Ar

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ar
Description: androgen receptor
Alias: Andr, Tfm, androgen receptor, androgen receptor (Testicular feminization), same as Tfm, dihydrotestosterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
Species: rat
Products:     Ar

Top Publications

  1. Watson P, Kim K, Chen K, Gould M. Androgen-dependent mammary carcinogenesis in rats transgenic for the Neu proto-oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:67-79 pubmed
    ..Transgenic females only developed mammary cancer if treated with androgens. These tumors were positive for androgen receptor (AR), but negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors...
  2. Fytili P, Giannatou E, Papanikolaou V, Stripeli F, Karachalios T, Malizos K, et al. Association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptors alpha, beta, and androgen receptor genes with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Genet. 2005;68:268-77 pubmed
    ..the possible role of genetic variation in the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-alpha, ER-beta) and androgen receptor (AR) genes with knee OA, the -1174(TA)(n), c.1092+3607(CA)(n), and c...
  3. Tavassoli P, Wafa L, Cheng H, Zoubeidi A, Fazli L, Gleave M, et al. TAF1 differentially enhances androgen receptor transcriptional activity via its N-terminal kinase and ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating domains. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:696-708 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR) coregulators has been linked to progression of prostate cancers to castration resistance...
  4. Mita P, Savas J, Djouder N, Yates J, Ha S, Ruoff R, et al. Regulation of androgen receptor-mediated transcription by RPB5 binding protein URI/RMP. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3639-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription is modulated by interaction with coregulatory proteins...
  5. Prescott J, Coetzee G. Molecular chaperones throughout the life cycle of the androgen receptor. Cancer Lett. 2006;231:12-9 pubmed
    Aberrant signaling by the androgen receptor contributes to the initiation and progression of prostate cancer...
  6. Banu S, Govindarajulu P, Aruldhas M. Developmental profiles of TSH, sex steroids, and their receptors in the thyroid and their relevance to thyroid growth in immature rats. Steroids. 2002;67:137-44 pubmed
    ..This is the first report to show the availability of sex steroids and their receptors in the thyroid glands of immature rats under normal conditions. ..
  7. Yeh S, Hu Y, Wang P, Xie C, Xu Q, Tsai M, et al. Abnormal mammary gland development and growth retardation in female mice and MCF7 breast cancer cells lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1899-908 pubmed
    Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR-/-) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal ..
  8. Prabhu A, Xu Q, Manigrasso M, Biswas M, Flynn E, Iliescu R, et al. Expression of aromatase, androgen and estrogen receptors in peripheral target tissues in diabetes. Steroids. 2010;75:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data provides evidence for the extra-testicular source of estradiol that in males, through an intracrine mechanism, may contribute to the development and/or progression of end-organ damage associated with diabetes. ..
  9. Mizuta H, Kuroda Y. Cloning and functional characterization of a rat Daxx that functions as a corepressor for the androgen receptor. Cell Biol Int. 2004;28:609-14 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor, plays an important role in endocrine system development and homeostasis...
  10. Kang N, Duan L, Tang L, Liu S, Li C, Li Y, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel thymus aging related protein Rwdd1. Cell Mol Immunol. 2008;5:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression level of Rwdd1 could affect the transactivation activity of androgen receptor (AR) in transiently transfected thymic epithelial cells...

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Watson P, Kim K, Chen K, Gould M. Androgen-dependent mammary carcinogenesis in rats transgenic for the Neu proto-oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:67-79 pubmed
    ..Transgenic females only developed mammary cancer if treated with androgens. These tumors were positive for androgen receptor (AR), but negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors...
  2. Fytili P, Giannatou E, Papanikolaou V, Stripeli F, Karachalios T, Malizos K, et al. Association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptors alpha, beta, and androgen receptor genes with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Genet. 2005;68:268-77 pubmed
    ..the possible role of genetic variation in the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-alpha, ER-beta) and androgen receptor (AR) genes with knee OA, the -1174(TA)(n), c.1092+3607(CA)(n), and c...
  3. Tavassoli P, Wafa L, Cheng H, Zoubeidi A, Fazli L, Gleave M, et al. TAF1 differentially enhances androgen receptor transcriptional activity via its N-terminal kinase and ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating domains. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:696-708 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR) coregulators has been linked to progression of prostate cancers to castration resistance...
  4. Mita P, Savas J, Djouder N, Yates J, Ha S, Ruoff R, et al. Regulation of androgen receptor-mediated transcription by RPB5 binding protein URI/RMP. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3639-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription is modulated by interaction with coregulatory proteins...
  5. Prescott J, Coetzee G. Molecular chaperones throughout the life cycle of the androgen receptor. Cancer Lett. 2006;231:12-9 pubmed
    Aberrant signaling by the androgen receptor contributes to the initiation and progression of prostate cancer...
  6. Banu S, Govindarajulu P, Aruldhas M. Developmental profiles of TSH, sex steroids, and their receptors in the thyroid and their relevance to thyroid growth in immature rats. Steroids. 2002;67:137-44 pubmed
    ..This is the first report to show the availability of sex steroids and their receptors in the thyroid glands of immature rats under normal conditions. ..
  7. Yeh S, Hu Y, Wang P, Xie C, Xu Q, Tsai M, et al. Abnormal mammary gland development and growth retardation in female mice and MCF7 breast cancer cells lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1899-908 pubmed
    Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR-/-) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal ..
  8. Prabhu A, Xu Q, Manigrasso M, Biswas M, Flynn E, Iliescu R, et al. Expression of aromatase, androgen and estrogen receptors in peripheral target tissues in diabetes. Steroids. 2010;75:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data provides evidence for the extra-testicular source of estradiol that in males, through an intracrine mechanism, may contribute to the development and/or progression of end-organ damage associated with diabetes. ..
  9. Mizuta H, Kuroda Y. Cloning and functional characterization of a rat Daxx that functions as a corepressor for the androgen receptor. Cell Biol Int. 2004;28:609-14 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor, plays an important role in endocrine system development and homeostasis...
  10. Kang N, Duan L, Tang L, Liu S, Li C, Li Y, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel thymus aging related protein Rwdd1. Cell Mol Immunol. 2008;5:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression level of Rwdd1 could affect the transactivation activity of androgen receptor (AR) in transiently transfected thymic epithelial cells...
  11. Alves C, Goncalves I, Socorro S, Baltazar G, Quintela T, Santos C. Androgen receptor is expressed in murine choroid plexus and downregulated by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in male and female mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;38:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Androgens regulate the expression of neuroprotective peptides in several tissues where the androgen receptor (AR) is coexpressed, including the brain...
  12. Hamson D, Wainwright S, Taylor J, Jones B, Watson N, Galea L. Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism in male rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest androgens regulate hippocampal neurogenesis via the androgen receptor (AR)...
  13. Balla A, Danilovich N, Yang Y, Sairam M. Dynamics of ovarian development in the FORKO immature mouse: structural and functional implications for ovarian reserve. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1281-93 pubmed
    ..Developmental markers, such as Müllerian inhibiting substance, GATA-4, estrogen receptor beta, and androgen receptor, were differentially expressed in granulosa cells...
  14. Dai Y, Ngo D, Jacob J, Forman L, Faller D. Prohibitin and the SWI/SNF ATPase subunit BRG1 are required for effective androgen antagonist-mediated transcriptional repression of androgen receptor-regulated genes. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1725-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We establish that androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional suppression by androgen antagonists requires the tumor suppressor prohibitin...
  15. Pawlowski J, Ertel J, Allen M, Xu M, Butler C, Wilson E, et al. Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20702-10 pubmed
    A yeast two-hybrid assay was employed to identify androgen receptor (AR) protein partners in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells...
  16. Nunez J, Huppenbauer C, McAbee M, Juraska J, DonCarlos L. Androgen receptor expression in the developing male and female rat visual and prefrontal cortex. J Neurobiol. 2003;56:293-302 pubmed
    ..primary visual cortex (Oc1) and the anterior cingulate/frontal cortex (Cg1/Fr2); and to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) expression in these regions differs between developing males and females...
  17. Shirai M, Yamanaka M, Shiina H, Igawa M, Fujime M, Lue T, et al. Downregulation of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptor genes and protein is involved in aging-related erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:391-6 pubmed
    ..1, 89.6, 73.5 and 42.7 cm H(2)O, respectively. Gene and protein expressions for androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-beta and progesterone receptor were present in similar levels in 6-, 12- and 18-month-old ..
  18. Chen G, Nomura M, Morinaga H, Matsubara E, Okabe T, Goto K, et al. Modulation of androgen receptor transactivation by FoxH1. A newly identified androgen receptor corepressor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36355-63 pubmed
    ..the development and progression of prostate cancer, and numerous ongoing studies focus on the regulation of androgen receptor (AR) transactivity to develop novel therapies for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer...
  19. Patek C, Saunders P, Miles C, Berry R, Hastie N, Sharpe R, et al. Gonadal effects of a mouse Denys-Drash syndrome mutation. Transgenic Res. 2005;14:691-702 pubmed
    ..Control XXY Sertoli cells showed immuno-expression of WT1 and androgen receptor (AR) indistinguishable from wild-type (40,XY), but expressed anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)...
  20. Szołtys M, Słomczyńska M, Galas J, Duda M, Sakiewicz A. Expression of androgen receptor and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in corpora lutea during pregnancy in the rat. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2007;19:356-65 pubmed
    Immunoexpression of androgen receptor (AR) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was investigated in three generations of corpora lutea (CLs), found in the ovaries of rats on Days 1, 2, 5, 9, 14 and 20 of pregnancy...
  21. Montie H, Merry D. Autophagy and access: understanding the role of androgen receptor subcellular localization in SBMA. Autophagy. 2009;5:1194-7 pubmed
    ..We have recently reported that lack of access of nuclear polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor (AR) to the autophagic degradation pathway is a critical point in pathogenesis...
  22. Liu Q, Su S, Blackwelder A, Minges J, Wilson E. Gain in transcriptional activity by primate-specific coevolution of melanoma antigen-A11 and its interaction site in androgen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29951-63 pubmed publisher
    Male sex development and growth occur in response to high affinity androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR)...
  23. Aarnisalo P, Santti H, Poukka H, Palvimo J, Janne O. Transcription activating and repressing functions of the androgen receptor are differentially influenced by mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3097-105 pubmed
    Despite the wide spectrum of androgen receptor (AR) mutants described in androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS), their influence on transactivating and, in particular, transrepressing functions of AR are poorly defined...
  24. Johnson R, Breedlove S, Jordan C. Sex differences and laterality in astrocyte number and complexity in the adult rat medial amygdala. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to determine whether MePD astrocytes are sexually ..
  25. Raj M, Selvakumar K, Krishnamoorthy G, Revathy S, Elumalai P, Arunakaran J. Impact of lycopene on epididymal androgen and estrogen receptors' expression in polychlorinated biphenyls-exposed rat. Reprod Sci. 2014;21:89-101 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors' (ER) expression in epididymis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-exposed rats. The rats were assigned to groups...
  26. Chen H, Chen W, Wu M, Tsai F, Tsai C. Androgen receptor (AR) gene microsatellite polymorphism in postmenopausal women: correlation to bone mineral density and susceptibility to osteoporosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;107:52-6 pubmed
    To investigate the correlation of the androgen receptor gene microsatellite polymorphism (CAG trinucleotide repeat polymorphism on exon 1) with bone mineral density and their relationship to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women...
  27. Obendorf M, Meyer R, Henning K, Mitev Y, Schröder J, Patchev V, et al. FoxG1, a member of the forkhead family, is a corepressor of the androgen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;104:195-207 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional regulator which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  28. Seeni A, Takahashi S, Takeshita K, Tang M, Sugiura S, Sato S, et al. Suppression of prostate cancer growth by resveratrol in the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008;9:7-14 pubmed
    ..Resveratrol suppressed prostate cancer growth and induction of apoptosis through androgen receptor (AR) down-regulation, without any sign of toxicity...
  29. Cortes C, La Spada A. Motor neuron degeneration in spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy is a skeletal muscle-driven process: Relevance to therapy development and implications for related motor neuron diseases. Rare Dis. 2014;2:e962402 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a novel line of BAC androgen receptor (AR) transgenic mice with a floxed transgene (BAC fxAR121), we uncovered a key role for skeletal muscle in X-..
  30. Ou X, Chen K, Shih J. Glucocorticoid and androgen activation of monoamine oxidase A is regulated differently by R1 and Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21512-25 pubmed
    ..Androgen also up-regulates MAO A gene expression by direct interaction of androgen receptor with the third glucocorticoid/androgen response element...
  31. Koshimizu J, Beltrame F, de Pizzol J, Cerri P, Caneguim B, Sasso Cerri E. NF-kB overexpression and decreased immunoexpression of AR in the muscular layer is related to structural damages and apoptosis in cimetidine-treated rat vas deferens. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) method, NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B) and AR (androgen receptors) immunohistochemical detection were also carried out...
  32. Tsai W, Yang L, Chen Y, Kao Y, Lin Y, Chen S, et al. Ablation of the androgen receptor gene modulates atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis with calcium protein dysregulation. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) can modulate atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis with modulation of Ca(2+) ..
  33. Doncarlos L, Garcia Ovejero D, Sarkey S, Garcia Segura L, Azcoitia I. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in forebrain axons and dendrites in the rat. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3632-8 pubmed
    ..b>AR expression in axons was identified in the rat brain at the light microscopic level using two different antibodies ..
  34. Hong C, Suh J, Kim K, Gong E, Jeon S, Ko M, et al. Modulation of androgen receptor transactivation by the SWI3-related gene product (SRG3) in multiple ways. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4841-52 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that in the prostate transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) is modulated by SRG3 in multiple ways...
  35. Moilanen A, Poukka H, Karvonen U, Hakli M, Janne O, Palvimo J. Identification of a novel RING finger protein as a coregulator in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:5128-39 pubmed
    Using the DNA-binding domain of androgen receptor (AR) as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a small nuclear RING finger protein, termed SNURF, that interacts with AR in a hormone-dependent fashion in both yeast ..
  36. Takeyama K, Ito S, Yamamoto A, Tanimoto H, Furutani T, Kanuka H, et al. Androgen-dependent neurodegeneration by polyglutamine-expanded human androgen receptor in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;35:855-64 pubmed
    ..only males and is caused by expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches in the N-terminal A/B domain of human androgen receptor (hAR)...
  37. Kostic T, Stojkov N, Bjelic M, Mihajlovic A, Janjic M, Andric S. Pharmacological doses of testosterone upregulated androgen receptor and 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase and impaired leydig cells steroidogenesis in adult rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011;121:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Oppositely, the expression of Hsd3b (3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase), Ar (androgen receptor), and Pde4a/b (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterases) was increased...
  38. Jiang J, Xu H, Zhu Y, Wood K, Li E, Sun W, et al. Reduced Fgf10/Fgfr2 and androgen receptor (AR) in anorectal malformations male rats induced by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP): A study on the local and systemic toxicology of DBP. Toxicology. 2015;338:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Reportedly, Fgf10/Fgfr2 and androgen receptor (AR) are pivotal for the development of multiple organs...
  39. Simanainen U, Allan C, Lim P, McPherson S, Jimenez M, Zajac J, et al. Disruption of prostate epithelial androgen receptor impedes prostate lobe-specific growth and function. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2264-72 pubmed
    Prostate development and maturation requires stromal-epithelial interactions and androgen action via the androgen receptor (AR) within these compartments...
  40. Corbould A. Chronic testosterone treatment induces selective insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipocytes of women. J Endocrinol. 2007;192:585-94 pubmed
    ..of healthy women aged 37 +/- 5 years were differentiated in vitro, then treated with testosterone (T) and/or androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (cyproterone acetate, flutamide) for 48 h...
  41. Thomas M, Preece D, Bentel J. Androgen regulation of the prostatic tumour suppressor NKX3.1 is mediated by its 3' untranslated region. Biochem J. 2010;425:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..1 3'UTR identified three regions that were transactivated by DHT (5alpha-dihydrotestosterone) in the AR (androgen receptor)-expressing prostate cancer cell line LNCaP...
  42. Harada N, Katsuki T, Takahashi Y, Masuda T, Yoshinaga M, Adachi T, et al. Androgen receptor silences thioredoxin-interacting protein and competitively inhibits glucocorticoid receptor-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic β-Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:998-1006 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) is known to bind to the same cis-element that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to. However, the effects of androgen signaling on glucocorticoid signaling have not yet been elucidated...
  43. Andoh Y, Kuramoto T, Yokoi N, Maihara T, Kitada K, Serikawa T. Correlation between genetic and cytogenetic maps of the rat. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:287-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide here a new base for rat genetic maps. ..
  44. Comings D, Chen C, Wu S, Muhleman D. Association of the androgen receptor gene (AR) with ADHD and conduct disorder. Neuroreport. 1999;10:1589-92 pubmed
    ..Since the shorter alleles of the CAG and GGC polymorphisms of the AR gene are associated with increased gene expression we sought to determine whether they were also associated with ..
  45. Durazzo A, Morris J, Breedlove S, Jordan C. Effects of the testicular feminization mutation (tfm) of the androgen receptor gene on BSTMPM volume and morphology in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:168-71 pubmed
    ..We examined the effect of the testicular feminization mutation (tfm), which renders the androgen receptor (AR) dysfunctional, on BSTMPM volume and average somal area...
  46. Wu Y, Baumgarten S, Zhou P, Stocco C. Testosterone-dependent interaction between androgen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces liver receptor homolog 1 expression in rat granulosa cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that although both T and DHT stimulate androgen receptor (AR) binding to the LRH-1 promoter, DHT prevents T-mediated stimulation of LRH-1 expression...
  47. Wissmann M, Yin N, Müller J, Greschik H, Fodor B, Jenuwein T, et al. Cooperative demethylation by JMJD2C and LSD1 promotes androgen receptor-dependent gene expression. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:347-53 pubmed
    ..LSD1 interacts with the androgen receptor and promotes androgen-dependent transcription of target genes by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and ..
  48. Tsai Y. Suppression of steroid receptor-chromatin interaction by inhibitors present in ammonium sulfate-fractionated rat testicular androgen receptor preparations. J Androl. 1987;8:299-306 pubmed
    Tritiated androgen receptor complex was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation at 15 to 37% saturation from rat testicular or prostatic cytosols...
  49. Nantermet P, Xu J, Yu Y, Hodor P, Holder D, Adamski S, et al. Identification of genetic pathways activated by the androgen receptor during the induction of proliferation in the ventral prostate gland. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1310-22 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR), when complexed with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), supports the survival and proliferation of prostate cells, a process critical for normal development, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and tumorigenesis...
  50. Lim P, Robson M, Spaliviero J, McTavish K, Jimenez M, Zajac J, et al. Sertoli cell androgen receptor DNA binding domain is essential for the completion of spermatogenesis. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4755-65 pubmed publisher
    We examined the biological importance of Sertoli cell androgen receptor (AR) genomic interaction, using a Cre-loxP approach to selectively disrupt the AR DNA-binding domain (AR-DBD)...
  51. Elhaji Y, Wu J, Gottlieb B, Beitel L, Alvarado C, Batist G, et al. An examination of how different mutations at arginine 855 of the androgen receptor result in different androgen insensitivity phenotypes. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1876-86 pubmed
    Two substitutions at an identical location in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR), R855C and R855H, are associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and partial AIS, respectively...
  52. Wu D, Lin G, Gore A. Age-related changes in hypothalamic androgen receptor and estrogen receptor alpha in male rats. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:688-701 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a stereologic analysis of immunoreactive androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cells in three POA nuclei of male Sprague-Dawley rats (..
  53. Dehghan F, Muniandy S, Yusof A, Salleh N. Testosterone reduces knee passive range of motion and expression of relaxin receptor isoforms via 5?-dihydrotestosterone and androgen receptor binding. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:4619-34 pubmed publisher
    ..oil (control), testosterone (125 and 250 ?g/kg) and testosterone (125 and 250 ?g/kg) plus flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker or finasteride, a 5?-reductase inhibitor...
  54. Asadi F, Dimaculangan D, Berger F. Androgen regulation of gene expression in primary epithelial cells of the mouse kidney. Endocrinology. 1994;134:1179-87 pubmed
    ..The response does not occur in cells from Tfm animals, indicating that androgen receptor is required...
  55. Stanbrough M, Leav I, Kwan P, Bubley G, Balk S. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice expressing an androgen receptor transgene in prostate epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10823-8 pubmed
    ..by androgen ablation therapy, and clinical trials are under way to prevent PCa through the reduction of androgen receptor (AR) activity...
  56. Horibe A, Eid N, Ito Y, Hamaoka H, Tanaka Y, Kondo Y. Upregulated Autophagy in Sertoli Cells of Ethanol-Treated Rats Is Associated with Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), Androgen Receptor Suppression and Germ Cell Apoptosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..in the ethanol-treated rats (ETRs) in association with upregulation of iNOS and reduced expression of androgen receptor protein levels in SCs, which were resistant to apoptosis...
  57. Jääskeläinen J, Korhonen S, Voutilainen R, Hippeläinen M, Heinonen S. Androgen receptor gene CAG length polymorphism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1724-8 pubmed
    To determine whether the CAG repeat length of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contributes to individual differences in the susceptibility to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Retrospective case-control study...
  58. Barbieri C, Bangma C, Bjartell A, Catto J, Culig Z, Gronberg H, et al. The mutational landscape of prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;64:567-76 pubmed publisher
  59. Brown T, Lubahn D, Wilson E, Joseph D, French F, Migeon C. Deletion of the steroid-binding domain of the human androgen receptor gene in one family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8151-5 pubmed
    The cloning of a cDNA for the human androgen receptor gene has resulted in the availability of cDNA probes that span various parts of the gene, including the entire steroid-binding domain and part of the DNA-binding domain, as well as ..
  60. Nation T, Buraundi S, Balic A, Farmer P, Newgreen D, Southwell B, et al. The effect of flutamide on expression of androgen and estrogen receptors in the gubernaculum and surrounding structures during testicular descent. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:2358-62 pubmed publisher
    Inguinoscrotal testicular descent is controlled by androgens between embryonic days E16-19, but androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) locations are unknown...
  61. Takahashi S, Inaguma S, Sakakibara M, Cho Y, Suzuki S, Ikeda Y, et al. DNA methylation in the androgen receptor gene promoter region in rat prostate cancers. Prostate. 2002;52:82-8 pubmed
    ..DMAB) and testosterone propionate (TP) are biologically androgen-independent and lacking androgen receptor protein (AR) expression...
  62. Martini M, Di Sante G, Collado P, Pinos H, Guillamon A, Panzica G. Androgen receptors are required for full masculinization of nitric oxide synthase system in rat limbic-hypothalamic region. Horm Behav. 2008;54:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..elucidate the role of AR on nNOS expression, we compared male and female rats with a non-functional mutation of AR (Tfm, testicular feminization mutation) to their control littermates...
  63. Shi L, Ko S, Kim S, Echchgadda I, Oh T, Song C, et al. Loss of androgen receptor in aging and oxidative stress through Myb protooncoprotein-regulated reciprocal chromatin dynamics of p53 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we show that transcriptional down-regulation of androgen receptor (AR) in the aging rat liver and in oxidatively stressed hepatoma cells involves exchange of a PARP-1-..
  64. Ris Stalpers C, Hoogenboezem T, Sleddens H, Verleun Mooijman M, Degenhart H, Drop S, et al. A practical approach to the detection of androgen receptor gene mutations and pedigree analysis in families with x-linked androgen insensitivity. Pediatr Res. 1994;36:227-34 pubmed
    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disorder in which defects in the androgen receptor gene have prevented the normal development of both internal and external male structures in 46,XY individuals...
  65. Chauhan S, Pandey R, Way J, Sroka T, Demetriou M, Kunz S, et al. Androgen regulation of the human FERM domain encoding gene EHM2 in a cell model of steroid-induced differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:421-32 pubmed
    ..of differentiation using a subline of HT1080 cells (HT-AR1) that have been engineered to express the human androgen receptor. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment of HT-AR1 cells induced growth arrest and cytoskeletal reorganization ..
  66. Sitz J, Tigges M, Baumgärtel K, Khaspekov L, Lutz B. Dyrk1A potentiates steroid hormone-induced transcription via the chromatin remodeling factor Arip4. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5821-34 pubmed
    ..To further understand this pathology, we searched for Dyrk1A-interacting proteins and identified Arip4 (androgen receptor-interacting protein 4), a SNF2-like steroid hormone receptor cofactor...
  67. Rodriguez Cuenca S, Monjo M, Frontera M, Gianotti M, Proenza A, Roca P. Sex steroid receptor expression profile in brown adipose tissue. Effects of hormonal status. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:877-86 pubmed
    ..Oestrogen receptor (ERalpha) and androgen receptor (AR) densities were higher in male than in female BAT...
  68. Zhang Y, Piao Y, Li Y, Song M, Tang P, Li C. 4-Nitrophenol induces Leydig cells hyperplasia, which may contribute to the differential modulation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-? and -? expression in male rat testes. Toxicol Lett. 2013;223:228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in the serum and estrogen receptor (ER)-?, -? and androgen receptor (AR) expression in testes...
  69. Morales C, Zhao Q, El Alfy M, Suzuki K. Targeted disruption of the mouse prosaposin gene affects the development of the prostate gland and other male reproductive organs. J Androl. 2000;21:765-75 pubmed
    ..In prostatic epithelium, targeted disruption of the prosaposin gene appears to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to interfere with differentiation of secretory cells. ..
  70. McPherson S, Wang H, Jones M, Pedersen J, Iismaa T, Wreford N, et al. Elevated androgens and prolactin in aromatase-deficient mice cause enlargement, but not malignancy, of the prostate gland. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2458-67 pubmed
    ..It is concluded in ArKO mice that, despite the long-term elevation of androgens and PRL, the absence of estrogen in these animals does not result in induction of malignancy in the prostate gland. ..
  71. MacLusky N, Hajszan T, Johansen J, Jordan C, Leranth C. Androgen effects on hippocampal CA1 spine synapse numbers are retained in Tfm male rats with defective androgen receptors. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2392-8 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the contribution of the androgen receptor to the hormone-induced increase in hippocampal CA1 synapses, wild-type males were compared with males ..
  72. Mohlig M, Jürgens A, Spranger J, Hoffmann K, Weickert M, Schlösser H, et al. The androgen receptor CAG repeat modifies the impact of testosterone on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:127-30 pubmed
    ..Androgens act through the androgen receptor (AR)...
  73. Akita K, Harada K, Ichihara J, Takata N, Takahashi Y, Saito K. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator, NEP28, is efficacious in muscle and brain without serious side effects on prostate. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;720:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, androgen therapy is not used routinely for these indications, because of side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a new class of compounds...
  74. Takahashi K, Taira T, Niki T, Seino C, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. DJ-1 positively regulates the androgen receptor by impairing the binding of PIASx alpha to the receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37556-63 pubmed
    ..Of several proteins identified, PIASx alpha/ARIP3, a modulator of androgen receptor (AR), was first characterized as the DJ-1-binding protein in this study...
  75. Lamb L, Zarif J, Miranti C. The androgen receptor induces integrin ?6?1 to promote prostate tumor cell survival via NF-?B and Bcl-xL Independently of PI3K signaling. Cancer Res. 2011;71:2739-49 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies indicate that androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical for prostate cancer cell survival, even in castration-resistant disease wherein AR continues to function independently of exogenous androgens...
  76. Kawashima H, Takano H, Sugita S, Takahara Y, Sugimura K, Nakatani T. A novel steroid receptor co-activator protein (SRAP) as an alternative form of steroid receptor RNA-activator gene: expression in prostate cancer cells and enhancement of androgen receptor activity. Biochem J. 2003;369:163-71 pubmed
    ..Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that SRAP associates with the partial androgen receptor (AR) protein composed of a DNA-binding domain and an activation function 2...
  77. Kaarbø M, Klokk T, Saatcioglu F. Androgen signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Bioessays. 2007;29:1227-38 pubmed
    ..The androgen receptor (AR) is required for prostate cancer growth in all stages, including the relapsed, "androgen-..
  78. Chua J, Reddy S, Yu Z, Giorgetti E, Montie H, Mukherjee S, et al. Disrupting SUMOylation enhances transcriptional function and ameliorates polyglutamine androgen receptor-mediated disease. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:831-45 pubmed publisher
    Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the androgen receptor (AR) causes neuromuscular degeneration in individuals with spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA)...
  79. Tabori N, Stewart L, Znamensky V, Romeo R, Alves S, McEwen B, et al. Ultrastructural evidence that androgen receptors are located at extranuclear sites in the rat hippocampal formation. Neuroscience. 2005;130:151-63 pubmed
    ..By light microscopy, AR immunoreactivity (-ir) was found in CA1 pyramidal cell nuclei and in disperse, punctate processes that were most ..
  80. Abel M, Baker P, Charlton H, Monteiro A, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, et al. Spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in mice lacking sertoli cell receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone and androgen. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the Sertoli cell retains a significant capacity for activity, which is independent of direct hormonal regulation. ..
  81. Zuloaga D, Poort J, Jordan C, Breedlove S. Male rats with the testicular feminization mutation of the androgen receptor display elevated anxiety-related behavior and corticosterone response to mild stress. Horm Behav. 2011;60:380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..anxiety-related behavior, and sensorimotor gating in rodents, but little is known about the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in mediating these influences...
  82. Abankwa D, Millard S, Martel N, Choong C, Yang M, Butler L, et al. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) interacts with androgen receptor in the nucleus and modulates androgen-dependent transcription. BMC Biochem. 2013;14:10 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-inducible DNA transcription factors, and is the major mediator of male sexual development, prostate growth and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer...
  83. Lee K, Asgar J, Zhang Y, Chung M, Ro J. The role of androgen receptor in transcriptional modulation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 gene in rat trigeminal ganglia. Neuroscience. 2013;254:395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that testosterone upregulates CB1 through transcriptional modulation by androgen receptor (AR)...
  84. Donjacour A, Thomson A, Cunha G. FGF-10 plays an essential role in the growth of the fetal prostate. Dev Biol. 2003;261:39-54 pubmed
    ..FGF-10 alone did not stimulate prostatic bud formation in control or FGF-10(-/-) UGS. Thus, FGF-10 appears to act as a growth factor which is required for development of the prostate and several other accessory sex organs. ..
  85. Svensson J, Kindblom J, Shao R, Moverare Skrtic S, Lagerquist M, Andersson N, et al. Liver-derived IGF1 enhances the androgenic response in prostate. J Endocrinol. 2008;199:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..05; dorsolateral prostate (DLP) lobe -35%, P<0.01; ventral prostate (VP) lobe -47%, P<0.01). Reduced androgen receptor (Ar) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the VP lobe (-34% and -30% respectively, both P<0...
  86. Stanworth R, Kapoor D, Channer K, Jones T. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism is associated with serum testosterone levels, obesity and serum leptin in men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:739-46 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relationships between androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism length (AR CAG), sex hormones and clinical variables in men with type 2 diabetes (DM2)...