be rescued partially by related proteins or by maternal BMP-4. ..

More Information


  1. Lin J, Chen Y, Huang Y, Tang G, Zhang L, Deng B, et al. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Chinese children. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..linkage data suggesting that 14q21-24 is one of the chromosomal regions that affects nsCL/P and data locating the BMP4 gene to 14q22-23, we performed a case-control study to evaluate whether BMP4 538T/C polymorphism, resulting in an ..
  2. Fuller M, DeChant A, Rothstein B, Caprariello A, Wang R, Hall A, et al. Bone morphogenetic proteins promote gliosis in demyelinating spinal cord lesions. Ann Neurol. 2007;62:288-300 pubmed
    ..The dorsal columns of adult rats were injected with lysolecithin to induce a local demyelinating lesion. Levels of BMP4 and BMP7 proteins were assayed and compared with glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the injury area...
  3. Erickson D, Harris S, Dean D, Harris M, Wozney J, Boyan B, et al. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 regulates costochondral growth plate chondrocytes and induces expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 in a cell maturation-dependent manner. J Orthop Res. 1997;15:371-80 pubmed
    ..Resting-zone chondrocytes were more sensitive, suggesting that they are targeted by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and that this growth factor may have autocrine effects on these cells. ..
  4. Liu W, Sun X, Braut A, Mishina Y, Behringer R, Mina M, et al. Distinct functions for Bmp signaling in lip and palate fusion in mice. Development. 2005;132:1453-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, conditional inactivation of the Bmp4 gene using the Nestin cre transgenic line resulted in isolated cleft lip...
  5. Neubüser A, Peters H, Balling R, Martin G. Antagonistic interactions between FGF and BMP signaling pathways: a mechanism for positioning the sites of tooth formation. Cell. 1997;90:247-55 pubmed
    ..positioned by the combined activity of two signals, one (FGF8) that induces Pax9 expression and the other (BMP2 and BMP4) that prevents this induction...
  6. Reid M, Murray K, Marsh E, Golden J, Simmons R, Grinspan J. Delayed myelination in an intrauterine growth retardation model is mediated by oxidative stress upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012;71:640-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points ..
  7. Yin X, Liu D, Luo F, Long Q, Feng Z. [Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on expression of protein and mRNA of bone morphogenetic protein 4 in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in newborn rats]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:856-61 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF) on expression of protein and mRNA of bone morphogenetic protein 4 in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in newborn rats...
  8. Takuma N, Sheng H, Furuta Y, Ward J, Sharma K, Hogan B, et al. Formation of Rathke's pouch requires dual induction from the diencephalon. Development. 1998;125:4835-40 pubmed
    ..In the diencephalon of the mutant, Bmp4 expression is maintained, whereas Fgf8 expression is not detectable...
  9. Giacomini D, Paez Pereda M, Stalla J, Stalla G, Arzt E. Molecular interaction of BMP-4, TGF-beta, and estrogens in lactotrophs: impact on the PRL promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1102-14 pubmed publisher
  10. Mu Y, Xu Z, Contreras C, McDaniel J, Donly K, Chen S. Phenotype characterization and sequence analysis of BMP2 and BMP4 variants in two Mexican families with oligodontia. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:4110-20 pubmed publisher
    Both BMP2 and BMP4 are involved in tooth development. We examined phenotypes and BMP2 and BMP4 gene variations in two Mexican oligodontia families...
  11. Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zhao X, Yu X, Hu Y, Geronimo B, et al. A new function of BMP4: dual role for BMP4 in regulation of Sonic hedgehog expression in the mouse tooth germ. Development. 2000;127:1431-43 pubmed
    ..Among them are Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP2) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 (BMP4). We have investigated the interactions between these signaling molecules during early tooth development...
  12. Home P, Saha B, Ray S, Dutta D, Gunewardena S, Yoo B, et al. Altered subcellular localization of transcription factor TEAD4 regulates first mammalian cell lineage commitment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that altered subcellular localization of TEAD4 in blastomeres dictates first mammalian cell fate specification. ..
  13. Yaoita H, Orimo H, Shirai Y, Shimada T. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and rat distal-less homolog genes following rat femoral fracture. J Bone Miner Metab. 2000;18:63-70 pubmed
  14. Carev D, Saraga M, Saraga Babic M. Involvement of FGF and BMP family proteins and VEGF in early human kidney development. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to VEGF involvement in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, abnormal VEGF appearance might lead to impaired formation of the blood vessel network in the human permanent kidney. ..
  15. Hong S, Oh H, Valera V, Stull J, Ngo D, Baba M, et al. Tumor suppressor FLCN inhibits tumorigenesis of a FLCN-null renal cancer cell line and regulates expression of key molecules in TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:160 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, deregulation of genes involved in TGF-beta signaling by FLCN inactivation is likely to be an important step for tumorigenesis in BHD syndrome. ..
  16. Miyoshi T, Otsuka F, Otani H, Inagaki K, Goto J, Yamashita M, et al. Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein-4 in GH regulation by octreotide and bromocriptine in rat pituitary GH3 cells. J Endocrinol. 2008;197:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may explain the mechanism of resistance of GH reduction to a combination therapy with OCT and BRC for GH-producing pituitary adenomas. ..
  17. Chen Y, Bei M, Woo I, Satokata I, Maas R. Msx1 controls inductive signaling in mammalian tooth morphogenesis. Development. 1996;122:3035-44 pubmed
    ..Our results show that expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4), the HMG box gene Lef1 and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 is specifically reduced ..
  18. Blitz E, Viukov S, Sharir A, Shwartz Y, Galloway J, Pryce B, et al. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We then show that the transcription factor scleraxis (SCX) regulates Bmp4 in tendon cells at their insertion site...
  19. He W, Li Z, Cui Y, Yi B, Liang C, Wang X, et al. [Effect of icariin on the mRNA expressions of Cbfalpha1, BMP2, BMP4 in rat osteoblasts]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;41:669-73 pubmed
    ..the effect of icariin on the proliferation, differentiation, and the mRNA expressions of Cbfalpha1, BMP2, BMP4 of rat osteoblasts...
  20. Maruyama Y, Mikawa S, Hotta Y, Sato K. BMP4 expression in the developing rat retina. Brain Res. 2006;1122:116-21 pubmed
    We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) in the developing retina. At E19, we found very intense BMP4 immunoreactivity (IR) in the nerve fiber layer...
  21. Paine Saunders S, Viviano B, Zupicich J, Skarnes W, Saunders S. glypican-3 controls cellular responses to Bmp4 in limb patterning and skeletal development. Dev Biol. 2000;225:179-87 pubmed
    ..glypican function; GPC3-deficient animals were mated with mice haploinsufficient for bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4) and their offspring displayed a high penetrance of postaxial polydactyly and rib malformations not observed in ..
  22. Raatikainen Ahokas A, Hytonen M, Tenhunen A, Sainio K, Sariola H. BMP-4 affects the differentiation of metanephric mesenchyme and reveals an early anterior-posterior axis of the embryonic kidney. Dev Dyn. 2000;217:146-58 pubmed
    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, regulates several developmental processes during animal development...
  23. Ferguson G, Watterson K, Palmer T. Subtype-specific regulation of receptor internalization and recycling by the carboxyl-terminal domains of the human A1 and rat A3 adenosine receptors: consequences for agonist-stimulated translocation of arrestin3. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14748-61 pubmed
    ..In the case of the rat A(3)AR, sensitivity to GRK-mediated internalization appears to be regulated in part by the integrity of putative palmitate attachment sites upstream of its GRK phosphoacceptor sites. ..
  24. Fukada T, Civic N, Furuichi T, Shimoda S, Mishima K, Higashiyama H, et al. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3642 pubmed publisher
    ..The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction. ..
  25. Shinkai M, Shinkai T, Pirker M, Montedonico S, Puri P. Effect of nitric oxide on fibroblast growth factor-10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4 expressions in the branching morphogenesis of fetal rat lung explants. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:1030-3 pubmed
    ..the effect of NO on the expression of fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF10) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), which plays an important role in bud formation. Fetal rat lungs harvested on day 13...
  26. Jiang X, Zhou Y, Xian L, Chen W, Wu H, Gao X. The mutation in Chd7 causes misexpression of Bmp4 and developmental defects in telencephalic midline. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:626-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, expression of Bmp4, a signal well known to induce forebrain midline cell fate and apoptosis, was down-regulated and also expanded in ..
  27. He J, Liu J, Liu F, Tan P, Lin T, Li X. Mutation screening of BMP4 and Id2 genes in Chinese patients with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence has shown that BMP4 and Id2 play crucial roles in nephrogenesis, alterations of which may cause ureteral developmental anomalies...
  28. Gao W, Zhang S, Zhang H, Wan B, Yin Z. Chordin-like protein 1 promotes neuronal differentiation by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein-4 in neural stem cells. Mol Med Rep. 2013;7:1143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study indicates that CHRDL1 protein antagonizes BMP?4 activity and induces spinal cord?derived NSCs to differentiate into neurons. ..
  29. Singh R, Moritz K, Bertram J, Cullen McEwen L. Effects of dexamethasone exposure on rat metanephric development: in vitro and in vivo studies. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F548-54 pubmed
    ..These results show for the first time that inhibition of ureteric branching morphogenesis may be a key mechanism through which DEX exposure results in a reduced nephron endowment. ..
  30. Nahar N, Missana L, Garimella R, Tague S, Anderson H. Matrix vesicles are carriers of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and noncollagenous matrix proteins. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant amounts of BMP-2 and BMP-4 were detected in MVs by ELISA. Combined, these data suggest that MVs could play an important morphogenetic role in growth plate and endochondral bone formation. ..
  31. Zhang J, Tian W, Nie X, Liu L, Tang W, Lin Y. [Expressions of fibronectin and bone morphogenetic protein-2, 4 during development of mouse tooth germ]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;38:826-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that BMP-2, 4 and FN play the important roles during bud stage and bell stage, and there may be synergy between BMP-2, 4 and FN in regulating differentiation and maturity of odontoblasts. ..
  32. Obara Ishihara T, Kuhlman J, Niswander L, Herzlinger D. The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. Development. 1999;126:1103-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development. ..
  33. Jasuja R, Allen B, Pappano W, Rapraeger A, Greenspan D. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans potentiate chordin antagonism of bone morphogenetic protein signaling and are necessary for cellular uptake of chordin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51289-97 pubmed
    ..These data and others regarding Chordin diffusion have implications for the paradigm of how Chordin is thought to regulate BMP signaling in the extracellular space and how gradients of BMP signaling are formed. ..
  34. Kim M, Kaduwal S, Yang D, Choi K. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 stimulates attachment of neurospheres and astrogenesis of neural stem cells in neurospheres via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-mediated upregulation of N-cadherin. Neuroscience. 2010;170:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induced the attachment of neurospheres, astrocytic differentiation, and migration of neurosphere ..
  35. Masterson J, Molloy E, Gilbert J, McCormack N, Adams A, O Dea S. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial cells during regeneration. Cell Signal. 2011;23:398-406 pubmed publisher
    Mechanisms of lung regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is critical for lung morphogenesis and regulates differentiation of the airway epithelium during development, although its ..
  36. Bai Y, Wang J, Morikawa Y, Bonilla Claudio M, Klysik E, Martin J. Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development. Development. 2013;140:3395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated Bmp signaling in mouse OFT development by conditionally deleting both Bmp4 and Bmp7 in the second heart field (SHF)...
  37. Azibani F, Benard L, Schlossarek S, Merval R, Tournoux F, Fazal L, et al. Aldosterone inhibits antifibrotic factors in mouse hypertensive heart. Hypertension. 2012;59:1179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, in AS-Ren mice the hypertension-induced increase in bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA and protein levels was significantly inhibited, and B-type natriuretic peptide expression was ..
  38. Hyatt B, Shangguan X, Shannon J. BMP4 modulates fibroblast growth factor-mediated induction of proximal and distal lung differentiation in mouse embryonic tracheal epithelium in mesenchyme-free culture. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:153-65 pubmed
    ..and mesenchyme, which is mediated by diffusible molecules such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and Shh...
  39. Kim S, Chae C, Cho B, Kim H, Kim H, Kim I, et al. Apoptosis of oral epithelial cells in oral lichen planus caused by upregulation of BMP-4. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:37-45 pubmed
    ..Therefore, over-expression of BMP-4 is one causing factor for apoptosis of oral epithelial cells through upregulation of p53, MMP1 and MMP3 in OLP. ..
  40. Bei M, Kratochwil K, Maas R. BMP4 rescues a non-cell-autonomous function of Msx1 in tooth development. Development. 2000;127:4711-8 pubmed
    ..In Msx1-deficient mice, tooth development arrests at the bud stage when Msx1 is required for the expression of Bmp4 and Fgf3 in the dental mesenchyme (Bei, M. and Maas, R. (1998) Development 125, 4325-4333)...
  41. Maeda S, Hayashi M, Komiya S, Imamura T, Miyazono K. Endogenous TGF-beta signaling suppresses maturation of osteoblastic mesenchymal cells. EMBO J. 2004;23:552-63 pubmed
  42. Kwak C, Park Y, Kim I, Moon K, Ku J. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, the subfamily of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007;178:1062-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, our findings suggest that bone morphogenetic protein-7 expression may be considered a new prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma. ..
  43. Bègue Kirn C, Smith A, Loriot M, Kupferle C, Ruch J, Lesot H. Comparative analysis of TGF beta s, BMPs, IGF1, msxs, fibronectin, osteonectin and bone sialoprotein gene expression during normal and in vitro-induced odontoblast differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:405-20 pubmed
  44. Astorga J, Carlsson P. Hedgehog induction of murine vasculogenesis is mediated by Foxf1 and Bmp4. Development. 2007;134:3753-61 pubmed
    ..We show that Bmps, in particular Bmp4, are crucial for vascular tube formation, that Bmp4 expression in extraembryonic tissues requires the forkhead ..
  45. Enokiya Y, Hashimoto S, Muramatsu T, Jung H, Tazaki M, Inoue T, et al. Effect of stretching stress on gene transcription related to early-phase differentiation in rat periodontal ligament cells. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2010;51:129-37 pubmed
    ..However, expression of bFGF was restrained. Reduced expression of bFGF mRNA suggested that there was an optimum magnitude of stretching force for increasing expression. ..
  46. Yamamoto S, Hirai K, Hasegawa Oka Y, Hirai Y. Molecular elements of the regulatory control of keratin filament modulator AHF/trichohyalin in the hair follicle. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on the strict molecular mechanisms which control stage- and compartment-specific IF assemblies in support of the cyclic development of the hair shaft. ..
  47. Crowley A, Mehta S, Hembree M, Preuett B, Prasadan K, Sharp S, et al. Faulty bone morphogenetic protein signaling in esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1208-13 pubmed
    ..Tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for BMP ligand (BMP2, BMP4, BMP7) and receptor (BMPRIA, BMPRIB, BMPRII) expression...
  48. Martinez G, Mishina Y, Bertram J. BMPs and BMP receptors in mouse metanephric development: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:525-33 pubmed
    ..In vivo, renal phenotypes have been reported in BMP7 homozygous null mutant mice and BMP4 heterozygous null mutant mice...
  49. Hao J, Lee R, Chang A, Fan J, Labib C, Parsa C, et al. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90748 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment...
  50. Jumabay M, Moon J, Yeerna H, Boström K. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Adipocyte-Derived Stem Cells in Rat. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230:2821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports suggest that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is involved in diabetic complications, at the same time playing an important role in the ..
  51. Jiang J, Sun W, Jing Y, Liu S, Ma Z, Hong Y, et al. Prenatal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate induces anorectal malformations in male rat offspring. Toxicology. 2011;290:322-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of controls with accompanying reduced expression of androgen receptor (AR), sonic hedgehog (Shh) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) mRNA from tissues of the terminal rectum...
  52. Fan J, Shen H, Sun Y, Li P, Burczynski F, Namaka M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis through activation of Smad1 and ERK1/2 in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:499-505 pubmed
    ..Although it has been demonstrated that BMP2 and BMP4 significantly increased the abundance of smooth muscle alpha actin (alpha-SMA) in cultured HSCs, the expression of ..
  53. Levinson R, Batourina E, Choi C, Vorontchikhina M, Kitajewski J, Mendelsohn C. Foxd1-dependent signals control cellularity in the renal capsule, a structure required for normal renal development. Development. 2005;132:529-39 pubmed
    ..that comprises the normal renal capsule, the mutant capsule contains heterogeneous layers of cells, including Bmp4-expressing cells, which induce ectopic phospho-Smad1 signaling in nephron progenitors...