Gene Symbol: Bmp2
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 2
Alias: bone morphogenetic protein 2, BMP-2, BMP-2A, bone morphogenetic protein 2A
Species: rat
Products:     Bmp2

Top Publications

  1. Bramono D, Murali S, Rai B, Ling L, Poh W, Lim Z, et al. Bone marrow-derived heparan sulfate potentiates the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone. 2012;50:954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP-2 half-life, (ii) reducing interactions between BMP-2 with its antagonist noggin, and (iii) modulating BMP2 distribution on the cell surface...
  2. Jeon O, Song S, Yang H, Bhang S, Kang S, Sung M, et al. Long-term delivery enhances in vivo osteogenic efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 compared to short-term delivery. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold greater calcium content, upon implantation into rat hind limb muscle. These results show that long-term delivery of BMP-2 enhances in vivo osteogenic efficacy of the protein compared to short-term delivery at an equivalent dose. ..
  3. Rui Y, Lui P, Wong Y, Tan Q, Chan K. BMP-2 stimulated non-tenogenic differentiation and promoted proteoglycan deposition of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) in vitro. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:746-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, BMP-2 promoted GAG deposition, aggrecan expression, and enhanced non-tenocyte differentiation of TDSCs in vitro. The effect of BMP-2 on TDSCs might provide insights into the histopathological changes of tendinopathy...
  4. Sato M, Ochi T, Nakase T, Hirota S, Kitamura Y, Nomura S, et al. Mechanical tension-stress induces expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-4, but not BMP-6, BMP-7, and GDF-5 mRNA, during distraction osteogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14:1084-95 pubmed
    ..Abundant gene products of BMP-2 and BMP-4 could induce in situ bone formation by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. ..
  5. Anderson L, Lowery J, Frank D, Novitskaya T, Jones M, Mortlock D, et al. Bmp2 and Bmp4 exert opposing effects in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R833-42 pubmed publisher
    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 2 receptor ligand, Bmp2, is upregulated in the peripheral pulmonary vasculature during hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
  6. Wozney J, Rosen V, Celeste A, Mitsock L, Whitters M, Kriz R, et al. Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities. Science. 1988;242:1528-34 pubmed
    ..Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule. ..
  7. Zhang Y, Zhao S, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Liu J, Zhang Z, et al. Cx43- and Smad-Mediated TGF-?/ BMP Signaling Pathway Promotes Cartilage Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1277-1293 pubmed publisher
    ..overexpressed in the AdBMP2, AdSmad1, AdCx43 + AdSmad1 and AdCx43 + AdSmad1 + AdBMP2 groups, and overexpression of BMP2 at the mRNA and protein expression was observed in the AdSmad1 and AdCx43 + AdSmad1 groups...
  8. Hegarty S, Collins L, Gavin A, Roche S, Wyatt S, Sullivan A, et al. Canonical BMP-Smad signalling promotes neurite growth in rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Neuromolecular Med. 2014;16:473-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Two related members of this family, BMP2 and growth differentiation factor (GDF)5, have neurotrophic effects, including promotion of neurite growth, on ..
  9. Yang Y, Liu Y, Chuang L, Guh J, Lee T, Liao T, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 antagonizes renal interstitial fibrosis by promoting catabolism of type I transforming growth factor-beta receptors. Endocrinology. 2009;150:727-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BMP-2 acts as a novel fibrosis antagonizing cytokine partly by down-regulating TGF-beta RI and Smads. ..

More Information


  1. Nahar Gohad P, Gohad N, Tsai C, Bordia R, Vyavahare N. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells cultured on hydroxyapatite differentiate into osteoblast-like cells via BMP-2-SMAD-5 pathway. Calcif Tissue Int. 2015;96:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking CaSR by NPS-2143 reduced BMP-2 secretion and blocking the BMP-2 pathway by LDN-193189, a BMP inhibitor, modulated expression of osteogenic markers confirming their role in osteogenesis of Vsmcs. ..
  2. Honoré S, Zelarayan L, Genta S, Sánchez S. Neuronal loss and abnormal BMP/Smad signaling in the myenteric plexus of diabetic rats. Auton Neurosci. 2011;164:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that diabetes is associated with an abnormal BMP/Smad signaling expression in the myenteric ganglia that affects the homeostasis of the enteric plexus. ..
  3. Mazerbourg S, Sangkuhl K, Luo C, Sudo S, Klein C, Hsueh A. Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ligands based on genomic analyses. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32122-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present approach provides a genomic paradigm for matching paralogous polypeptide ligands with a limited number of evolutionarily related receptors capable of activating specific downstream Smad proteins. ..
  4. Yamaji N, Celeste A, Thies R, Song J, Bernier S, Goltzman D, et al. A mammalian serine/threonine kinase receptor specifically binds BMP-2 and BMP-4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;205:1944-51 pubmed
    ..During embryogenesis, in situ hybridization analysis indicates that CFK-43a mRNA is localized in developing skeletal tissues in a complementary fashion to the transcripts for its ligands. ..
  5. Kugimiya F, Kawaguchi H, Kamekura S, Chikuda H, Ohba S, Yano F, et al. Involvement of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and BMP6 in bone formation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35704-12 pubmed
    ..This study initially investigated expression patterns of BMPs in the mouse long bone and found that BMP2 and BMP6 were the main subtypes expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes that induce endochondral bone formation...
  6. Csiszar A, Smith K, Koller A, Kaley G, Edwards J, Ungvari Z. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, H2O2, and high intravascular pressure. Circulation. 2005;111:2364-72 pubmed
    ..Vascular BMP-2 expression can be regulated by H2O2-mediated activation of NF-kappaBeta both by inflammatory stimuli and by high intravascular pressure. ..
  7. Rosendahl A, Pardali E, Speletas M, Ten Dijke P, Heldin C, Sideras P. Activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad signaling in bronchial epithelial cells during airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:160-9 pubmed
    ..mRNA and protein profiles for BMP ligands were significantly altered during airway inflammation with induction of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6, and downregulation of BMP5 and BMP7...
  8. Ghosh Choudhury N, Abboud S, Chandrasekar B, Ghosh Choudhury G. BMP-2 regulates cardiomyocyte contractility in a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent manner. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:181-4 pubmed
    ..Also we provide the first evidence that BMP-2-induced PI 3 kinase activity regulates this cardiomyocyte function. ..
  9. Sun Y, Fei T, Yang T, Zhang F, Chen Y, Li H, et al. The suppression of CRMP2 expression by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD gradient signaling controls multiple stages of neuronal development. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism that the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway controls neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth by suppressing the transcription of CRMP2. ..
  10. Southwood M, Jeffery T, Yang X, Upton P, Hall S, Atkinson C, et al. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in human pulmonary vascular development. J Pathol. 2008;214:85-95 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a critical role for BMPs in lung vasculogenesis. Dysfunctional BMP signalling in PAECs during development may lead to abnormal pulmonary vascular development and contribute to the pathogenesis of FPAH. ..
  11. Seya K, Yu Z, Kanemaru K, Daitoku K, Akemoto Y, Shibuya H, et al. Contribution of bone morphogenetic protein-2 to aortic valve calcification in aged rat. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:8-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that aortic valve calcification progresses with age partly through an activation of the BMP-2 pathway. ..
  12. Sweatt A, Sane D, Hutson S, Wallin R. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in aortic calcified lesions of aging rats. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:178-85 pubmed
    ..Age-related arterial calcification may be a consequence of under-gamma-carboxylation of MGP, allowing unopposed BMP-2 activity. ..
  13. Ichida F, Nishimura R, Hata K, Matsubara T, Ikeda F, Hisada K, et al. Reciprocal roles of MSX2 in regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34015-22 pubmed
    ..Interestingly the expression of Msx2 was induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 treatment in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells...
  14. Zhang J, Tian W, Nie X, Liu L, Tang W, Lin Y. [Expressions of fibronectin and bone morphogenetic protein-2, 4 during development of mouse tooth germ]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;38:826-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that BMP-2, 4 and FN play the important roles during bud stage and bell stage, and there may be synergy between BMP-2, 4 and FN in regulating differentiation and maturity of odontoblasts. ..
  15. James R, Schultheiss T. Bmp signaling promotes intermediate mesoderm gene expression in a dose-dependent, cell-autonomous and translation-dependent manner. Dev Biol. 2005;288:113-25 pubmed
  16. Yin X, Liang Z, Yun Y, Pei L. Intravenous Transplantation of BMP2-Transduced Endothelial Progenitor Cells Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;35:2149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is an essential signaling molecule that regulates the fate of different cell types...
  17. Gazit D, Ebner R, Kahn A, Derynck R. Modulation of expression and cell surface binding of members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily during retinoic acid-induced osteoblastic differentiation of multipotential mesenchymal cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:189-98 pubmed
    ..These data also establish the C26 and 10T1/2 cell lines as convenient in vitro model systems for exploring the autoregulation of osteogenic differentiation by members of the TGF beta superfamily. ..
  18. Hager Theodorides A, Outram S, Shah D, Sacedon R, Shrimpton R, Vicente A, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 signaling regulates early thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2002;169:5496-504 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that BMP2/4 signaling is involved in thymocyte development...
  19. Sandell L, Sanderson B, Moiseyev G, Johnson T, Mushegian A, Young K, et al. RDH10 is essential for synthesis of embryonic retinoic acid and is required for limb, craniofacial, and organ development. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1113-24 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results identify a new nodal point in RA metabolism during embryogenesis. ..
  20. Si L, Shi J, Gao W, Zheng M, Liu L, Zhu J, et al. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;450:81-6 pubmed publisher
    b>BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator...
  21. Kim Y, Lee M, Wozney J, Cho J, Ryoo H. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression is stimulated by Dlx5 and repressed by Msx2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50773-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, Dlx5 transactivates ALP expression, directly by binding to its cognate response element and/or indirectly by stimulating Runx2 expression, and Msx2 counteracts the direct transactivation of Dlx5. ..
  22. CHALAZONITIS A, D Autréaux F, Guha U, Pham T, Faure C, Chen J, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 limit the number of enteric neurons but promote development of a TrkC-expressing neurotrophin-3-dependent subset. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4266-82 pubmed
    ..BMP-2 and/or BMP-4 thus limit the size of the ENS but promote the development of specific subsets of enteric neurons, including those that express TrkC. ..
  23. Dassule H, McMahon A. Analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the initial morphogenesis of the mammalian tooth. Dev Biol. 1998;202:215-27 pubmed
    ..In this paper we have investigated the role of four epithelial signaling molecules, Bmp2, Shh, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, in the early inductive cascades that govern tooth development...
  24. Mukherjee A, Rotwein P. Akt promotes BMP2-mediated osteoblast differentiation and bone development. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In a mesenchymal stem cell model of osteoblast commitment and differentiation controlled by BMP2, we show that an inhibitor of PI3-kinase or a dominant-negative Akt were as potent in preventing osteoblast ..
  25. Pan H, Li X, Wang J, Zhang K, Yang H, Li Z, et al. LIM Mineralization Protein-1 Enhances Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Osteogenesis Through Activation of ERK1/2 MAPK Pathway and Upregulation of Runx2 Transactivity. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect occurs through activation of ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent upregulation of Runx2 transactivity. ..
  26. Erickson G, Fuqua L, Shimasaki S. Analysis of spatial and temporal expression patterns of bone morphogenetic protein family members in the rat uterus over the estrous cycle. J Endocrinol. 2004;182:203-17 pubmed
  27. Huang C, Liu J, Xia C, Hu Y. [Effects of melatonin on expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and interleukin 1beta in articular cartilage of rat with osteoarthritis]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;24:1082-7 pubmed
    ..the prevention and treatment effects of MLT on damaged cartilage through observing the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) in articular cartilage of the rats with osteoarthritis (OA)...
  28. Oh S, Hwang Y, Yang H, Kang J, Hur S, Jung N, et al. SHP is involved in BMP2-induced odontoblast differentiation. J Dent Res. 2012;91:1124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SHP is reported to be a positive regulator of BMP2-induced bone formation...
  29. Hu J, Zhang Y, Qi Q, Wang R, Shen L, Zhang C, et al. Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 proteins by type-1 and type-2 astrocytes induced from neural stem cells under different differentiation conditions. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2012;72:95-101 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the astrocytes might be one source of BMPs during the differentiation of NSCs. However, in our model, we cannot exclude the possibility that microglia or endothelial cells could also be a source of BMPs. ..
  30. Li P, Bai Y, Yin G, Pu X, Huang Z, Liao X, et al. Synergistic and sequential effects of BMP-2, bFGF and VEGF on osteogenic differentiation of rat osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Metab. 2014;32:627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could be used to construct bone tissue engineering scaffolds that release growth factors sequentially. ..
  31. Li R, Nauth A, Gandhi R, Syed K, Schemitsch E. BMP-2 mRNA expression after endothelial progenitor cell therapy for fracture healing. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28 Suppl 1:S24-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Schwarz C, Wulsten D, Ellinghaus A, Lienau J, Willie B, Duda G. Mechanical load modulates the stimulatory effect of BMP2 in a rat nonunion model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the mechanical stimulation would further enhance the efficacy of BMP2 treatment. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-mm defect, stabilized with an external fixator...
  33. Nahar N, Missana L, Garimella R, Tague S, Anderson H. Matrix vesicles are carriers of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and noncollagenous matrix proteins. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant amounts of BMP-2 and BMP-4 were detected in MVs by ELISA. Combined, these data suggest that MVs could play an important morphogenetic role in growth plate and endochondral bone formation. ..
  34. Koch H, Jadlowiec J, Campbell P. Insulin-like growth factor-I induces early osteoblast gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2005;14:621-31 pubmed
    ..into an osteogenic lineage if the appropriate differentiative cues, such as dexamethasone or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), are present...
  35. Grgurevic L, Macek B, Healy D, Brault A, Erjavec I, Cipcic A, et al. Circulating bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 isoform increases renal fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, inhibition of circulating BMP1-3 reduces renal fibrosis, suggesting that this pathway may be a therapeutic target for CKD. ..
  36. Kee H, Cho S, Kim G, Choi S, Ryu Y, Kim I, et al. Gallic acid inhibits vascular calcification through the blockade of BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Vascul Pharmacol. 2014;63:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of BMP2 or Noggin blocked phosphate-induced calcification...
  37. Lee K, Taghavi C, Murray S, Song K, Keorochana G, Wang J. BMP induced inflammation: a comparison of rhBMP-7 and rhBMP-2. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our animal model can be used to test materials that could ameliorate this reaction. ..
  38. Xu C, Ji W, van den Brink G, Peppelenbosch M. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:7621-5 pubmed
    ..The observed down regulation of BMP-2 following partial hepatectomy suggests that such down regulation may be necessary for hepatocyte proliferation. ..
  39. Furuta Y, Piston D, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-12 pubmed
    ..compared by in situ hybridization the expression of five Bmp genes belonging to the Drosophila Decapentaplegic (Bmp2 and Bmp4) and 60A subgroups (Bmp5, Bmp6 and Bmp7)...
  40. Su J, Chiou J, Tang C, Zhao M, Tsai C, Chen P, et al. CYR61 regulates BMP-2-dependent osteoblast differentiation through the {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin/integrin-linked kinase/ERK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31325-36 pubmed publisher
  41. Balk M, Bray J, Day C, Epperly M, Greenberger J, Evans C, et al. Effect of rhBMP-2 on the osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells from an osteogenesis imperfecta mouse (oim). Bone. 1997;21:7-15 pubmed
    ..Under basal conditions, however, the stromal cells from oim mice exhibited significantly lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity than their normal littermates. ..
  42. Kami D, Shiojima I, Makino H, Matsumoto K, Takahashi Y, Ishii R, et al. Gremlin enhances the determined path to cardiomyogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2407 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation stage when CL6 cells were destined to cardiomyogenesis, and was mediated through inhibition of BMP2. Furthermore, BMP2 inhibited Wnt/beta-catenin signaling that promoted CL6 cardiomyogenesis...
  43. Cho Y, Yoon W, Woo K, Baek J, Lee G, Cho J, et al. Molecular regulation of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein expression by bone morphogenetic protein-2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, MEPE expression is bone cell-specific and induced by the BMP-2 signaling pathway. In addition, the MEPE/PHEX ratio of the cell could be a very important barometer indicating the progression of tissue mineralization. ..
  44. Kim J, Choi Y, Do J, Choi Y, Ha C, Lee S, et al. Estrogen-Related Receptor γ Plays a Key Role in Vascular Calcification Through the Upregulation of BMP2 Expression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ERRγ induced bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) expression, leading to increased phosphorylation of the intracellular BMP2 effector proteins ..
  45. Abe N, Lee Y, Sato M, Zhang X, Wu J, Mitani K, et al. Enhancement of bone repair with a helper-dependent adenoviral transfer of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:523-7 pubmed
    ..This type of gene therapy vector could prove to be highly useful for bone augmentation in patients with bone loss associated with trauma, revision total joint arthroplasty, or cancer. ..
  46. Schrauwen I, Thys M, Vanderstraeten K, Fransen E, Dieltjens N, Huyghe J, et al. Association of bone morphogenetic proteins with otosclerosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:507-16 pubmed
    ..We found significant association in both populations with BMP2 and BMP4, implicating these two genes in the pathogenesis of this disease.
  47. Rico Llanos G, Becerra J, Visser R. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in vitro and in vivo, and together have a stronger osteogenic effect than when IGF-1 is combined with BMP-2. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2017;105:1867-1875 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the combination of BMP-6 with IGF-1 might be a better alternative than BMP-2 for orthopedic surgery or bone tissue engineering approaches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1867-1875, 2017. ..
  48. Valdes A, Hart D, Jones K, Surdulescu G, Swarbrick P, Doyle D, et al. Association study of candidate genes for the prevalence and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2497-507 pubmed
    ..After adjusting for age and body mass index, we observed significant associations at ADAM12, BMP2, CD36, COX2, and NCOR2 with 3 OA susceptibility traits (presence/absence of joint space narrowing [JSN], presence/..
  49. Cho Y, Yoon W, Woo K, Baek J, Park J, Ryoo H. The canonical BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial part in stimulation of dentin sialophosphoprotein expression by BMP-2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the canonical BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a crucial part in the regulation of Dspp expression through the action of Smads, Dlx5, Runx2, and Msx2...
  50. Kisiel M, Klar A, Ventura M, Buijs J, Mafina M, Cool S, et al. Complexation and sequestration of BMP-2 from an ECM mimetic hyaluronan gel for improved bone formation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78551 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic bone formation assays at subcutaneous sites in rats demonstrated that HA hydrogel-delivered BMP-2 precomplexed with GAG induced twice the volume of bone compared with BMP-2 delivered uncomplexed to GAG. ..
  51. Bègue Kirn C, Smith A, Loriot M, Kupferle C, Ruch J, Lesot H. Comparative analysis of TGF beta s, BMPs, IGF1, msxs, fibronectin, osteonectin and bone sialoprotein gene expression during normal and in vitro-induced odontoblast differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:405-20 pubmed
    Immobilized TGF beta 1 and BMP2 are able to promote the differentiation of odontoblast-like cells in isolated mouse dental papillae cultured in vitro. These cells polarize and accumulate predentin-like matrix at their apical pole...
  52. Song T, Yang J, Park J, Song Y, Han J, Youn H, et al. The role of histone chaperones in osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..3 were required for early steps of osteoblastic differentiation. Our results suggest that histone chaperones and variant histones might be differentially required for the distinct phases of differentiation pathway. ..
  53. Nakashima K, Yanagisawa M, Arakawa H, Taga T. Astrocyte differentiation mediated by LIF in cooperation with BMP2. FEBS Lett. 1999;457:43-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that astrocytes spontaneously emerge in vitro without exogenously added LIF and BMP2 in the culture of neuroepithelial cells for a much longer period...
  54. He W, Li Z, Cui Y, Yi B, Liang C, Wang X, et al. [Effect of icariin on the mRNA expressions of Cbfalpha1, BMP2, BMP4 in rat osteoblasts]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;41:669-73 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of icariin on the proliferation, differentiation, and the mRNA expressions of Cbfalpha1, BMP2, BMP4 of rat osteoblasts...
  55. Lee D, Lee D, Zhou L, Zhou L, Zhou Z, Xie J, et al. Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. Blood. 2010;115:3136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant hepatocytes in vitro show impaired BMP2 induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and hepcidin expression...
  56. Horvath L, Henshall S, Kench J, Turner J, Golovsky D, Brenner P, et al. Loss of BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in prostate cancer progression. Prostate. 2004;59:234-42 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to characterize aspects of the BMP pathway in PC by assessing BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in normal, hyperplastic, and malignant prostate tissue, and to correlate findings with ..
  57. Chung J, Jeon H, Hong S, Lee D, Lee K, Kim S, et al. Palmitate promotes the paracrine effects of macrophages on vascular smooth muscle cells: the role of bone morphogenetic proteins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29100 pubmed publisher
    ..The influences of these proteins were further confirmed by direct treatment of recombinant BMP2 and BMP4 on SMCs...
  58. Chen Y, Han G, Jin C, Shi R, Hou J. [Effect of simvastatin on bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the periodontal tissue after rat tooth movement]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;43:21-5 pubmed
    ..The possible mechanism for this may be that simvastatin functions by increasing the expression of BMP-2 in the periodontal tissue, accelerating the osteoblast activity and promoting bone formation. ..
  59. Chu T, Warden S, Turner C, Stewart R. Segmental bone regeneration using a load-bearing biodegradable carrier of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Biomaterials. 2007;28:459-67 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrated that the load-bearing BMP-2 scaffold can maintain bone length and allow successfully regeneration in segmental defects. ..
  60. Shen J, James A, Zhang X, Pang S, Zara J, Asatrian G, et al. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:419-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-..
  61. Su Y, Chung R, Ruan C, Chim S, Kuek V, Dwivedi P, et al. Neurotrophin-3 Induces BMP-2 and VEGF Activities and Promotes the Bony Repair of Injured Growth Plate Cartilage and Bone in Rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:1258-74 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. ..
  62. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Werner S, Thesleff I. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:719-30 pubmed
  63. Li Z, Liu R, Kong C. [Significance of expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 4 in prostatic carcinoma]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006;12:126-8, 132 pubmed
    To determine the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 4 (BMP-2 and BMP-4) in prostatic carcinoma (PCa) and investigate their relationship with clinical stage and Gleason score of tumor...
  64. Nakatsuka R, Taniguchi M, Hirata M, Shiota G, Sato K. Transient expression of bone morphogenic protein-2 in acute liver injury by carbon tetrachloride. J Biochem. 2007;141:113-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that BMP-2 secreted from oval-like cells plays important roles in the wound healing response of injured liver...
  65. Zhang Y, Lu W, Yang K, Xu L, Lai N, Tian L, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 decreases TRPC expression, store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and basal [Ca(2+)]i in rat distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although BMP2 and BMP4 share high homology in amino acid sequence, they appear to exert divergent effects on chronic hypoxic ..
  66. Xiong D, Shen H, Zhao L, Xiao P, Yang T, Guo Y, et al. Robust and comprehensive analysis of 20 osteoporosis candidate genes by very high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism screen among 405 white nuclear families identified significant association and gene-gene interaction. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1678-95 pubmed
    ..spine BMD/OP; four genes (CYP19, RANK, RANKL, and CYP17) highly suggestive for hip BMD/OP; and four genes (CYP19, BMP2, RANK, and TNFR2) highly suggestive for UD BMD/OP...
  67. Yang B, Lin X, Tan J, She X, Liu Y, Kuang H. Root bark of Sambucus Williamsii Hance promotes rat femoral fracture healing by the BMP-2/Runx2 signaling pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;191:107-114 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that 50% ethanol extracts of root-bark of Sambucus Williamsii Hance can accelerate fracture healing by recruitment of osteoblasts at the fracture site and through up-regulation of the BMP-2 signaling pathway. ..
  68. Zhao M, Ko S, Liu J, Chen D, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. Inhibition of microtubule assembly in osteoblasts stimulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and bone formation through transcription factor Gli2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1291-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is essential for postnatal bone formation and fracture repair...
  69. Ngo T, Scherer M, Zhou F, Foster B, Xian C. Expression of bone morphogenic proteins and receptors at the injured growth plate cartilage in young rats. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:945-54 pubmed
  70. Tsujii M, Akeda K, Iino T, Uchida A. Are BMPs involved in normal nerve and following transection?: a pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467:3183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BMPRs were also upregulated compared with the normal nerve. The upregulation in BMP expression after nerve transection suggests that BMPs may play a role in the healing response of the peripheral nerve. ..
  71. Roman Roman S, Shi D, Stiot V, Hay E, Vayssière B, Garcia T, et al. Murine Frizzled-1 behaves as an antagonist of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5725-33 pubmed
    ..In the course of the analysis of genes regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 in mesenchymal cells we found a significant induction of murine Frizzled-1 (mFz1) gene expression...
  72. Subramaniam M, Gorny G, Johnsen S, Monroe D, Evans G, Fraser D, et al. TIEG1 null mouse-derived osteoblasts are defective in mineralization and in support of osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1191-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude from these data that TIEG1 expression in OBs is critical for both osteoblast-mediated mineralization and osteoblast support of osteoclast differentiation. ..
  73. Doak S, Jenkins S, Hurle R, Varma M, Hawizy A, Kynaston H, et al. Bone morphogenic factor gene dosage abnormalities in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007;176:161-5 pubmed
    ..No deletions of the gene loci examined were observed, but gain of BMP2, BMP5, BMP7, and UC28 occurred in 58, 50, 50, and 67% of tumor foci, respectively...
  74. Mu Y, Xu Z, Contreras C, McDaniel J, Donly K, Chen S. Phenotype characterization and sequence analysis of BMP2 and BMP4 variants in two Mexican families with oligodontia. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:4110-20 pubmed publisher
    Both BMP2 and BMP4 are involved in tooth development. We examined phenotypes and BMP2 and BMP4 gene variations in two Mexican oligodontia families...
  75. Enokiya Y, Hashimoto S, Muramatsu T, Jung H, Tazaki M, Inoue T, et al. Effect of stretching stress on gene transcription related to early-phase differentiation in rat periodontal ligament cells. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2010;51:129-37 pubmed
    ..However, expression of bFGF was restrained. Reduced expression of bFGF mRNA suggested that there was an optimum magnitude of stretching force for increasing expression. ..
  76. Samad T, Rebbapragada A, Bell E, Zhang Y, Sidis Y, Jeong S, et al. DRAGON, a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14122-9 pubmed
    ..DRAGON binds directly to BMP2 and BMP4 but not to BMP7 or other TGFbeta ligands...
  77. Young D, Pratap J, Javed A, Weiner B, Ohkawa Y, van Wijnen A, et al. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is obligatory for BMP2-induced, Runx2-dependent skeletal gene expression that controls osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:720-30 pubmed
    Development of bone tissue requires maturation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal precursors. BMP2, a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, and the Runx2 (AML3/Cbfa1) transcription factor, a downstream BMP2 effector, are regulatory signals ..
  78. Friedman M, Oyserman S, Hankenson K. Wnt11 promotes osteoblast maturation and mineralization through R-spondin 2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that Wnt11 signals through beta-catenin, activating Rspo2 expression, which is then required for Wnt11-mediated osteoblast maturation. ..
  79. Xu H, Wu F, Zhang H, Yang C, Li K, Wang H, et al. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity. Biochimie. 2017;138:184-193 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG)...
  80. Yamashita M, Ying S, Zhang G, Li C, Cheng S, Deng C, et al. Ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 controls osteoblast activity and bone homeostasis by targeting MEKK2 for degradation. Cell. 2005;121:101-13 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Smurf1 negatively regulates osteoblast activity and response to BMP through controlling MEKK2 degradation. ..
  81. Hillger F, Herr G, Rudolph R, Schwarz E. Biophysical comparison of BMP-2, ProBMP-2, and the free pro-peptide reveals stabilization of the pro-peptide by the mature growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14974-80 pubmed
    ..As in the case of NGF/proNGF, the mature part of BMP-2 stabilized the structure of the pro-peptide moiety. However, in contrast to NGF/proNGF, the pro-peptide did not stimulate oxidative folding of the mature part in vitro. ..
  82. Cui Z, Zhao P, Jia C, Liu H, Qi R, Cui J, et al. Local expression and role of BMP-2/4 in injured spinal cord. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:9109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..05). SCI can cause severe impairment of motor activity in rats. Seven days after SCI, the local expression of BMP-2/4 had obviously increased; noggin can effectively inhibit the expression of BMP-2/4 and reduce impairment. ..
  83. Yang F, West A, Allendorph G, Choe S, Bjorkman P. Neogenin interacts with hemojuvelin through its two membrane-proximal fibronectin type III domains. Biochemistry. 2008;47:4237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that BMP-2 and neogenin bind simultaneously to hemojuvelin raises the possibility that neogenin is part of a multiprotein complex at the hepatocyte membrane involving BMP, its receptors, and hemojuvelin. ..
  84. Wang X, Oyane A, Tsurushima H, Sogo Y, Li X, Ito A. BMP-2 and ALP gene expression induced by a BMP-2 gene-fibronectin-apatite composite layer. Biomed Mater. 2011;6:045004 pubmed publisher
    The bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene delivery system with a gene-fibronectin (Fn)-apatite composite layer was fabricated on the surface of a hydroxyapatite ceramic scaffold...
  85. Jin E, Lee S, Choi Y, Jung J, Bang O, Kang S. BMP-2-enhanced chondrogenesis involves p38 MAPK-mediated down-regulation of Wnt-7a pathway. Mol Cells. 2006;22:353-9 pubmed
    ..Our results collectively indicate that the increase in Sox9 protein resulting from downregulation of b-catenin/Wnt-7a signaling is mediated by p38 MAPK during BMP-2 induced chondrogenesis in chick wing bud mesenchymal cells. ..
  86. Monuki E, Porter F, Walsh C. Patterning of the dorsal telencephalon and cerebral cortex by a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway. Neuron. 2001;32:591-604 pubmed
    ..Bimodal Lhx2 regulation can be recapitulated in explants using two roof plate-derived signaling molecules, Bmp4 and Bmp2. Loss of Lhx2 function results in profound losses of cortical progenitors and neurons, but Lhx2 mutants continue to ..
  87. Babitt J, Zhang Y, Samad T, Xia Y, Tang J, Campagna J, et al. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), a DRAGON homologue, is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29820-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that BMP signaling occurs in neurons that express RGMa in vivo. These data are consistent with a role for RGMa as a BMP co-receptor. ..
  88. Yuasa M, Yamada T, Taniyama T, Masaoka T, Xuetao W, Yoshii T, et al. Dexamethasone enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow- and muscle-derived stromal cells and augments ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116462 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Dexamethasone enhanced the osteogenic capability of bone marrow- and muscle-derived cells by altering the subpopulation composition. 3. Dexamethasone augmented ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2. ..
  89. Brock M, Samillan V, Trenkmann M, Schwarzwald C, Ulrich S, Gay R, et al. AntagomiR directed against miR-20a restores functional BMPR2 signalling and prevents vascular remodelling in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:3203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data emphasize that treatment with antagomiR-20a restores functional levels of BMPR2 in pulmonary arteries and prevents the development of vascular remodelling. ..
  90. van der Stok J, Wang H, Amin Yavari S, Siebelt M, Sandker M, Waarsing J, et al. Enhanced bone regeneration of cortical segmental bone defects using porous titanium scaffolds incorporated with colloidal gelatin gels for time- and dose-controlled delivery of dual growth factors. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:2605-14 pubmed publisher