Atm

Summary

Gene Symbol: Atm
Description: ATM serine/threonine kinase
Alias: serine-protein kinase ATM, Ataxia telangiectasia gene mutated in human beings, ataxia telangiectasia mutated homolog
Species: rat
Products:     Atm

Top Publications

  1. Nguyen H, Chen J, Zhong J, Kim K, Crandall E, Borok Z, et al. SUMOylation attenuates sensitivity toward hypoxia- or desferroxamine-induced injury by modulating adaptive responses in salivary epithelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1452-63 pubmed
  2. Bhatti S, Kozlov S, Farooqi A, Naqi A, Lavin M, Khanna K. ATM protein kinase: the linchpin of cellular defenses to stress. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:2977-3006 pubmed publisher
    b>ATM is the most significant molecule involved in monitoring the genomic integrity of the cell. Any damage done to DNA relentlessly challenges the cellular machinery involved in recognition, processing and repair of these insults...
  3. Lee J, Paull T. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science. 2005;308:551-4 pubmed
    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase signals the presence of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells by phosphorylating proteins that initiate cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair...
  4. Di Giacomo M, Barchi M, Baudat F, Edelmann W, Keeney S, Jasin M. Distinct DNA-damage-dependent and -independent responses drive the loss of oocytes in recombination-defective mouse mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:737-42 pubmed
    ..these findings as a paradigm, we also examined oocyte loss in mutants lacking the DNA-damage checkpoint kinase ATM. The absence of ATM caused defects in folliculogenesis that were similar to those in Dmc1 mutants and that could be ..
  5. Schneider J, Finck B, Ren J, Standley K, Takagi M, Maclean K, et al. ATM-dependent suppression of stress signaling reduces vascular disease in metabolic syndrome. Cell Metab. 2006;4:377-89 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that deficiency of one or two alleles of ATM, the protein mutated in the cancer-prone disease ataxia telangiectasia, worsens features of the metabolic syndrome, ..
  6. Gladdy R, Nutter L, Kunath T, Danska J, Guidos C. p53-Independent apoptosis disrupts early organogenesis in embryos lacking both ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Prkdc. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:311-8 pubmed
    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein and the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway play crucial roles in sensing and repairing DNA double-strand breaks in postnatal cells...
  7. Xu Y, Ashley T, Brainerd E, Bronson R, Meyn M, Baltimore D. Targeted disruption of ATM leads to growth retardation, chromosomal fragmentation during meiosis, immune defects, and thymic lymphoma. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2411-22 pubmed
    b>ATM, the gene mutated in the inherited human disease ataxia-telangiectasia, is a member of a family of kinases involved in DNA metabolism and cell-cycle checkpoint control...
  8. Canman C, Lim D, Cimprich K, Taya Y, Tamai K, Sakaguchi K, et al. Activation of the ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation of p53. Science. 1998;281:1677-9 pubmed
    ..The gene product mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, ATM, acts upstream of p53 in a signal transduction pathway initiated by ionizing radiation...
  9. Tian B, Yang Q, Mao Z. Phosphorylation of ATM by Cdk5 mediates DNA damage signalling and regulates neuronal death. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:211-8 pubmed publisher
    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) has a central role in coordinating DNA damage responses, including cell-cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair and apoptosis...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Sekiguchi J, Ferguson D, Chen H, Yang E, Earle J, Frank K, et al. Genetic interactions between ATM and the nonhomologous end-joining factors in genomic stability and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3243-8 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that, similar to p53 deficiency, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene deficiency rescues the embryonic lethality and neuronal apoptosis, but not impaired lymphocyte development, ..
  2. Bhoumik A, Takahashi S, Breitweiser W, Shiloh Y, Jones N, RONAI Z. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 is required for the DNA damage response. Mol Cell. 2005;18:577-87 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the protein kinase ATM phosphorylates ATF2 on serines 490 and 498 following ionizing radiation (IR)...
  3. Kotipatruni R, Dasari V, Veeravalli K, Dinh D, Fassett D, Rao J. p53- and Bax-mediated apoptosis in injured rat spinal cord. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis showed the upregulation of DNA damage-inducing protein such as ATM, cell cycle checkpoint kinases, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), BRCA2 and H2AX in injured spinal cord tissues...
  4. Hirao A, Kong Y, Matsuoka S, Wakeham A, Ruland J, Yoshida H, et al. DNA damage-induced activation of p53 by the checkpoint kinase Chk2. Science. 2000;287:1824-7 pubmed
    ..Chk2 directly phosphorylated p53 on serine 20, which is known to interfere with Mdm2 binding. This provides a mechanism for increased stability of p53 by prevention of ubiquitination in response to DNA damage. ..
  5. Hotti A, Jarvinen K, Siivola P, Hölttä E. Caspases and mitochondria in c-Myc-induced apoptosis: identification of ATM as a new target of caspases. Oncogene. 2000;19:2354-62 pubmed
    ..We further found that the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)--protein is a novel key substrate of caspases...
  6. Halaby M, Hibma J, He J, Yang D. ATM protein kinase mediates full activation of Akt and regulates glucose transporter 4 translocation by insulin in muscle cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with A-T also have high incidences of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gene mutated in this disease, ATM (A-T, mutated), encodes a protein kinase...
  7. Silins I, Finnberg N, Stahl A, Hogberg J, Stenius U. Reduced ATM kinase activity and an attenuated p53 response to DNA damage in carcinogen-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in the rat. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:2023-31 pubmed
    ..An inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), wortmannin, blocked the DEN-induced p53 response in non-EAF hepatocytes...
  8. Lee Y, Barnes D, Lindahl T, McKinnon P. Defective neurogenesis resulting from DNA ligase IV deficiency requires Atm. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2576-80 pubmed
    Ataxia telangiectasia results from mutations of ATM and is characterized by severe neurodegeneration and defective responses to DNA damage...
  9. Quek H, Luff J, Cheung K, Kozlov S, Gatei M, Lee C, et al. A rat model of ataxia-telangiectasia: evidence for a neurodegenerative phenotype. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:109-123 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ATM gene is characterised by cerebellar atrophy and progressive neurodegeneration which has been poorly recapitulated in Atm mutant mice...
  10. Pabla N, Huang S, Mi Q, Daniel R, Dong Z. ATR-Chk2 signaling in p53 activation and DNA damage response during cisplatin-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6572-83 pubmed
    ..Importantly, in the DNA damage response, we demonstrate a critical role for ATR, but not ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) or DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), in cisplatin-induced p53 activation and ..
  11. Balleine R, Murali R, Bilous A, Farshid G, Waring P, Provan P, et al. Histopathological features of breast cancer in carriers of ATM gene variants. Histopathology. 2006;49:523-32 pubmed
    Germline variants in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene have been implicated in increased breast cancer risk...
  12. Sordet O, Redon C, Guirouilh Barbat J, Smith S, Solier S, Douarre C, et al. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated activation by transcription- and topoisomerase I-induced DNA double-strand breaks. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:887-93 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), the deficiency of which causes a severe neurodegenerative disease, is a crucial mediator for the DNA damage response (DDR)...
  13. Chong M, Murray M, Gosink E, Russell H, Srinivasan A, Kapsetaki M, et al. Atm and Bax cooperate in ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in the central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:889-94 pubmed
    ..is a hereditary multisystemic disease resulting from mutations of ataxia telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) and is characterized by neurodegeneration, cancer, immune defects, and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation...
  14. Lavin M, Gueven N. The complexity of p53 stabilization and activation. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:941-50 pubmed
    ..The stability of p53 is also influenced by a series of other interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss the post-translational modifications to p53 in response to different stresses and the consequences of these changes. ..
  15. Frappart P, Lee Y, Lamont J, McKinnon P. BRCA2 is required for neurogenesis and suppression of medulloblastoma. EMBO J. 2007;26:2732-42 pubmed
    ..In contrast, loss of the Atm kinase did not markedly attenuate apoptosis after Brca2 loss, but did partially restore cerebellar morphology, ..
  16. Pizarro J, Folch J, de la Torre A, Junyent F, Verdaguer E, Jordan J, et al. ATM is involved in cell-cycle control through the regulation of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:210-8 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) family, which has a role in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  17. Chen H, Han L, Tsai H, Wang Z, Wu Y, Duo Y, et al. PICT-1 is a key nucleolar sensor in DNA damage response signaling that regulates apoptosis through the RPL11-MDM2-p53 pathway. Oncotarget. 2016;7:83241-83257 pubmed publisher
    ..Two important phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PIKKs), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Ku70 subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), co-localize and interact with PICT-1 in the ..
  18. Joshi A, Hegde G, Dickinson J, Mittal A, Lynch J, Eudy J, et al. ATM, CTLA4, MNDA, and HEM1 in high versus low CD38 expressing B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:5295-304 pubmed
    ..addition, when gene expression patterns in CD38 high and low CLL cells were compared with normal B-cell profiles, ATM expression was found to be significantly lower in CD38 high compared with CD38 low CLL as confirmed by real-time ..
  19. Katsel P, Tan W, Fam P, Purohit D, Haroutunian V. Cell cycle checkpoint abnormalities during dementia: A plausible association with the loss of protection against oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68361 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have reported the role of CCL checkpoint proteins and tumor suppressors, such as ATM and p53 in the control of glycolysis and oxidative metabolism in cancer, but their involvement in AD remains ..
  20. Angèle S, Falconer A, Foster C, Taniere P, Eeles R, Hall J. ATM protein overexpression in prostate tumors: possible role in telomere maintenance. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:231-6 pubmed
    ..Since the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM protein) is involved in maintaining telomere length and integrity, we hypothesized that its expression might be ..
  21. Zhou K, Bellenguez C, Spencer C, Bennett A, Coleman R, Tavendale R, et al. Common variants near ATM are associated with glycemic response to metformin in type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2011;43:117-20 pubmed publisher
    ..9 × 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.35, 95% CI 1.22-1.49) at a locus containing ATM, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene...
  22. Hewitt S, Yin B, Ji Y, Chaumeil J, Marszalek K, Tenthorey J, et al. RAG-1 and ATM coordinate monoallelic recombination and nuclear positioning of immunoglobulin loci. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The introduction of DNA breaks on one immunoglobulin allele induced ATM-dependent repositioning of the other allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin...
  23. Okazaki T, Jiao L, Chang P, Evans D, Abbruzzese J, Li D. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA damage response genes are associated with overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:2042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ATM, ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), CHEK1, and CHEK2 genes in 119 patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer ..
  24. Gatei M, Sloper K, Sorensen C, Syljuasen R, Falck J, Hobson K, et al. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and NBS1-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 on Ser-317 in response to ionizing radiation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14806-11 pubmed
    In mammals, the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) protein kinases function as critical regulators of the cellular DNA damage response...
  25. Khoury Haddad H, Guttmann Raviv N, Ipenberg I, Huggins D, Jeyasekharan A, Ayoub N. PARP1-dependent recruitment of KDM4D histone demethylase to DNA damage sites promotes double-strand break repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E728-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this recruitment is independent of the DDR sensor ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), but dependent on poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which ADP ribosylates KDM4D after damage...
  26. Fan C, Quan R, Feng X, Gillis A, He L, Matsumoto E, et al. ATM activation is accompanied with earlier stages of prostate tumorigenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1090-7 pubmed
    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase plays an essential role in maintaining genome integrity by coordinating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair...
  27. Herbig U, Jobling W, Chen B, Chen D, Sedivy J. Telomere shortening triggers senescence of human cells through a pathway involving ATM, p53, and p21(CIP1), but not p16(INK4a). Mol Cell. 2004;14:501-13 pubmed
    ..containing multiple DNA damage response factors were assembled in a subset of senescent cells and signaled through ATM to p53, upregulating p21 and causing G1 phase arrest...
  28. Tong A, Stern J, Sfeir A, Kartawinata M, de Lange T, Zhu X, et al. ATM and ATR Signaling Regulate the Recruitment of Human Telomerase to Telomeres. Cell Rep. 2015;13:1633-46 pubmed publisher
    The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear...
  29. Kirshner M, Rathavs M, Nizan A, Essers J, Kanaar R, Shiloh Y, et al. Analysis of the relationships between ATM and the Rad54 paralogs involved in homologous recombination repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:253-61 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a pleiotropic genomic instability disorder caused by lack or inactivation of the ATM protein kinase and characterized by progressive ataxia, immunodeficiency, ionizing radiation sensitivity and cancer ..
  30. Li D, Suzuki H, Liu B, Morris J, Liu J, Okazaki T, et al. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:740-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 7 DNA repair genes (LIG3, LIG4, OGG1, ATM, POLB, RAD54L, and RECQL) in 734 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 780 healthy controls using the Taqman ..
  31. Tripathi D, Chowdhury R, Trudel L, Tee A, Slack R, Walker C, et al. Reactive nitrogen species regulate autophagy through ATM-AMPK-TSC2-mediated suppression of mTORC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2950-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that nitrosative stress induced by steady-state nitric oxide (NO) caused rapid activation of an ATM damage-response pathway leading to downstream signaling by this stress kinase to LKB1 and AMPK kinases, and ..
  32. Ganai A, Jahan S, Ahad A, Abdin M, Farooqi H. Glycine propionyl l-carnitine attenuates d-Galactosamine induced fulminant hepatic failure in wistar rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;214:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..d-GalN increased the circulating level of TNF-? and ATM-Kinase and MAP-Kinase expression...
  33. Duran Vilaregut J, Manich G, del Valle J, Camins A, Pallas M, Vilaplana J, et al. Expression pattern of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), p53, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3? in the striatum of rats treated with 3-nitropropionic acid. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..by immunohistochemical methods whether cellular expression of phospho(Ser1981) -ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phospho(Ser15) -p53, phospho(Ser473) -Akt, and phospho(Ser9) -glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?), which are key ..
  34. Liebe B, Petukhova G, Barchi M, Bellani M, Braselmann H, Nakano T, et al. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3768-81 pubmed
    ..The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm(-/-), Spo11(-/-), Mei1(m1Jcs/m1Jcs), Mlh1(-/-), Terf1(+/-) and Hr6b(-/-) spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking ..
  35. Li D, Frazier M, Evans D, Hess K, Crane C, Jiao L, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of RecQ1, RAD54L, and ATM genes are associated with reduced survival of pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1720-8 pubmed
    ..The RecQ1 A159C, RAD54L C157T, XRCC1 R194W, and ATM T77C genotypes had a significant effect on the overall survival with log-rank P values of .001, .004, .001, and ...
  36. Bandi S, Joseph B, Berishvili E, Singhania R, Wu Y, Cheng K, et al. Perturbations in ataxia telangiectasia mutant signaling pathways after drug-induced acute liver failure and their reversal during rescue of animals by cell therapy. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways in oxidative/metabolic stress, inflammation, DNA damage-repair, and ataxia telangiectasia mutant (Atm) signaling pathways. This led to liver cell growth arrest involving cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A...
  37. Rasheed N, Wang X, Niu Q, Yeh J, Li B. Atm-deficient mice: an osteoporosis model with defective osteoblast differentiation and increased osteoclastogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1938-48 pubmed
    b>Atm is a Ser/Thr kinase involved in DNA damage response and is required for genome integrity and stem cell renewal. Here, we report an additional role for Atm in bone remodeling...
  38. Quek H, Luff J, Cheung K, Kozlov S, Gatei M, Lee C, et al. Rats with a missense mutation in Atm display neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration subsequent to accumulation of cytosolic DNA following unrepaired DNA damage. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:927-947 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)-mutated (ATM) gene give rise to the human genetic disorder A-T, characterized by immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, and neurodegeneration...
  39. Guerra L, Albihn A, Tronnersjö S, Yan Q, Guidi R, Stenerlow B, et al. Myc is required for activation of the ATM-dependent checkpoints in response to DNA damage. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8924 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that expression of Myc is required to activate the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses in rat cell lines exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) or the bacterial ..
  40. Orii K, Lee Y, Kondo N, McKinnon P. Selective utilization of nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways during nervous system development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10017-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, DNA damage-induced apoptosis required the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) kinase after disruption of NHEJ, but not HR, during neurogenesis...
  41. Kairouz R, Clarke R, Marr P, Watters D, Lavin M, Kearsley J, et al. ATM protein synthesis patterns in sporadic breast cancer. Mol Pathol. 1999;52:252-6 pubmed
    The gene mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), designated ATM (for "A-T mutated"), is believed to be associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer...
  42. Lee S, Bohrson C, Pike A, Wheelan S, Greider C. ATM Kinase Is Required for Telomere Elongation in Mouse and Human Cells. Cell Rep. 2015;13:1623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the ADDIT assay, we found that ATM is required for addition of new repeats onto telomeres in mouse cells...
  43. Villanueva S, Suazo C, Santapau D, Perez F, Quiroz M, Carreño J, et al. NFAT5 is activated by hypoxia: role in ischemia and reperfusion in the rat kidney. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39665 pubmed publisher
    ..7) Experimental I/R increased the NFAT5-target gene aldose reductase (AR). 8) NFAT5 activators (ATM and PI3K) were induced in vitro (HEK293 cells) and in vivo (I/R kidneys) with the same timing of NFAT5...
  44. Schubert R, Schmitz N, Pietzner J, Tandi C, Theisen A, Dresel R, et al. Growth hormone supplementation increased latency to tumourigenesis in Atm-deficient mice. Growth Factors. 2009;27:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effect of GH on longevity and tumour formation in Atm-deficient mice, an established model of the human cancer prone syndrome ataxia telangiectasia (AT)...
  45. Tibbetts R, Brumbaugh K, Williams J, Sarkaria J, Cliby W, Shieh S, et al. A role for ATR in the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of p53. Genes Dev. 1999;13:152-7 pubmed
    ..In this report we provide evidence that the ATM-Rad3-related protein ATR regulates phosphorylation of Ser-15 in DNA-damaged cells...
  46. FOSTER C, Daniel L, Daniels C, Dalal S, Singh M, Singh K. Deficiency of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase modulates cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction: involvement in fibrosis and apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83513 pubmed publisher
    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is a cell cycle checkpoint protein activated in response to DNA damage. We recently reported that ATM plays a protective role in myocardial remodeling following ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation...
  47. Carranza D, Vega A, Torres Rusillo S, Montero E, Martinez L, Santamaria M, et al. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Cohort of Spanish Patients with Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Neuromolecular Med. 2017;19:161-174 pubmed publisher
    ..The disorder is caused by alterations in the ATM gene, whose size and complexity make molecular diagnosis difficult...
  48. Sidarala V, Kowluru A. Exposure to chronic hyperglycemic conditions results in Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-mediated activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells. Apoptosis. 2017;22:597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is aimed at defining regulatory roles of Rac1, a small G-protein, in the activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells, under the duress of HG conditions...
  49. Yuan L, Yu W, Qu C. DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen-immortalized embryonic fibroblast cells requires SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42812-20 pubmed
    ..These results together provide the first evidence that SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase enhances the DNA damage G2/M checkpoint in SV40 large T antigen immortalized murine embryonic fibroblast cells. ..
  50. Kruse J, Gu W. Modes of p53 regulation. Cell. 2009;137:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To reconcile these differences, we propose that antirepression, the release of p53 from repression by factors such as Mdm2 and MdmX, is a key step in the physiological activation of p53. ..
  51. Kishi S, Zhou X, Ziv Y, Khoo C, Hill D, Shiloh Y, et al. Telomeric protein Pin2/TRF1 as an important ATM target in response to double strand DNA breaks. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29282-91 pubmed
    b>ATM mutations are responsible for the genetic disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by ionizing radiation-induced double strand DNA breaks...
  52. Tan Z, Sankar R, Tu W, Shin D, Liu H, Wasterlain C, et al. Immunohistochemical study of p53-associated proteins in rat brain following lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus. Brain Res. 2002;929:129-38 pubmed
    ..We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of Mdm2, Bax, CD95/Fas/APO-1, ATM, Ref-1 and ubiquitin...
  53. Kaygun H, Marzluff W. Regulated degradation of replication-dependent histone mRNAs requires both ATR and Upf1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:794-800 pubmed
    ..Here we show that regulated degradation of histone mRNAs requires Upf1, a key regulator of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway, and ATR, a key regulator of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway activated during replication stress...
  54. Parfitt D, Michael G, Vermeulen E, Prodromou N, Webb T, Gallo J, et al. The ataxia protein sacsin is a functional co-chaperone that protects against polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-1. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sacsin is an ataxia protein and a regulator of the Hsp70 chaperone machinery that is implicated in the processing of other ataxia-linked proteins. ..
  55. Einarsdóttir K, Humphreys K, Bonnard C, Li Y, Li Y, Chia K, et al. Effect of ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 TAGSNPs and haplotypes on endometrial cancer risk. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:154-64 pubmed
    ..population-based case-control study including 705 cases and 1565 controls, we examined common variation in the ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 genes in relation to endometrial cancer risk overall, restricted to tumours of certain ..
  56. Wu D, Yang H, Xiang W, Zhou L, Shi M, Julies G, et al. Heterozygous mutation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene aggravates hypercholesterolemia in apoE-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:1380-7 pubmed
    Individuals with a heterozygous mutation at the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) have been reported to be predisposed to ischemic heart disease...
  57. Morita Y, Maravei D, Bergeron L, Wang S, Perez G, Tsutsumi O, et al. Caspase-2 deficiency prevents programmed germ cell death resulting from cytokine insufficiency but not meiotic defects caused by loss of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (Atm) gene function. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:614-20 pubmed
    ..cannot overcome gametogenic failure resulting from meiotic recombination defects in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (Atm) null female mice...
  58. Pizarro J, Folch J, Vazquez De la Torre A, Verdaguer E, Junyent F, Jordan J, et al. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and cell cycle regulation in B65 dopaminergic cell line. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, the increase in retinoblastoma phosphorylation was attenuated by KU-55993, a selective ATM inhibitor, and also by trolox...
  59. Xu Y. DNA damage: a trigger of innate immunity but a requirement for adaptive immune homeostasis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006;6:261-70 pubmed
    ..from this type of DNA damage, which are mostly activated by the protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), lead to cell-cycle arrest at several checkpoints and efficient DNA repair...
  60. Giuliano P, De Cristofaro T, Affaitati A, Pizzulo G, Feliciello A, Criscuolo C, et al. DNA damage induced by polyglutamine-expanded proteins. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2301-9 pubmed
    ..However, the expression of 43Q expanded protein strongly activated the ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase/ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATM/ATR)-dependent DNA damage response, as shown by selective phosphorylation of ATM ..
  61. Nakamura M, Zhou X, Kishi S, Lu K. Involvement of the telomeric protein Pin2/TRF1 in the regulation of the mitotic spindle. FEBS Lett. 2002;514:193-8 pubmed
    ..activity can be potentiated by microtubule-disrupting agents, but suppressed by phosphorylation of Pin2/TRF1 by ATM; this negative regulation is critical in mediating for many, but not all, ATM-dependent phenotypes...
  62. Stern N, Hochman A, Zemach N, Weizman N, Hammel I, Shiloh Y, et al. Accumulation of DNA damage and reduced levels of nicotine adenine dinucleotide in the brains of Atm-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:602-8 pubmed
    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a human genetic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the ATM gene...
  63. Shima N, Munroe R, Schimenti J. The mouse genomic instability mutation chaos1 is an allele of Polq that exhibits genetic interaction with Atm. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10381-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the potential involvement of Polq in DNA double-strand break repair, we introduced chaos1 into an Atm (for ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-deficient background...
  64. Oleson B, Broniowska K, Schreiber K, Tarakanova V, Corbett J. Nitric oxide induces ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein-dependent ?H2AX protein formation in pancreatic ? cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:11454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..the activation of the DNA double strand break repair factors histone H2AX (H2AX) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) were examined in pancreatic ? cells...
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    ..b>ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) are serine-threonine kinases that orchestrate the ..