Bdkrb2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Bdkrb2
Description: bradykinin receptor B2
Alias: B2BKR, B2BRA, B2 bradykinin receptor, B2R, BK-2 receptor, bradykinin receptor, beta 2
Species: rat
Products:     Bdkrb2

Top Publications

  1. Leeb Lundberg L, Marceau F, Muller Esterl W, Pettibone D, Zuraw B. International union of pharmacology. XLV. Classification of the kinin receptor family: from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiological consequences. Pharmacol Rev. 2005;57:27-77 pubmed
    ..This review is a comprehensive presentation of our current understanding of these receptors in terms of molecular and cell biology, physiology, pharmacology, and involvement in human disease and drug development. ..
  2. Grilo A, Sáez Rosas M, Santos Morano J, Sanchez E, Moreno Rey C, Real L, et al. Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that genetic polymorphisms in MME [rs2016848, P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=1.795], BDKRB2 (rs8012552, P=0.012, OR=1.609), PTGER3 (rs11209716, P=0.002, OR=0...
  3. Qadri F, Hauser W, Johren O, Dominiak P. Kinin B1 and B2 receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:258-63 pubmed
  4. Zhao Y, Biermann T, Luther C, Unger T, Culman J, Gohlke P. Contribution of bradykinin and nitric oxide to AT2 receptor-mediated differentiation in PC12 W cells. J Neurochem. 2003;85:759-67 pubmed
    ..The effects of angiotensin II on cell differentiation and cyclic GMP production were mediated via the AT2 receptor and further enhanced by bradykinin B2 receptor blockade. ..
  5. Rastelli V, Oliveira M, dos Santos R, de Cássia Tostes Passaglia R, Nigro D, de Carvalho M, et al. Enalapril treatment corrects the reduced response to bradykinin in diabetes increasing the B2 protein expression. Peptides. 2008;29:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..From our data, we conclude that in diabetes enalapril corrects the impaired BK response probably by increasing the expression of B2 receptors. The lack of potentiation of BK by Ang-(1-7) is not corrected by this agent. ..
  6. Wang T, Wan Z, Liu J, Chen M, Chen R, Yang W, et al. Age-related changes in kallikreins-kinins system in rat corpus cavernosum. Int J Androl. 2011;34:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue kallikrein-I (KLKI) and kinin B2 receptor (B2R) mRNA in CC and thoracic aorta were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  7. Moriyama K, Liu J, Jang Y, Chae Y, Wang Y, Mitchell J, et al. Receptor mediation and nociceptin inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..BK-induced PE is inhibited by nociceptin through the activation of ORL1 receptors. There are differences between BK- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced inflammation in signaling and modulation. ..
  8. Sang H, Liu L, Wang L, Qiu Z, Li M, Yu L, et al. Opposite roles of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors during cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury in experimental diabetic rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we hypothesized that bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) and bradykinin 2 receptor (B2R) would be upregulated and participate in the regulation of diabetic ischaemic stroke...
  9. Torres Rivera W, Perez D, Park K, Carrasco M, Platt M, Eterovic V, et al. Kinin-B2 receptor exerted neuroprotection after diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced neuronal damage. Neuroscience. 2013;247:273-9 pubmed publisher
    The kinin-B2 receptor (B2BKR) activated by its endogenous ligand bradykinin participates in various metabolic processes including the control of arterial pressure and inflammation...
  10. Dai J, Agelan A, Yang A, Zuluaga V, Sexton D, Colman R, et al. Role of plasma kallikrein-kinin system activation in synovial recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells in experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..a strong capacity to form tubes and vacuoles and expressed increased levels of bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2R) and progenitor cell markers CD34 and Sca-1...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Leeb Lundberg L, Marceau F, Muller Esterl W, Pettibone D, Zuraw B. International union of pharmacology. XLV. Classification of the kinin receptor family: from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiological consequences. Pharmacol Rev. 2005;57:27-77 pubmed
    ..This review is a comprehensive presentation of our current understanding of these receptors in terms of molecular and cell biology, physiology, pharmacology, and involvement in human disease and drug development. ..
  2. Grilo A, Sáez Rosas M, Santos Morano J, Sanchez E, Moreno Rey C, Real L, et al. Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that genetic polymorphisms in MME [rs2016848, P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=1.795], BDKRB2 (rs8012552, P=0.012, OR=1.609), PTGER3 (rs11209716, P=0.002, OR=0...
  3. Qadri F, Hauser W, Johren O, Dominiak P. Kinin B1 and B2 receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:258-63 pubmed
  4. Zhao Y, Biermann T, Luther C, Unger T, Culman J, Gohlke P. Contribution of bradykinin and nitric oxide to AT2 receptor-mediated differentiation in PC12 W cells. J Neurochem. 2003;85:759-67 pubmed
    ..The effects of angiotensin II on cell differentiation and cyclic GMP production were mediated via the AT2 receptor and further enhanced by bradykinin B2 receptor blockade. ..
  5. Rastelli V, Oliveira M, dos Santos R, de Cássia Tostes Passaglia R, Nigro D, de Carvalho M, et al. Enalapril treatment corrects the reduced response to bradykinin in diabetes increasing the B2 protein expression. Peptides. 2008;29:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..From our data, we conclude that in diabetes enalapril corrects the impaired BK response probably by increasing the expression of B2 receptors. The lack of potentiation of BK by Ang-(1-7) is not corrected by this agent. ..
  6. Wang T, Wan Z, Liu J, Chen M, Chen R, Yang W, et al. Age-related changes in kallikreins-kinins system in rat corpus cavernosum. Int J Androl. 2011;34:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue kallikrein-I (KLKI) and kinin B2 receptor (B2R) mRNA in CC and thoracic aorta were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  7. Moriyama K, Liu J, Jang Y, Chae Y, Wang Y, Mitchell J, et al. Receptor mediation and nociceptin inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..BK-induced PE is inhibited by nociceptin through the activation of ORL1 receptors. There are differences between BK- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced inflammation in signaling and modulation. ..
  8. Sang H, Liu L, Wang L, Qiu Z, Li M, Yu L, et al. Opposite roles of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors during cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury in experimental diabetic rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we hypothesized that bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) and bradykinin 2 receptor (B2R) would be upregulated and participate in the regulation of diabetic ischaemic stroke...
  9. Torres Rivera W, Perez D, Park K, Carrasco M, Platt M, Eterovic V, et al. Kinin-B2 receptor exerted neuroprotection after diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced neuronal damage. Neuroscience. 2013;247:273-9 pubmed publisher
    The kinin-B2 receptor (B2BKR) activated by its endogenous ligand bradykinin participates in various metabolic processes including the control of arterial pressure and inflammation...
  10. Dai J, Agelan A, Yang A, Zuluaga V, Sexton D, Colman R, et al. Role of plasma kallikrein-kinin system activation in synovial recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells in experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..a strong capacity to form tubes and vacuoles and expressed increased levels of bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2R) and progenitor cell markers CD34 and Sca-1...
  11. Lieblong B, Sridharan V, Srivastava A, Moros E, Sharma S, Boerma M. Role of the bradykinin B2 receptor in a rat model of local heart irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2015;91:634-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the role of the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in early radiation-induced signaling in the heart...
  12. Yashima S, Shimazaki A, Mitoma J, Nakagawa T, Abe M, Yamada H, et al. Close association of B2 bradykinin receptors with P2Y2 ATP receptors. J Biochem. 2015;158:155-63 pubmed publisher
    Two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that couple with Gαq/11, B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor (B2R) and ATP/UTP receptor P2Y2 (P2Y2R), are ubiquitously expressed and responsible for vascular tone, inflammation, and pain...
  13. Chen Z, Deddish P, Minshall R, Becker R, ERDOS E, Tan F. Human ACE and bradykinin B2 receptors form a complex at the plasma membrane. FASEB J. 2006;20:2261-70 pubmed
    ..Heterodimer formation between ACE and B2 receptors can be a mechanism for ACE inhibitors to augment kinin activity at cellular level. ..
  14. Chopra B, Barrick S, Meyers S, Beckel J, Zeidel M, Ford A, et al. Expression and function of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal and inflamed rat urinary bladder urothelium. J Physiol. 2005;562:859-71 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the bradykinin 2 receptor (B2R) but not the bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R) is expressed in control bladder urothelium...
  15. Tan Y, Hutchison F, Jaffa A. Mechanisms of angiotensin II-induced expression of B2 kinin receptors. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H926-32 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that ANG II regulates expression of B2KR in VSMC and provide a rationale for studying the interaction between ANG II and bradykinin in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. ..
  16. Rajakulasingam K, Polosa R, Holgate S, Howarth P. Comparative nasal effects of bradykinin, kallidin and [Des-Arg9]-bradykinin in atopic rhinitic and normal volunteers. J Physiol. 1991;437:577-87 pubmed
    ..05). 3. These findings identify that the nasal effects of kinins are mediated through B2 receptors and the advent of B2 receptor antagonists will permit a further evaluation of the role of kinins in rhinitis. ..
  17. Atanassova N. B2 bradykinin receptor mediates the stimulatory effect of bradykinin on rat germ cell proliferation in vitro. Andrologia. 2003;35:13-6 pubmed
  18. Smeda J, McGuire J, Daneshtalab N. Protease-activated receptor 2 and bradykinin-mediated vasodilation in the cerebral arteries of stroke-prone rats. Peptides. 2010;31:227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the presence of vascular injury, edema, inflammation and the loss of endothelium-dependent bradykinin vasodilation we found no evidence that PAR(2) expression or vascular function was altered in MCA after stroke. ..
  19. Lee Y, Tsai J. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion, not bradykinin B2 receptor -58T/C gene polymorphism, associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-related cough in Chinese female patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2001;50:1346-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that Chinese diabetic female subjects are susceptible to ACEI-related cough, and this susceptibility may be genetically predetermined. ..
  20. Russell F, Veldhoen V, Tchitchkan D, McDougall J. Proteinase-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) activation leads to sensitization of rat joint primary afferents via a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This PAR(4)-induced sensitization is TRPV1-independent but involves B(2) receptor activation, suggesting a role for kinins in this process. ..
  21. Seegers H, Avery P, McWilliams D, Haywood L, Walsh D. Combined effect of bradykinin B2 and neurokinin-1 receptor activation on endothelial cell proliferation in acute synovitis. FASEB J. 2004;18:762-4 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that substance P and bradykinin can act on NK1 and B2 receptors, respectively, to promote endothelial cell proliferation in acute synovitis. ..
  22. Rodrigues E, Silva R, Martin R, Oliveira S, Nakaie C, Sabatini R, et al. Evidence that kinin B2 receptor expression is upregulated by endothelial overexpression of B1 receptors. Peptides. 2013;42:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Bradykinin (BK) and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (DBK) of kallikrein-kinin system exert its effects mediated by the B2 (B2R) and B1 (B1R) receptors, respectively...
  23. Mukae S, Aoki S, Itoh S, Iwata T, Ueda H, Katagiri T. Bradykinin B(2) receptor gene polymorphism is associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-related cough. Hypertension. 2000;36:127-31 pubmed
    ..A genetic variant of the bradykinin receptor is involved in the elicitation of ACE inhibitor-related cough. It may be possible to predict the side effects of ACE inhibitors in advance. ..
  24. Abdalla S, Godovac Zimmermann J, Braun A, Roscher A, Muller Esterl W, Quitterer U. Structure of the bradykinin B2 receptors' amino terminus. Biochemistry. 1996;35:7514-9 pubmed
    ..Antibodies raised against a peptide of the initial 27 amino acids of the human B2 receptor stained B2 receptors on intact cells. This finding excludes the existence of a signal sequence for this receptor. ..
  25. Liesmaa I, Leskinen H, Kokkonen J, Ruskoaho H, Kovanen P, Lindstedt K. Hypoxia-induced expression of bradykinin type-2 receptors in endothelial cells triggers NO production, cell migration, and angiogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results show that mild hypoxia triggers a temporal expression of functional BK-2Rs in human and rat endothelial cells and support a role for BK-2Rs in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. ..
  26. Ellis K, Cannet C, Mazzoni L, Fozard J. Airway hyperresponsiveness to bradykinin induced by allergen challenge in actively sensitised Brown Norway rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;369:166-78 pubmed
  27. Petcu M, Dias J, Ongali B, Thibault G, Neugebauer W, Couture R. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study measured the densities of B1R and B2R binding sites in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by quantitative autoradiography, and evaluated the ..
  28. Freise H, Palmes D, Spiegel H. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme reduces rat liver reperfusion injury via bradykinin-2-receptor. J Surg Res. 2006;134:231-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a pivotal role for bradykinin in the treatment of reperfusion injury by Ramiprilat, mediating sinusoidal dilation and blunting hepatic inflammation. ..
  29. Pesquero J, Lindsey C, Zeh K, Paiva A, Ganten D, Bader M. Molecular structure and expression of rat bradykinin B2 receptor gene. Evidence for alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26920-5 pubmed
  30. Taraseviciene Stewart L, Scerbavicius R, Stewart J, Gera L, Demura Y, Cool C, et al. Treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension: a bradykinin receptor 2 agonist B9972 causes reduction of pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Peptides. 2005;26:1292-300 pubmed
  31. Duchene J, Schanstra J, Pecher C, Pizard A, Susini C, Esteve J, et al. A novel protein-protein interaction between a G protein-coupled receptor and the phosphatase SHP-2 is involved in bradykinin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40375-83 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that bradykinin inhibits cell proliferation by a novel mechanism involving a direct protein-protein interaction between a GPCR (the B2 receptor) and SHP-2. ..
  32. Cellier E, Duchene J, Pecher C, Alric C, Bascands J, Schanstra J, et al. B2 receptor activation reduces Erk1 and Erk2 phosphorylation induced by insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and high glucose in rat isolated glomeruli. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:341-5 pubmed
    ..of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1 and Erk2 by bradykinin (BK), an agonist of the kinin B2 receptor (B2R). In contrast, other reports showed an inhibitory modulation of mitogenesis by BK...
  33. Imai C, Okamura A, Peng J, Kitamura Y, Printz M. Interleukin-1beta enhanced action of kinins on extracellular matrix of spontaneous hypertensive rat cardiac fibroblasts. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2005;27:59-69 pubmed
  34. Lu J, Xing J, Li J. Bradykinin B2 receptor contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;304:H1166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, results obtained from this study support our hypothesis that heightened kinin B2 receptor expression in the sensory nerves contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion. ..
  35. Haack K, Tougas M, Jones K, El Dahr S, Radhakrishna H, McCarty N. A novel bioassay for detecting GPCR heterodimerization: transactivation of beta 2 adrenergic receptor by bradykinin receptor. J Biomol Screen. 2010;15:251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence of Bk2R/beta(2)AR physical interaction, forming a functional heterodimer. The oocyte system may prove highly useful for exploration of GPCR heterodimerization and the functional consequences thereof. ..
  36. Mukae S, Itoh S, Aoki S, Iwata T, Nishio K, Sato R, et al. Association of polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and bradykinin B2 receptor with ACE-inhibitor-related cough. J Hum Hypertens. 2002;16:857-63 pubmed
  37. Kintsurashvili E, Duka A, Ignjacev I, Pattakos G, Gavras I, Gavras H. Age-related changes of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H202-5 pubmed
    ..This study aims to investigate whether changes in B1R and B2R gene and protein expression in rat heart are associated with the age-related alterations of cardiac structure and ..
  38. Sainz I, Uknis A, Isordia Salas I, Dela Cadena R, Pixley R, Colman R. Interactions between bradykinin (BK) and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression in peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS)-induced arthritis. FASEB J. 2004;18:887-9 pubmed
    ..These effects are mediated by bradykinin-1 (B1R) and-2 (B2R) receptors...
  39. Sivritas S, Ploth D, Fitzgibbon W. Blockade of renal medullary bradykinin B2 receptors increases tubular sodium reabsorption in rats fed a normal-salt diet. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in rats fed a normal-salt diet, kinins act tonically via medullary BKB(2) receptors to increase Na(+) excretion independent of changes in inner medullary blood flow. ..
  40. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Bradykinin B2 receptor in the adrenal medulla of male rats and mice: glucocorticoid-dependent increase with immobilization stress. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3729-38 pubmed publisher
    Bradykinin, acting via the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), is a potent stimulator of adrenomedullary catecholamine biosynthesis and release and likely plays an important role in the adrenomedullary stress response...
  41. Kuoppala A, Shiota N, Lindstedt K, Rysa J, Leskinen H, Luodonpää M, et al. Expression of bradykinin receptors in the left ventricles of rats with pressure overload hypertrophy and heart failure. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1729-36 pubmed
    ..However, ongoing pressure overload leads to a loss of BK-2Rs with a dramatic increase in left ventricular fibrosis followed by diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. ..
  42. Woo S, Bang S, Chung M, Jin S, Kim Y, Lee S. Lack of association between ACE and bradykinin B2 receptor gene polymorphisms and ACE inhibitor-induced coughing in hypertensive Koreans. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no significant links between polymorphisms of the ACE gene or bradykinin B2 receptor gene with ACE inhibitor-induced coughing in hypertensive Koreans. But, the topic remains controversial and requires more study. ..
  43. Abadir P, Periasamy A, Carey R, Siragy H. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-bradykinin B2 receptor functional heterodimerization. Hypertension. 2006;48:316-22 pubmed
    Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2R) or bradykinin B2 (B2R) receptor activation enhances NO production. Recently, we demonstrated enhancement of NO production when AT2R and B2R are simultaneously activated in vivo...
  44. Hopkinson N, Eleftheriou K, Payne J, Nickol A, Hawe E, Moxham J, et al. +9/+9 Homozygosity of the bradykinin receptor gene polymorphism is associated with reduced fat-free mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:912-7 pubmed
    ..However, alterations in the activity at the BK(2)R do not seem to account for the previously identified association of quadriceps strength with ACE genotype. ..
  45. Silva A, Larangeira A, Pacheco P, Calixto J, Henriques M, Bozza P, et al. Bradykinin down-regulates LPS-induced eosinophil accumulation in the pleural cavity of mice through type 2-kinin receptor activation: a role for prostaglandins. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:569-75 pubmed
    ..25 nmol cavity(-1)) injected mice. 6. In conclusion, endogenously generated bradykinin seems to modulate, through activation of B2 receptors, eosinphil accumulation induced by LPS via a mechanism dependent on prostanoid synthesis. ..
  46. Cloutier F, de Sousa Buck H, Ongali B, Couture R. Pharmacologic and autoradiographic evidence for an up-regulation of kinin B(2) receptors in the spinal cord of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135:1641-54 pubmed
  47. Qadri F, Schwartz E, Häuser W, Jöhren O, Muller Esterl W, Dominiak P. Kinin B2 receptor localization and expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003;3:285-92 pubmed
    ..The increased B(2) receptor expression in the hypothalamus and adrenal glands may also play a role in the abnormalities of the HPA axis in SHR during the development of hypertension. ..
  48. Gama Landgraf R, Jancar S, Steil A, Sirois P. Modulation of allergic and immune complex-induced lung inflammation by bradykinin receptor antagonists. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:78-83 pubmed
    ..The effect of bradykinin (B(1) or B(2)) receptor antagonists was studied in allergic and immune-complex-induced lung inflammation...
  49. Caetano A, Viel T, Bittencourt M, Araujo M, de Angelis K, Buck H. Change in central kinin B2 receptor density after exercise training in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2010;158:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the lamina 2, B2 receptor might be involved in the exercise-induced hypotension. ..
  50. Tan Y, Keum J, Wang B, McHenry M, Lipsitz S, Jaffa A. Targeted deletion of B2-kinin receptors protects against the development of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F1026-35 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that targeted deletion of B2KR protects against the development of DN. ..
  51. Poole S, Lorenzetti B, Cunha J, Cunha F, Ferreira S. Bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors, tumour necrosis factor alpha and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;126:649-56 pubmed
  52. Kusser B, Braun A, Praun M, Illi S, von Mutius E, Roscher A. Polymorphisms in the bradykinin B2 receptor gene and childhood asthma. Biol Chem. 2001;382:885-9 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms with a potential functional relevance have been described in the B2 bradykinin receptor gene. Study of these polymorphisms in 77 children with asthma and 73 controls revealed no association...
  53. Lim S, Park S. The high glucose-induced stimulation of B1R and B2R expression via CB(1)R activation is involved in rat podocyte apoptosis. Life Sci. 2012;91:895-906 pubmed publisher
    ..A chemical inhibitor or siRNA transfection was used to inhibit B1R, B2R, and CB(1)R signaling. High glucose (25 mM) treatment decreased cell viability and increased DNA fragmentation...
  54. Côté J, Savard M, Bovenzi V, Dubuc C, Tremblay L, Tsanaclis A, et al. Selective tumor blood-brain barrier opening with the kinin B2 receptor agonist [Phe(8)psi(CH(2)NH)Arg(9)]-BK in a F98 glioma rat model: an MRI study. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach for transporting drugs across the BBB involves the activation of bradykinin-B2 receptors (BK-B2R)...
  55. Forner S, Andrade E, Martini A, Bento A, Medeiros R, Koepp J, et al. Effects of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists on overactive urinary bladder syndrome induced by spinal cord injury in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:1737-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data show the important roles of B(1) and B(2) receptors in OAB following SCI in rats and suggest that blockade of these receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for controlling OAB. ..
  56. von Banchet G, Fischer N, Uhlig B, Hensellek S, Eitner A, Schaible H. Molecular effects of interleukin-1? on dorsal root ganglion neurons: prevention of ligand-induced internalization of the bradykinin 2 receptor and downregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:262-71 pubmed publisher
  57. Duka A, Duka I, Gao G, Shenouda S, Gavras I, Gavras H. Role of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal blood pressure regulation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E268-74 pubmed
    With inhibition or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), B1R is upregulated and assumes some of the hemodynamic properties of B2R, indicating that both participate in the maintenance of normal vasoregulation or to development of ..
  58. Campos M, Ongali B, Thibault G, Neugebauer W, Couture R. Autoradiographic distribution and alterations of kinin B(2) receptors in the brain and spinal cord of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Synapse. 2005;58:184-92 pubmed
    ..This contrasts with the early induction and over-expression of B(1) receptors reported in the brain and spinal cord of STZ-diabetic rats. ..
  59. Plesnila N, Schulz J, Stoffel M, Eriskat J, Pruneau D, Baethmann A. Role of bradykinin B2 receptors in the formation of vasogenic brain edema in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2001;18:1049-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings further clarify the role of bradykinin in the pathophysiology of brain edema formation and confirm the therapeutic potency of bradykinin B2 receptor inhibition. ..
  60. França C, Vicari C, Piza A, Geroldo E, Becak M, Beçak W, et al. The kinin B(2) receptor gene structure, product processing and expression in adult and fetal rats: evidence for gene evolution. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:215-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The "exon-X" fragment may result from interstitial gene duplication, be a fragment of the ancestral gene, or most likely heterologous transposon insertion of an exon-like fragment into intron-2 of the KB2r gene. ..
  61. Bertram C, Misso N, Fogel Petrovic M, Figueroa C, Foster P, Thompson P, et al. Expression of kinin receptors on eosinophils: comparison of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids down-regulated the expression of the kinin B(1)R. ..
  62. Soskic V, Nyakatura E, Roos M, Muller Esterl W, Godovac Zimmermann J. Correlations in palmitoylation and multiple phosphorylation of rat bradykinin B2 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8539-45 pubmed