Gene Symbol: Aqp9
Description: aquaporin 9
Alias: aquaporin-9, AQP-9, aquaglyceroporin-9, neutral solute channel aquaporin 9
Species: rat
Products:     Aqp9

Top Publications

  1. Arima H, Yamamoto N, Sobue K, Umenishi F, Tada T, Katsuya H, et al. Hyperosmolar mannitol simulates expression of aquaporins 4 and 9 through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway in rat astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44525-34 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 induced by hyperosmotic stress are poorly understood...
  2. Murata K, Mitsuoka K, Hirai T, Walz T, Agre P, Heymann J, et al. Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1. Nature. 2000;407:599-605 pubmed
    ..The atomic model provides a possible molecular explanation to a longstanding puzzle in physiology-how membranes can be freely permeable to water but impermeable to protons. ..
  3. Tsukaguchi H, Shayakul C, Berger U, Mackenzie B, Devidas S, Guggino W, et al. Molecular characterization of a broad selectivity neutral solute channel. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24737-43 pubmed
    ..Here we report the expression cloning of a liver cDNA encoding a unique promiscuous solute channel (AQP9) that confers high permeability for both solutes and water...
  4. Dibas A, Oku H, Fukuhara M, Kurimoto T, Ikeda T, Patil R, et al. Changes in ocular aquaporin expression following optic nerve crush. Mol Vis. 2010;16:330-40 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 (water selective channel) and AQP9 (water and lactate channel) following ONC in the rat...
  5. Iandiev I, Biedermann B, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P, Bringmann A. Expression of aquaporin-9 immunoreactivity by catecholaminergic amacrine cells in the rat retina. Neurosci Lett. 2006;398:264-7 pubmed
    ..The staining pattern of aquaporin-9 did not change up to 4 weeks after pressure-induced transient retinal ischemia. It is concluded that catecholaminergic, putatively dopaminergic, amacrine cells of the retina express aquaporin-9. ..
  6. Hollborn M, Dukic Stefanovic S, Pannicke T, Ulbricht E, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P, et al. Expression of aquaporins in the retina of diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP5 and AQP9 immunolabelings of the RPE were increased, and AQP6 labeling of the outer plexiform layer was decreased in retinal ..
  7. Dibas A, Yang M, Bobich J, Yorio T. Stress-induced changes in neuronal Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) in a retinal ganglion cell-line. Pharmacol Res. 2007;55:378-84 pubmed
    The water channel, Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is enriched in selected neuronal populations and is unique its ability to act as a lactate-glycerol channel supplying neurons with alternative fuel under ischaemic conditions...
  8. Miki A, Kanamori A, Negi A, Naka M, Nakamura M. Loss of aquaporin 9 expression adversely affects the survival of retinal ganglion cells. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1727-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin belonging to the AQP water channel family, is permeable not only to water but also to noncharged solutes such as lactate...
  9. Naka M, Kanamori A, Negi A, Nakamura M. Reduced expression of aquaporin-9 in rat optic nerve head and retina following elevated intraocular pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..0008). In the control optic nerve, the unmyelinated portion showed only AQP9 immunoreactivity, whereas the myelinated portion expressed both AQP4 and AQP9 immunoreactivities colabeled for ..

More Information


  1. Raina S, Preston G, Guggino W, Agre P. Molecular cloning and characterization of an aquaporin cDNA from salivary, lacrimal, and respiratory tissues. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:1908-12 pubmed
    ..These studies have identified a new mammalian member of the Aquaporin water channel family (gene symbol AQP5) which is implicated in the generation of saliva, tears, and pulmonary secretions. ..
  2. Zeidel M, Ambudkar S, Smith B, Agre P. Reconstitution of functional water channels in liposomes containing purified red cell CHIP28 protein. Biochemistry. 1992;31:7436-40 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CHIP28 protein functions as a molecular water channel and also indicate that CHIP28 is responsible for most transmembrane water movement in RBCs. ..
  3. Suzuki H, Oku H, Horie T, Morishita S, Tonari M, Oku K, et al. Changes in expression of aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 in optic nerve after crushing in rats. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114694 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 in the optic nerve after it is crushed...
  4. Pietrement C, Da Silva N, Silberstein C, James M, Marsolais M, Van Hoek A, et al. Role of NHERF1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and cAMP in the regulation of aquaporin 9. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2986-96 pubmed
    ..transport are critical for the establishment of fertility, we now report a novel pathway for the regulation of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) permeability...
  5. Kida H, Miyoshi T, Manabe K, Takahashi N, Konno T, Ueda S, et al. Roles of aquaporin-3 water channels in volume-regulatory water flow in a human epithelial cell line. J Membr Biol. 2005;208:55-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is concluded that AQP3 water channels serve as an essential pathway for volume-regulatory water transport in, human epithelial cells. ..
  6. Francis P, Chung J, Yasui M, Berry V, Moore A, Wyatt M, et al. Functional impairment of lens aquaporin in two families with dominantly inherited cataracts. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2329-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these observations predict that less severe defects in the AQP0 protein may contribute to lens opacity in patients with common, less fulminant forms of cataracts. ..
  7. Silberstein C, Kierbel A, Amodeo G, Zotta E, Bigi F, Berkowski D, et al. Functional characterization and localization of AQP3 in the human colon. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32:1303-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of AQP3 in villus epithelial cells suggests that AQP3 is implicated in water absorption across human colonic surface cells. ..
  8. Wang H, Jin R, Tian P, Zhuo Z. Enhanced expression of aquaporin-9 in rat brain edema induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:150-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of AQP9 in brain edema, the expression of AQP9 in an infectious rat brain edema model induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined...
  9. PASTOR SOLER N, Fisher J, Sharpe R, Hill E, Van Hoek A, Brown D, et al. Aquaporin 9 expression in the developing rat epididymis is modulated by steroid hormones. Reproduction. 2010;139:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), which allows permeation of water and neutral solutes, is abundant throughout the male reproductive ..
  10. Tsukaguchi H, Weremowicz S, Morton C, Hediger M. Functional and molecular characterization of the human neutral solute channel aquaporin-9. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:F685-96 pubmed
    ..We recently identified a broad selective-neutral solute channel, AQP9, from rat liver that allows the passage of a wide variety of water and neutral solutes (H. Tsukaguchi, C...
  11. Tsunoda S, Wiesner B, Lorenz D, Rosenthal W, Pohl P. Aquaporin-1, nothing but a water channel. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11364-7 pubmed
    ..The lack of significant CNG ion channel activity rules out a secondary role of AQP1 water channels in cellular signal transduction. ..
  12. Koyama N, Ishibashi K, Kuwahara M, Inase N, Ichioka M, Sasaki S, et al. Cloning and functional expression of human aquaporin8 cDNA and analysis of its gene. Genomics. 1998;54:169-72 pubmed
    ..AQP8 was not permeable to urea nor to glycerol. The AQP8 gene has five introns, and the locations of exon-intron boundaries were different from those of the other mammalian aquaporins, suggesting its separate phylogenetic origin. ..
  13. Pastor Soler N, Isnard Bagnis C, Herak Kramberger C, Sabolic I, Van Hoek A, Brown D, et al. Expression of aquaporin 9 in the adult rat epididymal epithelium is modulated by androgens. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1716-22 pubmed
    ..Water channels contribute to water movement across epithelia in many tissues. Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is abundantly expressed in the apical membrane of principal cells that line the epididymis, and in ..
  14. Ishibashi K, Morinaga T, Kuwahara M, Sasaki S, Imai M. Cloning and identification of a new member of water channel (AQP10) as an aquaglyceroporin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1576:335-40 pubmed
    ..AQP10 has higher identity with aquaglyceroporins (50% with AQP9, 48% with AQP3, 42% with AQP7) and lower identity with other aquaporins (32% with AQP1 and AQP8)...
  15. SORANI M, Zador Z, Hurowitz E, Yan D, Giacomini K, Manley G. Novel variants in human Aquaporin-4 reduce cellular water permeability. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments provide insight into the function of the AQP4 protein. These nsSNPs may have clinical implications for patients with cerebral edema and related disorders. ..
  16. Belkacemi L, Desai M, Beall M, Liu Q, Lin J, Nelson D, et al. Early compensatory adaptations in maternal undernourished pregnancies in rats: role of the aquaporins. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysregulation of AQPs' expression prior to the occurrence of oligohydramnios may represent a compensatory mechanism under conditions of early MUN. ..
  17. Varadaraj K, Kumari S, Patil R, Wax M, Mathias R. Functional characterization of a human aquaporin 0 mutation that leads to a congenital dominant lens cataract. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Cataracts in patients with this mutation might have resulted from the above mentioned consequences. ..
  18. Liu Z, Shen J, Carbrey J, Mukhopadhyay R, Agre P, Rosen B. Arsenite transport by mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6053-8 pubmed
    ..a membrane protein homologous to the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and to mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9. Fps1p mediates glycerol uptake and glycerol efflux in response to hypoosmotic shock...
  19. Preston G, Carroll T, Guggino W, Agre P. Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science. 1992;256:385-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore it is likely that CHIP28 is a functional unit of membrane water channels. ..
  20. Carbrey J, Gorelick Feldman D, Kozono D, Praetorius J, Nielsen S, Agre P. Aquaglyceroporin AQP9: solute permeation and metabolic control of expression in liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2945-50 pubmed
    ..b>AQP9 has unusually broad solute permeability and is expressed in hepatocyte plasma membranes...
  21. Rubenwolf P, Georgopoulos N, Clements L, Feather S, Holland P, Thomas D, et al. Expression and localisation of aquaporin water channels in human urothelium in situ and in vitro. Eur Urol. 2009;56:1013-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Qualitative study. Transcripts for AQP3, AQP4, AQP7, AQP9, and AQP11 were expressed consistently by freshly isolated urothelia as well as by cultured NHU cells...
  22. Oliveira C, Carnes K, Franca L, Hermo L, Hess R. Aquaporin-1 and -9 are differentially regulated by oestrogen in the efferent ductule epithelium and initial segment of the epididymis. Biol Cell. 2005;97:385-95 pubmed
    ..To understand better the regulation of AQP1 and AQP9, we investigated their expression in rat efferent ductules and initial segment of the epididymis after treatment ..
  23. Ko S, Uchida S, Naruse S, Kuwahara M, Ishibashi K, Marumo F, et al. Cloning and functional expression of rAOP9L a new member of aquaporin family from rat liver. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1999;47:309-18 pubmed
    ..rAQP9L has the greatest amino-acid sequence identity with human AQP9 (75%) and a less homology with AQP3 (49%) and AQP7 (47%). Northern blot analysis indicated a 1...
  24. Xu H, Zhang Y, Sun H, Chen S, Wang F. Effects of acupuncture at GV20 and ST36 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, aquaporin 4, and aquaporin 9 in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97488 pubmed publisher
    ..Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), aquaporin (AQP) 4, and AQP9 are linked to permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI)...
  25. Badran H, Hermo L. Expression and regulation of aquaporins 1, 8, and 9 in the testis, efferent ducts, and epididymis of adult rats and during postnatal development. J Androl. 2002;23:358-73 pubmed
    ..In the efferent ducts and epididymis, specificity exists in cell, region, and tissue distribution with respect to the expression of AQP-1 and -9, and their expression does not appear to be regulated by androgens. ..
  26. Soria L, Gradilone S, Larocca M, Marinelli R. Glucagon induces the gene expression of aquaporin-8 but not that of aquaporin-9 water channels in the rat hepatocyte. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic AQP9 protein expression remained unaltered...
  27. Hatakeyama S, Yoshida Y, Tani T, Koyama Y, Nihei K, Ohshiro K, et al. Cloning of a new aquaporin (AQP10) abundantly expressed in duodenum and jejunum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:814-9 pubmed
    ..The specific expression of AQP10 suggests its contribution to the water transport in the upper portion of small intestine. ..
  28. Meinild A, Klaerke D, Zeuthen T. Bidirectional water fluxes and specificity for small hydrophilic molecules in aquaporins 0-5. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32446-51 pubmed
    ..6. We conclude that the pore of the various aquaporins are structurally different and that a simple steric model is insufficient to explain solute-pore interactions. ..
  29. Cai C, Wang C, Ji W, Liu B, Kang Y, Hu Z, et al. Knockdown of hepatic aquaglyceroporin-9 alleviates high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the function of aquaglyceroporin-9 (AQP9) as a glycerol channel has been proven, the mechanism of AQP9 in the development of NAFLD is poorly understood...
  30. Mylonakou M, Petersen P, Rinvik E, Rojek A, Valdimarsdottir E, Zelenin S, et al. Analysis of mice with targeted deletion of AQP9 gene provides conclusive evidence for expression of AQP9 in neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1310-22 pubmed publisher
    b>AQP9 is an aquaglyceroporin that serves important functions in peripheral organs, including the liver...
  31. Kwon T, Nielsen J, Møller H, Fenton R, Nielsen S, Frøkiaer J. Aquaporins in the kidney. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009;:95-132 pubmed publisher
  32. Caperna T, Shannon A, Richards M, Garrett W, Talbot N. Identification and characterization of aquaporin-9 (AQP9) in porcine hepatic tissue and hepatocytes in monolayer culture. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;32:273-86 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have prepared an affinity-purified porcine-specific polyclonal antiserum to AQP9 and have investigated the distribution and expression of AQP9 in pig liver tissue and in hepatocytes in primary ..
  33. Wei X, Ren X, Jiang R, Li H, Gao F, Chen Y, et al. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK mediates aquaporin 9 expression in rat brains during permanent focal cerebral ischaemia. J Mol Histol. 2015;46:273-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin, is an important aquaporin in the brain...
  34. Jesus T, Bernardino R, Martins A, Sá R, Sousa M, Alves M, et al. Aquaporin-9 is expressed in rat Sertoli cells and interacts with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. IUBMB Life. 2014;66:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is highly expressed throughout the male reproductive tract, we hypothesized that it is also present in rat SCs and ..
  35. Branes M, Morales B, Rios M, Villalon M. Regulation of the immunoexpression of aquaporin 9 by ovarian hormones in the rat oviductal epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C1048-57 pubmed
    ..The distribution of AQP5 and -8 was mainly cytoplasmic, whereas we confirmed, by confocal microscopy, that AQP9 localized to the apical plasma membrane...
  36. Huber V, Tsujita M, Yamazaki M, Sakimura K, Nakada T. Identification of arylsulfonamides as Aquaporin 4 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:1270-3 pubmed
    ..AZA was found to have an IC50 against AQP4 of 0.9 microM. Phloretin was inactive under the same conditions. ..
  37. Lebeck J, Gena P, O Neill H, Skowronski M, Lund S, Calamita G, et al. Estrogen prevents increased hepatic aquaporin-9 expression and glycerol uptake during starvation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatic glycerol uptake is facilitated by aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a broad-selectivity neutral solute channel, and represents an insulin-regulated step in supplying gluconeogenesis ..
  38. Liu K, Nagase H, Huang C, Calamita G, Agre P. Purification and functional characterization of aquaporin-8. Biol Cell. 2006;98:153-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, hAQP8 is permeable to ammonium analogues (formamide and methylammonium). Our results suggest that AQP8 may transport ammonium in vivo and physiologically contribute to the acid-base equilibrium. ..
  39. Ohgusu Y, Ohta K, Ishii M, Katano T, Urano K, Watanabe J, et al. Functional characterization of human aquaporin 9 as a facilitative glycerol carrier. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2008;23:279-84 pubmed
    The mechanism of glycerol transport by human aquaporin 9 (hAQP9), which is a liver-specific AQP water channel and can also transport glycerol, was investigated by using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system...
  40. Kuriyama H, Kawamoto S, Ishida N, Ohno I, Mita S, Matsuzawa Y, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel human aquaporin from adipose tissue with glycerol permeability. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;241:53-8 pubmed
    ..We named this gene aquaporin 9. It features a cyclic-AMP protein kinase phosphorylation consensus site in the NH3-terminal domain...
  41. Ding J, Kreipke C, Speirs S, Schafer P, Schafer S, Rafols J. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling in aquaporin upregulation after traumatic brain injury. Neurosci Lett. 2009;453:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..which is a transcription factor in response to physiological hypoxia, in regulating expression of AQP4 and AQP9. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-425g) received a closed head injury using the Marmarou weight drop model with ..
  42. Yasui M, Kwon T, Knepper M, Nielsen S, Agre P. Aquaporin-6: An intracellular vesicle water channel protein in renal epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5808-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our studies predict that AQP6 participates in distinct physiological functions such as glomerular filtration, tubular endocytosis, and acid-base metabolism. ..
  43. Higashida T, Peng C, Li J, Dornbos D, Teng K, Li X, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? contributes to brain edema after stroke by regulating aquaporins and glycerol distribution in brain. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2011;8:44-51 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological blockade of this pathway in stroke patients may provide novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  44. Kuwahara M, Gu Y, Ishibashi K, Marumo F, Sasaki S. Mercury-sensitive residues and pore site in AQP3 water channel. Biochemistry. 1997;36:13973-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the structure of the aqueous pore of AQP3 resembles those of AQP1 and AQP2 and support the hypothesis that water and small molecules share a common pore in AQP3. ..
  45. Huebert R, Splinter P, Garcia F, Marinelli R, Larusso N. Expression and localization of aquaporin water channels in rat hepatocytes. Evidence for a role in canalicular bile secretion. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22710-7 pubmed
    ..We found transcripts of three of 10 aquaporins in hepatocytes (aquaporin 8 aquaporin 9 > aquaporin 0) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative ribonuclease protection ..
  46. Warth A, Mittelbronn M, Hülper P, Erdlenbruch B, Wolburg H. Expression of the water channel protein aquaporin-9 in malignant brain tumors. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2007;15:193-8 pubmed
    ..Whereas most data were collected on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes, only little attention was paid to AQP9 which is a water channel transporting glycerol, mannitol, and urea as well...
  47. Kamsteeg E, Heijnen I, Van Os C, Deen P. The subcellular localization of an aquaporin-2 tetramer depends on the stoichiometry of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated monomers. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:919-30 pubmed
  48. Calamita G, Ferri D, Gena P, Carreras F, Liquori G, Portincasa P, et al. Altered expression and distribution of aquaporin-9 in the liver of rat with obstructive extrahepatic cholestasis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G682-90 pubmed publisher
    Rat hepatocytes express aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a basolateral channel permeable to water, glycerol, and other small neutral solutes...
  49. Shenaq M, Kassem H, Peng C, Schafer S, Ding J, Fredrickson V, et al. Neuronal damage and functional deficits are ameliorated by inhibition of aquaporin and HIF1? after traumatic brain injury (TBI). J Neurol Sci. 2012;323:134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals in each treatment group were administered intravenous anti-AQP4 or -AQP9 antibodies or 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, an inhibitor of HIF-1?) 30 min after injury...
  50. Yang M, Dibas A, Tyan Y. Changes in retinal aquaporin-9 (AQP9) expression in glaucoma. Biosci Rep. 2013;33: pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of AQP9 gene and proteins affected by elevated IOP (intraocular pressure) in a rat model of glaucoma induced by ..
  51. Shengbiao Wang -, Amidi F, Shengli Yin -, Beall M, Ross M. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate regulation of aquaporin gene expression in human amnion epithelia. Reprod Sci. 2007;14:234-40 pubmed
    ..012, P < .05) and remained upregulated for 20 hours following forskolin treatment. Forskolin stimulation of AQP9 mRNA expression was evidenced by 10 hours (0.098 +/- 0.005 to 0.115 +/- 0.006, P < ...
  52. Yakata K, Tani K, Fujiyoshi Y. Water permeability and characterization of aquaporin-11. J Struct Biol. 2011;174:315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that AQP11 could be involved in slow but constant water movement across the membrane. ..
  53. Hub J, de Groot B. Mechanism of selectivity in aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, a hydrophobic effect, together with steric restraints, determines the selectivity of aquaporins. ..
  54. Badaut J, Brunet J, Petit J, Guérin C, Magistretti P, Regli L. Induction of brain aquaporin 9 (AQP9) in catecholaminergic neurons in diabetic rats. Brain Res. 2008;1188:17-24 pubmed
    b>Aquaporin 9 facilitates the diffusion of water but also glycerol and monocarboxylates, known as brain energy substrates...
  55. Jennische E, Eriksson C, Lange S, Trybala E, Bergström T. The anterior commissure is a pathway for contralateral spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 after olfactory tract infection. J Neurovirol. 2015;21:129-47 pubmed publisher
    ..cell population that conveyed the viral infection via the AC was positive for the water channel protein aquaporin 9 (AQP9) by immunohistochemistry...