Gene Symbol: Arg2
Description: arginase 2
Alias: arginase-2, mitochondrial, AII type II arginase, arginase II, arginase type II, kidney-type arginase, non-hepatic arginase, type II arginase
Species: rat
Products:     Arg2

Top Publications

  1. Gotoh T, Sonoki T, Nagasaki A, Terada K, Takiguchi M, Mori M. Molecular cloning of cDNA for nonhepatic mitochondrial arginase (arginase II) and comparison of its induction with nitric oxide synthase in a murine macrophage-like cell line. FEBS Lett. 1996;395:119-22 pubmed
    ..almost exclusively in the liver and catalyzes the last step of urea synthesis, whereas the nonhepatic type (arginase II) is expressed in extrahepatic tissues...
  2. Schwartz I, Schwartz D, Traskonov M, Chernichovsky T, Wollman Y, Gnessin E, et al. L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1700-6 pubmed
    ..Using RT-PCR, renal tissues were examined further for the expression of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, arginase I and arginase II. Tubular expression of iNOS mRNA was initiated by ischemia, continued to increase after 60 minutes of ..
  3. Schwartz I, Davidovitz A, Chernichovski T, Levin Iaina N, Guzner Gur H, Levo Y, et al. Arginine transport is augmented, through modulation of cationic amino acid transporter-1, in obstructive uropathy in rats. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CAT-1, arginase I, and arginase II protein contents were evaluated by Western blotting...
  4. Xu W, Ghosh S, Comhair S, Asosingh K, Janocha A, Mavrakis D, et al. Increased mitochondrial arginine metabolism supports bioenergetics in asthma. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:2465-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of iNOS, ARG2, arginine synthetic enzymes, and mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV was elevated in asthmatic lung ..
  5. Bagnost T, Berthelot A, Alvergnas M, Miguet Alfonsi C, André C, Guillaume Y, et al. Misregulation of the arginase pathway in tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:1130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study shows that increased arginase activity is not restricted to large vessels in SHRs and suggests that cardiac arginase activity is hemodynamic sensitive. ..
  6. Li H, Meininger C, Hawker J, Haynes T, Kepka Lenhart D, Mistry S, et al. Regulatory role of arginase I and II in nitric oxide, polyamine, and proline syntheses in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;280:E75-82 pubmed
    ..transfected with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene (lacZ-EC, control), rat arginase I cDNA (AI-EC), or mouse arginase II cDNA (AII-EC)...
  7. Nara A, Nagai H, Shintani Ishida K, Ogura S, Shimosawa T, Kuwahira I, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;53:184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia...
  8. Zimmermann N, King N, Laporte J, Yang M, Mishra A, Pope S, et al. Dissection of experimental asthma with DNA microarray analysis identifies arginase in asthma pathogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1863-74 pubmed
    ..related to metabolism of basic amino acids, specifically the cationic amino acid transporter 2, arginase I, and arginase II, were particularly prominent among the asthma signature genes...
  9. Hirata M, Obayashi S, Sakamoto S, Aso T, Imamura M, Azuma H. Involvement of arginase in regulating myometrial contractions during gestation in the rat. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006;12:513-8 pubmed
    ..However, the protein was clearly up-regulated at term gestation (22nd day), although arginase II protein was down-regulated during gestation, with the lowest value on the 14th day...

More Information


  1. Lopez V, Alarcon R, Orellana M, Enríquez P, Uribe E, Martinez J, et al. Insights into the interaction of human arginase II with substrate and manganese ions by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies. Alteration of substrate specificity by replacement of Asn149 with Asp. FEBS J. 2005;272:4540-8 pubmed
    To examine the interaction of human arginase II (EC with substrate and manganese ions, the His120Asn, His145Asn and Asn149Asp mutations were introduced separately...
  2. Lopez V, Siques P, Brito J, Vallejos C, Naveas N, Carvallo C, et al. Upregulation of arginase expression and activity in hypertensive rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 2009;10:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..596, p < 0.001). An upregulation of arginase type II could be pivotal in understanding the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension and probably other phenomena ..
  3. Yepuri G, Velagapudi S, Xiong Y, Rajapakse A, Montani J, Ming X, et al. Positive crosstalk between arginase-II and S6K1 in vascular endothelial inflammation and aging. Aging Cell. 2012;11:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting S6K1 and/or Arg-II may decelerate vascular aging and age-associated cardiovascular disease development...
  4. Schnorr O, Brossette T, Momma T, Kleinbongard P, Keen C, Schroeter H, et al. Cocoa flavanols lower vascular arginase activity in human endothelial cells in vitro and in erythrocytes in vivo. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;476:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary intervention with flavanol-rich cocoa caused diminished arginase activity in rat kidney and, erythrocyte arginase activity was lowered in healthy humans following consumption of a high flavanol beverage in vivo. ..
  5. Steppan J, Ryoo S, Schuleri K, Gregg C, Hasan R, White A, et al. Arginase modulates myocardial contractility by a nitric oxide synthase 1-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4759-64 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for therapy in pathophysiologic states such as aging and heart failure in which myocardial NO signaling is disrupted. ..
  6. Ozaki M, Gotoh T, Nagasaki A, Miyanaka K, Takeya M, Fujiyama S, et al. Expression of arginase II and related enzymes in the rat small intestine and kidney. J Biochem. 1999;125:586-93 pubmed
    ..conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine, and consists of a liver-type (arginase I) and a non-hepatic type (arginase II)...
  7. Carraway M, Piantadosi C, Jenkinson C, Huang Y. Differential expression of arginase and iNOS in the lung in sepsis. Exp Lung Res. 1998;24:253-68 pubmed
    ..We found by Western blot that arginase II at 39 kDa was the main isoform present in normal rat lung...
  8. Dunand Sauthier I, Irla M, Carnesecchi S, Seguín Estévez Q, Vejnar C, Zdobnov E, et al. Repression of arginase-2 expression in dendritic cells by microRNA-155 is critical for promoting T cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2014;193:1690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..a semiessential amino acid implicated in diverse cellular processes, is a substrate for two arginases-Arg1 and Arg2-having different expression patterns and functions...
  9. Que L, George S, Gotoh T, Mori M, Huang Y. Effects of arginase isoforms on NO Production by nNOS. Nitric Oxide. 2002;6:1-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in 293nNOS cells, AI was more effective in regulating NO production by nNOS, most likely by competing for L-arginine. ..
  10. Choi S, Park C, Ahn M, Lee J, Shin T. Immunohistochemical study of arginase 1 and 2 in various tissues of rats. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:487-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the levels of arginase 1 and 2 varied among organs, suggesting that the arginase isoforms may play organ-specific roles in the urea cycle. ..
  11. Thakran S, Salimuddin -, Baquer N. Oral administration of orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum graecum seed power restore the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;247:45-53 pubmed
  12. Iwata S, Tsujino T, Ikeda Y, Ishida T, Ueyama T, Gotoh T, et al. Decreased expression of arginase II in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hypertens Res. 2002;25:411-8 pubmed
    ..b>Arginase II (the dominant isoform in the kidney) mRNA and protein in the kidney of salt-loaded SS rats were also lower than ..
  13. Erişir M, Beytut E, Ozan S, Aksakal M. Effects of dietary vitamin E and selenium on arginase activity in the liver, kidneys, and heart of rats treated with high doses of glucocorticoid. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003;21:331-5 pubmed
    ..Vitamin E and Se in combination may prevent the changes in arginase activity in various tissues caused by prednisolone. ..
  14. Demougeot C, Prigent Tessier A, Bagnost T, André C, Guillaume Y, Bouhaddi M, et al. Time course of vascular arginase expression and activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 2007;80:1128-34 pubmed
    ..Arginase activity as well as expression of arginase I, arginase II, endothelial and inducible NOS were determined in aortic tissue extracts...
  15. Hardbower D, Asim M, Murray Stewart T, Casero R, Verriere T, Lewis N, et al. Arginase 2 deletion leads to enhanced M1 macrophage activation and upregulated polyamine metabolism in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. Amino Acids. 2016;48:2375-88 pubmed publisher
    We reported that arginase 2 (ARG2) deletion results in increased gastritis and decreased bacterial burden during Helicobacter pylori infection in mice...
  16. Johnson R, Durante W, Craig T, Peyton K, Myers J, Stewart R, et al. Vascular arginase contributes to arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;69:384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of arginase in hemorrhage-induced endothelial dysfunction has not been studied. This study tests the hypothesis that arginase inhibition improves endothelial function after hemorrhage...
  17. Erbas H, Aydogdu N, Kaymak K. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on arginase, ornithine and nitric oxide in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacol Res. 2004;50:523-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it could be possible that one of the protective mechanisms of NAC might be through the stimulation on the both liver and kidney tissue ornithine levels. ..
  18. Ishii N, Ikenaga H, Carmines P, Aoki Y, Ogawa Z, Saruta T, et al. High glucose augments arginase activity and nitric oxide production in the renal cortex. Metabolism. 2004;53:868-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that increased NOS activity, rather than altered substrate availability, may be the principal factor underlying increased NO synthesis in diabetic kidneys. ..
  19. Pernow J, Kiss A, Tratsiakovich Y, Climent B. Tissue-specific up-regulation of arginase I and II induced by p38 MAPK mediates endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:4684-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated p38 MAPK has been reported to increase arginase II in various cardiovascular diseases...
  20. Tormanen C. Inhibition of rat liver and kidney arginase by cadmium ion. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2006;21:119-23 pubmed
    ..Cadmium ion prevented the substrate inhibition of rat kidney arginase by fluoride while still inhibiting the enzyme. Cadmium ion also inhibited rat kidney arginase in the presence of manganese ion. ..
  21. Holan V, Pindjáková J, Krulova M, Neuwirth A, Fric J, Zajicova A. Production of nitric oxide during graft rejection is regulated by the Th1/Th2 balance, the arginase activity, and L-arginine metabolism. Transplantation. 2006;81:1708-15 pubmed
  22. Belik J, Shehnaz D, Pan J, Grasemann H. Developmental changes in arginase expression and activity in the lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Arginase II content, as well as total arginase activity, was highest in fetal rat lung, bronchi, and pulmonary arterial ..
  23. Munder M. Arginase: an emerging key player in the mammalian immune system. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:638-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological interference with L-arginine metabolism is a novel promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity or unwanted immune deviation. ..
  24. Levillain O, Hus Citharel A, Garvi S, Peyrol S, Reymond I, Mutin M, et al. Ornithine metabolism in male and female rat kidney: mitochondrial expression of ornithine aminotransferase and arginase II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;286:F727-38 pubmed reabsorbed along the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), transported by basolateral carriers, and produced by arginase II (AII). Here, the renal metabolic fate of L-ornithine was analyzed in male and female rats...
  25. Li H, Romieu I, Sienra Monge J, Ramirez Aguilar M, Estela Del Rio Navarro B, Kistner E, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in arginase I and II and childhood asthma and atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:119-26 pubmed
    A recent microarray study implicated arginase I (ARG1) and arginase II (ARG2) in mouse allergic asthma models and human asthma. To examine the association between genetic variation in ARG1 and ARG2 and childhood asthma and atopy risk...
  26. Zhang W, Wang X, Yu Z, Wang L, Zhu Y, Yu X, et al. Hyperlipidemic versus healthy pancreases: a proteomic analysis using an animal model. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alpha-amylase and arginase II were dysregulated by more than twofold...
  27. Bagnost T, Berthelot A, Bouhaddi M, Laurant P, André C, Guillaume Y, et al. Treatment with the arginase inhibitor N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine improves vascular function and lowers blood pressure in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat. J Hypertens. 2008;26:1110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data represent in-vivo argument in favor of selective arginase inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy against hypertension. ..
  28. McGovern N, Shin A, Low G, Low D, Duan K, Yao L, et al. Human fetal dendritic cells promote prenatal T-cell immune suppression through arginase-2. Nature. 2017;546:662-666 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a previously unappreciated role of dendritic cells within the developing fetus and indicate that they mediate homeostatic immune-suppressive responses during gestation. ..
  29. Liu H, Drew P, Gaugler A, Cheng Y, Visner G. Pirfenidone inhibits lung allograft fibrosis through L-arginine-arginase pathway. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:1256-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that pirfenidone inhibits local arginase activity possibly through suppression of endogenous TGF-beta, hence, limiting the development of fibrosis in lung allografts. ..
  30. Kanda H, Kikushima M, Homma Takeda S, Sumi D, Endo A, Toyama T, et al. Downregulation of arginase II and renal apoptosis by inorganic mercury: overexpression of arginase II reduces its apoptosis. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:67-73 pubmed
    Inorganic mercury is a toxic metal that accumulates in the proximal tubules of the kidney, causing apoptosis. Arginase II is known to inhibit apoptosis, but its role in the renal apoptosis caused by inorganic mercury is poorly understood...
  31. Geiger R, Rieckmann J, Wolf T, Basso C, Feng Y, Fuhrer T, et al. L-Arginine Modulates T Cell Metabolism and Enhances Survival and Anti-tumor Activity. Cell. 2016;167:829-842.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, intracellular L-arginine concentrations directly impact the metabolic fitness and survival capacity of T cells that are crucial for anti-tumor responses. ..
  32. Que L, Kantrow S, Jenkinson C, Piantadosi C, Huang Y. Induction of arginase isoforms in the lung during hyperoxia. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L96-102 pubmed
    ..The strong expression of arginase in the connective tissues suggests that the function of pulmonary arginase may be linked to connective tissue elements, e.g., fibroblasts, during lung injury and recovery. ..
  33. Vonk J, Postma D, Maarsingh H, Bruinenberg M, Koppelman G, Meurs H. Arginase 1 and arginase 2 variations associate with asthma, asthma severity and beta2 agonist and steroid response. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on the functionality of the polymorphisms are warranted to further unravel the complex mechanisms underlying these observations. ..
  34. Klasen S, Hammermann R, Fuhrmann M, Lindemann D, Beck K, Pfeilschifter J, et al. Glucocorticoids inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of arginase in rat alveolar macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:1349-57 pubmed
    ..Both, LPS and IFN-gamma enhanced the levels of arginase II mRNA and protein, effects also inhibited by dexamethasone...
  35. van Balkom B, Hoffert J, Chou C, Knepper M. Proteomic analysis of long-term vasopressin action in the inner medullary collecting duct of the Brattleboro rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;286:F216-24 pubmed a role for vasopressin in the coordinate regulation of several determinants of nitric oxide levels (NOS2, arginase II, NADPH oxidase) and of proteins potentially involved in vasopressin escape (adenylyl cyclase VI and G protein-..
  36. Ali N, Jafri A, Sopi R, Prakash Y, Martin R, Zaidi S. Role of arginase in impairing relaxation of lung parenchyma of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal rats. Neonatology. 2012;101:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure of rat pups to ?95% O2 impairs airway relaxation due to disruption of nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling...
  37. Lindemann D, Racké K. Glucocorticoid inhibition of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) induced up-regulation of arginase in rat airway fibroblasts. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;368:546-50 pubmed
    ..Using RT-PCR mRNA for arginase I was clearly detectable with 30 PCR cycles, whereas mRNA for arginase II was hardly detectable with 35 PCR cycles...
  38. Iyer R, Bando J, Jenkinson C, Vockley J, Kim P, Kern R, et al. Cloning and characterization of the mouse and rat type II arginase genes. Mol Genet Metab. 1998;63:168-75 pubmed
    ..In these patients, a second extrahepatic or type II arginase activity is significantly increased, an induction that may partially compensate for the lack of AI activity ..
  39. Wei C, Hon W, Lee K, Mori M, Gotoh T, Khoo H. Induction of arginase II in livers of bile duct-ligated rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;63:1043-50 pubmed
    ..21 x 10(4) attomole/microg of total RNA, sham vs. BDL, P<0.001), as well as arginase I protein. In contrast, arginase II mRNA was induced in the livers of BDL rats, with negligible expression in controls (0.35+/-0.11 vs. 3.64+/-0...
  40. Khan M, Steppan J, Schuleri K, Schuleri K, Ryoo S, Tuday E, et al. Upregulation of arginase-II contributes to decreased age-related myocardial contractile reserve. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:2933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..4,014 ± 314 RFU/min/mg protein, p = 0.005). Arg-II upregulation in aging rat hearts contributes to age-related decreased contractile function. ..
  41. Iyer R, Jenkinson C, Vockley J, Kern R, Grody W, Cederbaum S. The human arginases and arginase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998;21 Suppl 1:86-100 pubmed
    ..The evidence for the role of AII in nitric oxide and polyamine metabolism is presented and this appears consonant with the data on the tissue distribution...
  42. Moradi H, Kwok V, Vaziri N. Effect of chronic renal failure on arginase and argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26:310-8 pubmed
    ..L-arg is converted to urea by arginase I in the liver and arginase II in the kidney...
  43. Amrouni D, Meiller A, Gautier Sauvigné S, Piraud M, Bouteille B, Vincendeau P, et al. Cerebral changes occurring in arginase and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in a rat model of sleeping sickness. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16891 pubmed publisher
    ..As a whole, the above processes may ensure additive protection against trypanosome entry into the brain, i.e., maintenance of NO trypanocidal pressure and limitation of polyamine production, necessary for trypanosome growth. ..
  44. Watts J, Marchick M, Gellar M, Kline J. Up-regulation of arginase II contributes to pulmonary vascular endothelial cell dysfunction during experimental pulmonary embolism. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2011;24:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested if experimental PE impairs pulmonary vascular endothelium-dependent dilation via activation of arginase II. Experimental PE was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by infusing 25 ?m microspheres in the right jugular ..
  45. Breuillard C, Belabed L, Bonhomme S, Blanc Quintin M, Neveux N, Couderc R, et al. Arginine availability modulates arginine metabolism and TNF? production in peritoneal macrophages from Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophages from ZDF rats arginase I was significantly lower and progressively increased up to 2 mM Arg while arginase II was not affected by Arg concentration...
  46. Ljubisavljević S, Stojanovic I, Pavlovic R, Sokolovic D, Pavlovic D, Cvetkovic T, et al. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase by arginase and methylated arginines during the acute phase of experimental multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012;318:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The continued research of these findings may provide a new area in the treatment of multiple sclerosis acute phase. ..
  47. Cama E, Colleluori D, Emig F, Shin H, Kim S, Kim N, et al. Human arginase II: crystal structure and physiological role in male and female sexual arousal. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8445-51 pubmed
    ..The X-ray crystal structure of a fully active, truncated form of human arginase II complexed with a boronic acid transition state analogue inhibitor has been determined at 2.7 A resolution...
  48. Caruana G, Cullen McEwen L, Nelson A, Kostoulias X, Woods K, Gardiner B, et al. Spatial gene expression in the T-stage mouse metanephros. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:807-25 pubmed
    ..We identified genes enriched in the tip epithelium, sim-1, Arg2, Tacstd1, Crlf-1 and BMP7; genes enriched in the trunk epithelium, Innp1, Itm2b, Mkrn1, SPARC, Emu2 and Gsta3 and ..
  49. Liu P, Gliddon C, Lindsay L, Darlington C, Smith P. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase expression changes in the rat perirhinal and entorhinal cortices following unilateral vestibular damage: a link to deficits in object recognition?. J Vestib Res. 2004;14:411-7 pubmed
    ..plasticity, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), arginase I and arginase II (AI and II), in the rat EC and PRC using Western blotting...
  50. Yoon J, Ryoo S. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1?-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1?-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner. ..
  51. Nissim I, Luhovyy B, Horyn O, Daikhin Y, Nissim I, Yudkoff M. The role of mitochondrially bound arginase in the regulation of urea synthesis: studies with [U-15N4]arginine, isolated mitochondria, and perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17715-24 pubmed
  52. Moran J, Ortiz Ortiz M, Ruiz Mesa L, Niso Santano M, Bravosanpedro J, Sánchez R, et al. Effect of paraquat exposure on nitric oxide-responsive genes in rat mesencephalic cells. Nitric Oxide. 2010;23:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of nitric oxide and its potential role in paraquat-induced gene expression, we examined changes in GCH1, ARG1, ARG2, NOS1, NOS2, NOS3, NOSTRIN, NOSIP, NOS1AP, RASD1, DYNLL1, GUCY1A3, DDAH1, DDAH2 and CYGB genes whose expression is ..
  53. Morris S, Gao T, Cooper T, Kepka Lenhart D, Awad A. Arginase-2 mediates diabetic renal injury. Diabetes. 2011;60:3015-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine 1) whether renal arginase activity or expression is increased in diabetes and 2) whether arginase plays a role in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN)...
  54. Gharbi M, Powroznik B, Mazzucchelli G, Deville C, Nollevaux G, Rusu D, et al. Modulation of intestinal urea cycle by dietary spermine in suckling rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:1119-24 pubmed
    ..Modulation of the gene expression for several urea cycle enzymes suggests a coordination between all the pathway steps and switch toward polyamine (or proline and glutamate) biosynthesis from ornithine. ..