Bad

Summary

Gene Symbol: Bad
Description: BCL2-associated agonist of cell death
Alias: bcl2-associated agonist of cell death, Bcl2-antagonist of cell death, bcl-2 associated death agonist, bcl-2-binding component 6, bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter, bcl2 antagonist of cell death, bcl2-associated death promoter
Species: rat
Products:     Bad

Top Publications

  1. Hsu S, Kaipia A, Zhu L, Hsueh A. Interference of BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells by 14-3-3 isoforms and P11. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1858-67 pubmed
    ..Unlike most other members of the Bcl-2 family, BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter), a death enhancer, has no C-terminal transmembrane domain for targeting to ..
  2. Yu F, Sugawara T, Maier C, Hsieh L, Chan P. Akt/Bad signaling and motor neuron survival after spinal cord injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;20:491-9 pubmed
    ..kinase Akt is a cell survival signaling pathway that inactivates the proapoptotic BCL-2 family protein Bad and promotes cell survival in cerebral ischemia...
  3. Hamner S, Arumae U, Li Ying Y, Sun Y, Saarma M, Lindholm D. Functional characterization of two splice variants of rat bad and their interaction with Bcl-w in sympathetic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;17:97-106 pubmed
    ..In this study we have identified two splice variants of the rat proapoptotic molecule Bad, which differ in their carboxy-terminal regions...
  4. Abe T, Takagi N, Nakano M, Furuya M, Takeo S. Altered Bad localization and interaction between Bad and Bcl-xL in the hippocampus after transient global ischemia. Brain Res. 2004;1009:159-68 pubmed
    ..b>Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the bcl-2 gene family that promotes apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting functions ..
  5. Yang E, Zha J, Jockel J, Boise L, Thompson C, Korsmeyer S. Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death. Cell. 1995;80:285-91 pubmed
    ..Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein, Bad, whose homology to Bcl-2 is limited to the BH1 and BH2 domains...
  6. Huang Y, Liu D, Chen B, Zeng J, Wang L, Zhang S, et al. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. Med Oncol. 2012;29:1648-55 pubmed publisher
    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies...
  7. Miyawaki T, Mashiko T, Ofengeim D, Flannery R, Noh K, Fujisawa S, et al. Ischemic preconditioning blocks BAD translocation, Bcl-xL cleavage, and large channel activity in mitochondria of postischemic hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4892-7 pubmed publisher
    ..acts via PI3K/Akt signaling to block the ischemia-induced cascade involving mitochondrial translocation of Bad, assembly of Bad with Bcl-x(L), cleavage of Bcl-x(L) to form its prodeath fragment, DeltaN-Bcl-x(L), activation of ..
  8. Datta S, Ranger A, Lin M, Sturgill J, Ma Y, Cowan C, et al. Survival factor-mediated BAD phosphorylation raises the mitochondrial threshold for apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:631-43 pubmed
    ..with the phosphorylation and inactivation of multiple proapoptotic proteins, including the BCL-2 family member BAD. However, the physiological events required for growth factors to block cell death are not well characterized...
  9. Ketteler R, Sun Z, Kovacs K, He W, Seed B. A pathway sensor for genome-wide screens of intracellular proteolytic cleavage. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R64 pubmed publisher
    ..By including protease cleavage sites between GLUC and beta-actin, proteolytic cleavage can be detected. Using this assay, we have identified regulators of autophagy, apoptosis and beta-actin cleavage. ..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Banu S, Stanley J, Lee J, Stephen S, Arosh J, Hoyer P, et al. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;251:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK ..
  2. Kaul S, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A, Kanthasamy A. Wild-type alpha-synuclein interacts with pro-apoptotic proteins PKCdelta and BAD to protect dopaminergic neuronal cells against MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;139:137-52 pubmed
    ..co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that alpha-synuclein interacts with the pro-apoptotic proteins PKCdelta and BAD, but not with the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following MPP+ treatment...
  3. Rajkumar L, Arumugam A, Elsayed A, Schecter S, Kotkowski E, Castillo R, et al. Long-term hormonal promotion overcomes genetic resistance to mammary cancer. Steroids. 2011;76:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..induced by MNU by increasing expression of Areg, Bcl-2, Ccnd-1 and Vegf genes, while decreasing expression of Bad, Bax, Casp 3, 8, 9 and p53 genes. Furthermore, hormone treatment increased CCND-1 and PARP proteins levels...
  4. Shibata M, Hattori H, Sasaki T, Gotoh J, Hamada J, Fukuuchi Y. Temporal profiles of the subcellular localization of Bim, a BH3-only protein, during middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:810-20 pubmed
    ..During MCAO, Bad did not show any change in phosphorylation state or subcellular localization.
  5. Huang W, Fileta J, Dobberfuhl A, Filippopolous T, Guo Y, Kwon G, et al. Calcineurin cleavage is triggered by elevated intraocular pressure, and calcineurin inhibition blocks retinal ganglion cell death in experimental glaucoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12242-7 pubmed
    ..form of CaN has been reported to lead to apoptosis via dephosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bad. In a rat model of glaucoma, we similarly detect increased Bad dephosphorylation, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome ..
  6. Murriel C, Churchill E, Inagaki K, Szweda L, Mochly Rosen D. Protein kinase Cdelta activation induces apoptosis in response to cardiac ischemia and reperfusion damage: a mechanism involving BAD and the mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47985-91 pubmed
    ..onset of reperfusion mediates apoptosis by facilitating the accumulation and dephosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic BAD (Bcl-2-associated death promoter), dephosphorylation of Akt, cytochrome c release, PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) ..
  7. Calon F, Lim G, Yang F, Morihara T, Teter B, Ubeda O, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neuron. 2004;43:633-45 pubmed
    ..PFA-restricted mice with DHA protected against these effects and behavioral deficits and increased antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylation...
  8. Vukosavic S, Dubois Dauphin M, Romero N, Przedborski S. Bax and Bcl-2 interaction in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurochem. 1999;73:2460-8 pubmed
    ..In asymptomatic transgenic mSOD1 mice, expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bad, and Bax does not differ from that in nontransgenic mice...
  9. Hu Z, Sayeed M. Activation of PI3-kinase/PKB contributes to delay in neutrophil apoptosis after thermal injury. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C1171-8 pubmed
    ..cellular IAP1 (cIAP1), cIAP2, X-linked IAP (XIAP), and survivin, and Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xl and Bad, were determined by Western blot analysis and/or RT-PCR, real-time PCR...
  10. Ayllon V, Cayla X, Garcia A, Fleischer A, Rebollo A. The anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-xL and Bcl-w target protein phosphatase 1alpha to Bad. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1847-55 pubmed
    Bcl-xL and Bcl-w specifically interact with PP1alpha and Bad. A phosphatase activity sensitive to okadaic acid was detected in Bcl-xL, Bcl-w and Bad immunoprecipitates...
  11. Ge Y, Belcher S, Pierce D, Light K. Altered expression of Bcl2, Bad and Bax mRNA occurs in the rat cerebellum within hours after ethanol exposure on postnatal day 4 but not on postnatal day 9. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;129:124-34 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to determine the expression levels of pro-apoptotic factors Bad and Bax, and anti-apoptotic Bcl(2) mRNA. Ethanol was administered at four different doses (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6...
  12. Sun W, Ai T, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Cui J, Song L. Expression and prognostic relevance of MET and phospho-BAD in non-small cell lung cancer. Onco Targets Ther. 2013;6:1315-23 pubmed publisher
    MET is involved in the progression of several types of human cancers, while phospho-BAD(Ser-136) is a key molecule in apoptosis and might be regulated by MET...
  13. Won C, Ha S, Noh H, Kang S, Cho G, Choi W, et al. Estradiol prevents the injury-induced decrease of Akt activation and Bad phosphorylation. Neurosci Lett. 2005;387:115-9 pubmed
    ..estradiol modulates the anti-apoptotic signal through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, including Bad, Bcl-x(L), and 14-3-3...
  14. Ahn S, Kim J, Hara M, Ren X, Lefkowitz R. {beta}-Arrestin-2 Mediates Anti-apoptotic Signaling through Regulation of BAD Phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of two pathways, ERK/p90RSK and PI3K/AKT, which converge to phosphorylate and inactivate the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Anti-apoptotic effects as well as pathway activities can be stimulated by an angiotensin analog (SII), which has ..
  15. Ostrerova N, Petrucelli L, Farrer M, Mehta N, Choi P, Hardy J, et al. alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5782-91 pubmed
    ..binds to 14-3-3 proteins, as well as some proteins known to associate with 14-3-3, including protein kinase C, BAD, and extracellular regulated kinase, but not Raf-1...
  16. Cieslak D, Lazou A. Regulation of BAD protein by PKA, PKCdelta and phosphatases in adult rat cardiac myocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Mol Cells. 2007;24:224-31 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the role of various protein kinases in regulating total BAD protein levels in adult rat cardiac myocytes undergoing apoptosis. Stimulation with 0...
  17. Koh P. Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents increase of Bad-Bcl-XL interaction following cerebral ischemia. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:867-76 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in the presence of EGb 761, the interaction of Bad and Bcl-X(L) decreased compared to that of vehicle-treated animals...
  18. Li T, Lu C, Xia Z, Niu J, Yang M, Luo Y, et al. [Dephosphorelation of Bad and upregulation of Bcl-2 in hippocampus of rats following limbic seizure induced by kainic acid injection into amygdaloid nucleus]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2005;57:310-8 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to explore the seizure-induced changes in Bad (Bcl-2-associated death protein), 14-3-3, phosphoBad, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression in the rat model of focal limbic seizure...
  19. Kuper C, Bartels H, Beck F, Neuhofer W. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells. Kidney Int. 2011;80:938-945 pubmed publisher
    ..E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival by phosphorylation and, hence, inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad during hypertonic stress in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro...
  20. Tzung S, Fausto N, Hockenbery D. Expression of Bcl-2 family during liver regeneration and identification of Bcl-x as a delayed early response gene. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:1985-95 pubmed
    ..The three pro-apoptotic members of the family, Bak, Bad, and Bax, all showed an early decline in mRNA levels when Bcl-x transcripts increased, followed by later peaks at ..
  21. Shimohama S, Fujimoto S, Sumida Y, Tanino H. Differential expression of rat brain bcl-2 family proteins in development and aging. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;252:92-6 pubmed
    ..examined the involvement of the B cell leukemia-2 gene product (Bcl-2) family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, Bak, and Bad) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and found that Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bak, and Bad were upregulated...
  22. Libonati J, Sabri A, Xiao C, MacDonnell S, Renna B. Exercise training improves systolic function in hypertensive myocardium. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011;111:1637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..were established in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused hearts, and LV levels of Akt, phosphorylated Akt (Akt(Pi)), Bad, phosphorylated Bad (Bad(Pi)) c-IAP, x-IAP, calcineurin, and caspases 3, 8, and 9 were measured...
  23. Sung J, Kim M, Koh P. Nicotinamide prevents the down-regulation of MEK/ERK/p90RSK signaling cascade in brain ischemic injury. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:35-41 pubmed
    ..protein kinase kinase (MEK)-ERK and its downstream targets, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) or vehicle 2 hr after the onset of ..
  24. Ohi N, Nishikawa Y, Tokairin T, Yamamoto Y, Doi Y, Omori Y, et al. Maintenance of Bad phosphorylation prevents apoptosis of rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1097-106 pubmed
    ..the mechanism of apoptosis of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), we examined the phosphorylation status of Bad and its upstream signaling molecules during apoptosis in culture and after ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  25. Surgucheva I, Shestopalov V, Surguchov A. Effect of gamma-synuclein silencing on apoptotic pathways in retinal ganglion cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The Syn G silencing reduces phosphorylation of serine 112 (Ser112) in Bad protein, a member of the Bcl-2 family that plays a critical role in apoptotic cell death signaling...
  26. Lynn E, McLeod C, Gordon J, Bao J, Sack M. SIRT2 is a negative regulator of anoxia-reoxygenation tolerance via regulation of 14-3-3 zeta and BAD in H9c2 cells. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2857-62 pubmed publisher
    ..SIRT2 knockdown evokes induction of this chaperone, facilitating cytosolic sequestration of BAD with a corresponding reduction in mitochondrial BAD localization...
  27. Polzien L, Baljuls A, Roth H, Kuper J, Benz R, Schweimer K, et al. Pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by specific phosphorylation and structural transitions of the C-terminal part. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:162-9 pubmed publisher
    b>BAD protein (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death) belongs to the BH3-only subfamily of proapoptotic proteins and is proposed to function as the sentinel of the cellular health status...
  28. Lee J, Kim K, Jo Y, Kim M, Rim K, Kang K, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia attenuates liver injury in polymicrobial sepsis model of rats via Akt survival pathway. J Surg Res. 2013;181:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3 and evaluated phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3? and Bad with the Western blot assay...
  29. Fan J, Zhang N, Yin G, Zhang Z, Cheng G, Qian W, et al. Edaravone protects cortical neurons from apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of BAX and Increasing the interaction between 14-3-3 and p-BAD. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122:665-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h and reached the peak at 12 h after stimulation with hydrogen peroxide. The levels of p-BAD and BAX in the cytosol and the interaction between BAD and 14-3-3 were decreased in the untreated neurons...
  30. Pang X, Moussa S, Targy N, Bose J, George N, Gries C, et al. Active Bax and Bak are functional holins. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results mechanistically link MOMP to holin-mediated hole formation in the bacterial plasma membrane. ..
  31. Lee S, Kuo W, Wu C, Lin Y, Lin J, Lu M, et al. Effects of short- and long-term hypobaric hypoxia on Bcl2 family in rat heart. Int J Cardiol. 2006;108:376-84 pubmed
    ..Pro-apoptotic BNIP3 and Bad proteins were significantly decreased after STIHH but increased after LTIHH...
  32. Koh P. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes increases the interaction of Bad/Bcl-XL and decreases the binding of pBad/14-3-3 in rat testis. Life Sci. 2007;81:1079-84 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the levels of Bax and Bad, pro-apoptotic factors, were increased in the diabetic group, compared with the control group...
  33. Kaido T, Kempski O, Heimann A, Heers C, Bartsch D. Cluster analysis of mRNA expression levels identifies multiple sequential patterns following focal cerebral ischemia. Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22:441-7 pubmed publisher
    ..three groups: group A, early expression (COX-2, c-fos, and bcl-2); group B, s expression (c-jun, SOD-1, bad, p53, SOD-2, bcl-xL, and bax); and group C, late expression (cyclin D1, c-myc, and HO-1)...
  34. Dramsi S, Scheid M, Maiti A, Hojabrpour P, Chen X, Schubert K, et al. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6399-405 pubmed
    b>Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is thought to exert a death-promoting effect by heterodimerization with Bcl-X(L), nullifying its anti-apoptotic activity...
  35. Ellert Miklaszewska A, Kaminska B, Konarska L. Cannabinoids down-regulate PI3K/Akt and Erk signalling pathways and activate proapoptotic function of Bad protein. Cell Signal. 2005;17:25-37 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that cannabinoid-induced cell death may be mediated by a Bcl-2 family member--Bad, whose function is hampered by these kinases due to control of its phosphorylation state...
  36. Wu H, Ke J, Chen X. [Changes of retinal ganglion cells and expression of Bad after optic nerve crush in rats]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;22:258-60 pubmed
    To observe the change of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)and the expression of Bad after optic nerve injury, so as to study the changes of optic function level on morphology and molecular...
  37. Nguyen T, Yao M, Pike C. Androgens activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling: role in neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2005;94:1639-51 pubmed
    ..S6 kinase (Rsk) phosphorylation and phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of Bcl-2-associated death protein (Bad). Prevention of androgen-induced phosphorylation of Rsk and Bad blocked androgen neuroprotection...
  38. Lee D, Kim K, Noh Y, Chai S, Lindsey J, Ellisman M, et al. Brimonidine blocks glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial transcription factor a in ischemic retinal injury. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47098 pubmed publisher
    ..At 24 hours, BMD significantly decreased Bax expression but increased Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad protein expression in ischemic retina. Importantly...
  39. Dave K, Bhattacharya S, Saul I, DeFazio R, Dezfulian C, Lin H, et al. Activation of protein kinase C delta following cerebral ischemia leads to release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria via bad pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22057 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac arrest results in the dephosphorylation of Bad and Bax, both downstream targets of PP2A promoting apoptosis...
  40. Koh P. Ethanol exposure suppresses survival kinases activation in adult rat testes. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:21-4 pubmed
    ..Ethanol decreased the levels of activated survival kinases, pAkt and pErk1/2. The phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and Ser136 was decreased in ethanol-treated animals in comparison to saline-treated animals...
  41. Yang C, Ting W, Shen C, Hsu H, Lin Y, Kuo C, et al. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol. 2016;31:663-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation...
  42. Ecker S, Pfahler S, Hines J, Lovelace A, Glaser B. Sequential in-office vitreous aspirates demonstrate vitreous matrix metalloproteinase 9 levels correlate with the amount of subretinal fluid in eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 2012;18:1658-67 pubmed
    ..Musashi, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta Tyr751 (PDGFR?), IL-8, and BCL-2 associated death promoter (BAD) Ser112 levels in the vitreous were found to be significantly different with a 21%-82% increase in expression ..
  43. Lui N, Chen L, Yung W, Chan Y, Yung K. Endogenous repair by the activation of cell survival signalling cascades during the early stages of rat Parkinsonism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51294 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, the phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK and its downstream target, the phosphorylated Bad at Ser 112, were up-regulated at post-lesion day 3 and lasted for a couple of weeks...
  44. Hara S, Oya M, Mizuno R, Horiguchi A, Marumo K, Murai M. Akt activation in renal cell carcinoma: contribution of a decreased PTEN expression and the induction of apoptosis by an Akt inhibitor. Ann Oncol. 2005;16:928-33 pubmed
    ..The Bad and phosphorylated Bad (p-Bad) statuses were analyzed in 20 RCC patients...
  45. Bhaskara V, Sundaram C, Babu P. pERK, pAkt and pBad: a possible role in cell proliferation and sustained cellular survival during tumorigenesis and tumor progression in ENU induced transplacental glioma rat model. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:1163-70 pubmed
    ..Moreover, enhanced pBad levels in tumor may indicate that there are anti-apoptotic mechanisms, further making the malignant cells resistant to apoptosis. ..
  46. Weng L, Wang C, Ko J, Sun Y, Su Y, Wang F. Inflammation induction of Dickkopf-1 mediates chondrocyte apoptosis in osteoarthritic joint. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;17:933-43 pubmed publisher
    ..neck fracture were assessed for DKK1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Bad, Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 expression by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry...
  47. Bishayee A, Mandal A, Thoppil R, Darvesh A, Bhatia D. Chemopreventive effect of a novel oleanane triterpenoid in a chemically induced rodent model of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..AMR-Me upregulated the transcriptional levels of Bax, Bad, caspase-3, caspase-7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and down-regulated Bcl-2...
  48. Kiley S, Thornhill B, Tang S, Ingelfinger J, Chevalier R. Growth factor-mediated phosphorylation of proapoptotic BAD reduces tubule cell death in vitro and in vivo. Kidney Int. 2003;63:33-42 pubmed
    ..Stretch decreased BAD phosphorylation by approximately 50% (P < 0...
  49. Ma B, Shi J, Jia L, Yuan W, Wu J, Fu Z, et al. Over-expression of PUMA correlates with the apoptosis of spinal cord cells in rat neuropathic intermittent claudication model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56580 pubmed publisher
    ..correlates with CEC caused apoptosis of spinal cord cells, which is characterized by the increase of p53, Bax and Bad expression...
  50. Shimizu T, Torres M, Chakraborty S, Souchek J, Rachagani S, Kaur S, et al. Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy. Cancer Lett. 2013;336:270-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Genes that inhibit metastasis (E-cadherin) and induce apoptosis (BAD) were significantly upregulated in tumors isolated from mice treated with O...
  51. Terakawa N, Kanamori Y, Yoshida S. Loss of PTEN expression followed by Akt phosphorylation is a poor prognostic factor for patients with endometrial cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2003;10:203-8 pubmed
    ..The current study demonstrates that PTEN-positive staining is a significant prognostic indicator of favorable survival for patients with advanced endometrial cancer who undergo postoperative chemotherapy. ..
  52. Dominov J, Houlihan Kawamoto C, Swap C, Miller J. Pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family in skeletal muscle: a distinct role for Bcl-2 in later stages of myogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2001;220:18-26 pubmed
    ..Both anti-apoptotic (Bcl-W, Bcl-X(L)) and pro-apoptotic (Bad, Bak, Bax) members of the Bcl-2 family were expressed in developing skeletal muscle in vivo...
  53. Ain R, Canham L, Soares M. Dexamethasone-induced intrauterine growth restriction impacts the placental prolactin family, insulin-like growth factor-II and the Akt signaling pathway. J Endocrinol. 2005;185:253-63 pubmed
    ..the junctional zone of the placenta, as assessed by the phosphorylation status of Akt and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, a downstream target of the Akt signaling pathway...
  54. Jeon W, Kim S, Seo M, Kim Y, Kang U, Juhnn Y, et al. Repeated electroconvulsive seizure induces c-Myc down-regulation and Bad inactivation in the rat frontal cortex. Exp Mol Med. 2008;40:435-44 pubmed
    ..Protein levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bax, and Bad showed no change, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP were not induced...
  55. Valks D, Cook S, Pham F, Morrison P, Clerk A, Sugden P. Phenylephrine promotes phosphorylation of Bad in cardiac myocytes through the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and protein kinase A. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002;34:749-63 pubmed
    Studies in non-cardiomyocytic cells have shown that phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family protein Bad on Ser-112, Ser-136 and Ser-155 decreases its pro-apoptotic activity...
  56. Seo S, Chen Y, Ivanovska I, Ranger A, Hong S, Dawson V, et al. BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42240-9 pubmed
    The mammalian BAD protein belongs to the BH3-only subgroup of the BCL-2 family. In contrast to its known pro-apoptotic function, we found that endogenous and overexpressed BAD(L) can inhibit cell death in neurons and other cell types...
  57. Chen B, Longtine M, Sadovsky Y, Nelson D. Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C968-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts correlated with enhanced expression of the proapoptotic BAD and a reduced level of antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylated on Ser(112)...
  58. Tommasini I, Cerioni L, Palomba L, Cantoni O. Prostaglandin E2 signals monocyte/macrophage survival to peroxynitrite via protein kinase A converging in bad phosphorylation with the protein kinase C alpha-dependent pathway driven by 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. J Immunol. 2008;181:5637-45 pubmed
    Monocytes/macrophages committed to death by peroxynitrite nevertheless survive with a signaling response promoting Bad phosphorylation, as well as its cytosolic localization, via upstream activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), 5-..
  59. Huang C, Gu H, Zhang W, Herrmann J, Wang M. Testosterone-down-regulated Akt pathway during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion: a mechanism involving BAD, Bcl-2 and FOXO3a. J Surg Res. 2010;164:e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Akt activation in male hearts; (2) endogenous testosterone will mediate downstream signals of Akt, including Bad, Bcl-2, and FOXO3a; (3) administration of exogenous testosterone will recapitulate negative effects on the Akt ..
  60. Wang Y, Xia Q, Ba Y, Wang T, Lin N, Zou Y, et al. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells promotes the recovery of neurological functions in rats with traumatic brain injury associated with downregulation of Bad. Cytotherapy. 2014;16:1000-10 pubmed publisher
    ..05). On the molecular level, the expression of Bad in the OEC transplantation group was significantly downregulated (P < 0.05)...
  61. Chiang C, Kanies C, Kim K, Fang W, Parkhurst C, Xie M, et al. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylation of phosphoserine 112 plays the gatekeeper role for BAD-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6350-62 pubmed
    b>BAD, a proapoptotic molecule of the BCL2 family, is regulated by reversible phosphorylation...
  62. Zhu Y, Schwarz S, Ahlemeyer B, Grzeschik S, Klumpp S, Krieglstein J. Oleic acid causes apoptosis and dephosphorylates Bad. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:127-35 pubmed
    ..vitro study has demonstrated that oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, reduces phosphorylation of proapoptotic Bad through activation of protein phosphatase type 2Cbeta...
  63. Huang C, Chen Y, Wang D, Chiu C, Lin W, Huang C, et al. Cytoprotective effect of American ginseng in a rat ethanol gastric ulcer model. Molecules. 2013;19:316-26 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.
  64. Campos C, Bédard P, Linden R. Selective involvement of the PI3K/PKB/bad pathway in retinal cell death. J Neurobiol. 2003;56:171-7 pubmed
    The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB)/Bad signal transduction pathway is engaged in the control of apoptosis in many different cell types, particularly through phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family protein Bad...
  65. Quoyer J, Longuet C, Broca C, Linck N, Costes S, Varin E, et al. GLP-1 mediates antiapoptotic effect by phosphorylating Bad through a beta-arrestin 1-mediated ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1989-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..We further observe that GLP-1 phosphorylates the cytoplasmic proapoptotic protein Bad at Ser-112 but not at Ser-155...
  66. Danial N, Walensky L, Zhang C, Choi C, Fisher J, Molina A, et al. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival. Nat Med. 2008;14:144-53 pubmed publisher
    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration...
  67. Wei C, Li H, Han L, Zhang L, Yang X. Activation of autophagy in ischemic postconditioning contributes to cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013;61:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited the antiapoptotic-related protein levels of Bcl-2 and increased the apoptotic-related protein levels of Bad. Taken together, these results indicate that the protective effects of IPost are associated with the activation of ..
  68. Shinoda S, Schindler C, Quan Lan J, Saugstad J, Taki W, Simon R, et al. Interaction of 14-3-3 with Bid during seizure-induced neuronal death. J Neurochem. 2003;86:460-9 pubmed
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that although Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) constitutively bound 14-3-3, there was no interaction between Bid and 14-3-3 in control brain...
  69. Rajamani U, Joseph D, Roux S, Essop M. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway can mediate myocardial apoptosis in a rat model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011;202:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..matched controls. Oxidative stress was evaluated, and apoptotic peptide levels, BAD phosphorylation and overall O-GlcNAcylation assessed by immunoblotting...
  70. Lomonosova E, Chinnadurai G. BH3-only proteins in apoptosis and beyond: an overview. Oncogene. 2008;27 Suppl 1:S2-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chapters included in the current Oncogene Review issues provide in-depth discussions on various aspects of major BH3-only proteins. ..
  71. Chen L, Hsu C, Weng C. Involvement of P53 and Bax/Bad triggering apoptosis in thioacetamide-induced hepatic epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:5175-81 pubmed
    ..The alterations of caspase 3, Bad, Bax and Phospho-P53 contents in TAA-induced clone 9 cells were measured by Western blot...
  72. Koh P. Estradiol prevents the injury-induced decrease of 90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad phosphorylation. Neurosci Lett. 2007;412:68-72 pubmed
    ..through the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and its downstream targets, including 90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad. Adult female rats were ovariectomied and treated with estradiol prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
  73. Li Y, Lu D, Tan W, Wang J, Li P. p53 initiates apoptosis by transcriptionally targeting the antiapoptotic protein ARC. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:564-74 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and Bad are up-regulated in response to the stimulation with reactive oxygen species or anoxia, and p53 is responsible for ..
  74. Cannings E, Kirkegaard T, Tovey S, Dunne B, Cooke T, Bartlett J. Bad expression predicts outcome in patients treated with tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;102:173-9 pubmed
    ..Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway causes phosphorylation of Bad leading to modulation of cellular apoptosis...
  75. Racz B, Gallyas F, Kiss P, Tamas A, Lubics A, Lengvari I, et al. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the PKA-Bad-14-3-3 signaling pathway in glutamate-induced retinal injury in neonatal rats. Neurotox Res. 2007;12:95-104 pubmed
    ..The focus of the present study was the protein kinase A (PKA)-Bad-14-3-3 transduction pathway...
  76. Koh P. Ferulic acid prevents the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease of Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Neurosci Lett. 2012;507:156-60 pubmed publisher
    ..whether ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, Bad and 14-3-3. Adult male rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg, i.v...
  77. Royuela M, Arenas M, Bethencourt F, Sanchez Chapado M, Fraile B, Paniagua R. Immunoexpressions of p21, Rb, mcl-1 and bad gene products in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous human prostates. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001;12:654-63 pubmed
    A comparative study of the expression of p21, Rb, mcl-1, and bad gene products, which are involved in the control of the cell cycle, was performed in normal, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous human prostates by means of a semiquantitative ..
  78. Jaskille A, Alam H, Rhee P, Hanes W, Kirkpatrick J, Koustova E. D-lactate increases pulmonary apoptosis by restricting phosphorylation of bad and eNOS in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2004;57:262-69; discussion 269-70 pubmed
    ..Lung tissue was obtained 2 hours later and subjected to Western Blotting. The levels of Akt, Bad, and eNOS (total and phosphorylated) proteins were measured...
  79. Guo W, Fu X, Jiang S, Wu J. Neuregulin-1 regulates the expression of Akt, Bcl-2, and Bad signaling after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated whether NRG-1 modulates the activation of Akt and its downstream targets Bad and Bcl-2 expression after transient focal cerebral ischemia by intraluminal blockade of the middle cerebral artery...
  80. Yao X, Liu J, Lee E, Ling G, McCabe J. Progesterone differentially regulates pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression in cerebral cortex following traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:656-68 pubmed
    ..study examined the effects of progesterone on mRNA and protein levels of the Bcl-2 apoptosis regulatory genes, bax, bad, bcl-2, and bcl-x(L), in cerebral cortex after TBI...