Gene Symbol: Aqp4
Description: aquaporin 4
Alias: AQP-4, Miwc, WCH4, aquaporin-4, mercurial-insensitive water channel
Species: rat
Products:     Aqp4

Top Publications

  1. Kaakinen M, Salmela P, Zelenin S, Metsikkö K. Distribution of aquaporin 4 on sarcolemma of fast-twitch skeletal myofibres. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:529-39 pubmed
    The aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel is present on the sarcolemma of fast-twitch-type skeletal myofibres...
  2. Takumi Y, Nagelhus E, Eidet J, Matsubara A, Usami S, Shinkawa H, et al. Select types of supporting cell in the inner ear express aquaporin-4 water channel protein. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:3584-95 pubmed
    ..In contrast, AQP4 protein and mRNA (visualized by in situ hybridization) were concentrated in select types of supporting cell, ..
  3. Arima H, Yamamoto N, Sobue K, Umenishi F, Tada T, Katsuya H, et al. Hyperosmolar mannitol simulates expression of aquaporins 4 and 9 through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway in rat astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44525-34 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 induced by hyperosmotic stress are poorly understood...
  4. Zeidel M, Ambudkar S, Smith B, Agre P. Reconstitution of functional water channels in liposomes containing purified red cell CHIP28 protein. Biochemistry. 1992;31:7436-40 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CHIP28 protein functions as a molecular water channel and also indicate that CHIP28 is responsible for most transmembrane water movement in RBCs. ..
  5. Noel G, Tham D, Moukhles H. Interdependence of laminin-mediated clustering of lipid rafts and the dystrophin complex in astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19694-704 pubmed publisher
    ..with perivascular laminin in the targeting of the dystrophin complex and the water-permeable channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4), at astrocyte endfeet...
  6. Rama Rao K, Chen M, Simard J, Norenberg M. Increased aquaporin-4 expression in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes. Neuroreport. 2003;14:2379-82 pubmed
    ..AQP-4 may be involved in the astrocyte swelling associated with hyperammonemic states. ..
  7. Mhatre A, Stern R, Li J, Lalwani A. Aquaporin 4 expression in the mammalian inner ear and its role in hearing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:987-96 pubmed
    b>Aquaporin 4 (Aqp4), a member of a family of water transport proteins, is a candidate for playing a critical role in inner ear fluid homeostasis...
  8. Li J, Verkman A. Impaired hearing in mice lacking aquaporin-4 water channels. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31233-7 pubmed
    ..Using mice deficient in selected aquaporins as controls, we localized AQP1 in fibrocytes in the spiral ligament and AQP4 in supporting epithelial cells (Hensen's, Claudius, and inner sulcus cells) in the organ of Corti...
  9. Hiroaki Y, Tani K, Kamegawa A, Gyobu N, Nishikawa K, Suzuki H, et al. Implications of the aquaporin-4 structure on array formation and cell adhesion. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:628-39 pubmed
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and an important drug target for treatment of cerebral edema, bipolar disorder and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...

More Information


  1. Papadopoulos M, Verkman A. Aquaporin-4 gene disruption in mice reduces brain swelling and mortality in pneumococcal meningitis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13906-12 pubmed
    The astroglial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates water movement into and out of brain parenchyma...
  2. Pisani F, Rossi A, Nicchia G, Svelto M, Frigeri A. Translational regulation mechanisms of aquaporin-4 supramolecular organization in astrocytes. Glia. 2011;59:1923-32 pubmed publisher
    The two predominant isoforms of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), AQP4-M23 and AQP4-M1, assemble in the plasma membrane to form supramolecular structures called Orthogonal Array of Particles (OAPs) whose dimension is tightly associated to the M1/M23 ..
  3. Sripathirathan K, Brown J, Neafsey E, Collins M. Linking binge alcohol-induced neurodamage to brain edema and potential aquaporin-4 upregulation: evidence in rat organotypic brain slice cultures and in vivo. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor/diuretic with negligible ORAC effectiveness and, interestingly, an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel inhibitor, prevented alcohol-dependent tissue edema and neurodegeneration in HEC slice cultures...
  4. Moe S, Sorbo J, Sogaard R, Zeuthen T, Petter Ottersen O, Holen T. New isoforms of rat Aquaporin-4. Genomics. 2008;91:367-77 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a brain aquaporin implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous clinical conditions including brain edema. Here we show that rat AQP4 has six cDNA isoforms, formed by alternative splicing...
  5. Preston G, Carroll T, Guggino W, Agre P. Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science. 1992;256:385-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore it is likely that CHIP28 is a functional unit of membrane water channels. ..
  6. Nicchia G, Mastrototaro M, Rossi A, Pisani F, Tortorella C, Ruggieri M, et al. Aquaporin-4 orthogonal arrays of particles are the target for neuromyelitis optica autoantibodies. Glia. 2009;57:1363-73 pubmed publisher autoantibodies produced by patients with NMO (NMO-IgG) recognize a glial water channel protein, Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressed as two major isoforms, M1- and M23-AQP4, in which the plasma membrane form orthogonal arrays of ..
  7. Cui B, Sun J, Xiang F, Liu L, Li W. Aquaporin 4 knockdown exacerbates streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy through aggravating inflammatory response. Exp Eye Res. 2012;98:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes is known to alter the amount of retinal expression of the water-selective channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4). However, the function and impact of AQP4 in diabetic retinopathy is not well understood...
  8. Silberstein C, Bouley R, Huang Y, Fang P, Pastor Soler N, Brown D, et al. Membrane organization and function of M1 and M23 isoforms of aquaporin-4 in epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F501-11 pubmed
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels exist as heterotetramers of M1 and M23 splice variants and appear to be present in orthogonal arrays of intramembraneous particles (OAPs) visualized by freeze-fracture microscopy...
  9. Badaut J, Ashwal S, Adami A, Tone B, Recker R, Spagnoli D, et al. Brain water mobility decreases after astrocytic aquaporin-4 inhibition using RNA interference. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:819-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of this critical role and the recognition that brain AQP4 is distributed within astrocytic cell membranes, we hypothesized that AQP4 contributes to the regulation of water ..
  10. Matsuoka T, Suzuki S, Iwaki T, Tabira T, Ordinario A, Kira J. Aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Baló's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Because selective loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and vasculocentric deposition of complement and immunoglobulins are characteristic in NMO, we aimed to assess AQP4 ..
  11. Song Y, Ma T, Matthay M, Verkman A. Role of aquaporin-4 in airspace-to-capillary water permeability in intact mouse lung measured by a novel gravimetric method. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:17-27 pubmed
    ..mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia...
  12. Tanaka M, Tanaka K, Komori M, Saida T. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody in Japanese multiple sclerosis: the presence of optic spinal multiple sclerosis without long spinal cord lesions and anti-aquaporin 4 antibody. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:990-2 pubmed
    Anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies were found in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Japanese optic-spinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS)...
  13. Saadoun S, Waters P, Bell B, Vincent A, Verkman A, Papadopoulos M. Intra-cerebral injection of neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G and human complement produces neuromyelitis optica lesions in mice. Brain. 2010;133:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In our mouse model, immunoglobulin G from neuromyelitis optica patients does not require pre-existing central nervous system inflammation to produce lesions. ..
  14. Bai C, Fukuda N, Song Y, Ma T, Matthay M, Verkman A. Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:555-61 pubmed
    The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia...
  15. Yasui M, Kwon T, Knepper M, Nielsen S, Agre P. Aquaporin-6: An intracellular vesicle water channel protein in renal epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5808-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our studies predict that AQP6 participates in distinct physiological functions such as glomerular filtration, tubular endocytosis, and acid-base metabolism. ..
  16. Christensen N, D Souza M, Zhu X, Frisina R. Age-related hearing loss: aquaporin 4 gene expression changes in the mouse cochlea and auditory midbrain. Brain Res. 2009;1253:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Aquaporins, particularly aquaporin 4 (Aqp4), are membrane proteins with important roles in water and ion flux across cell membranes, including cells ..
  17. Tanaka K, Tani T, Tanaka M, Saida T, Idezuka J, Yamazaki M, et al. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody in selected Japanese multiple sclerosis patients with long spinal cord lesions. Mult Scler. 2007;13:850-5 pubmed
    ..Recently, Lennon et al. discovered that NMO-IgG, shown to bind to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), could be a specific marker of NMO and also of Japanese OSMS whose clinical features were identical to ..
  18. Dibas A, Oku H, Fukuhara M, Kurimoto T, Ikeda T, Patil R, et al. Changes in ocular aquaporin expression following optic nerve crush. Mol Vis. 2010;16:330-40 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 (water selective channel) and AQP9 (water and lactate channel) following ONC in the rat...
  19. Fukuda M, Nakanishi Y, Fuse M, Yokoi N, Hamada Y, Fukagawa M, et al. Altered expression of aquaporins 1 and 4 coincides with neurodegenerative events in retinas of spontaneously diabetic Torii rats. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP1 was expressed in the outer retina, whereas AQP4 was expressed in the perivascular and end feet of Müller cells and astrocytes in the inner retina in the control ..
  20. Jung J, Bhat R, Preston G, Guggino W, Baraban J, Agre P. Molecular characterization of an aquaporin cDNA from brain: candidate osmoreceptor and regulator of water balance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:13052-6 pubmed
    ..pattern implicates this fourth mammalian member of the aquaporin water channel family (designated gene symbol, AQP4) as the osmoreceptor which regulates body water balance and mediates water flow within the central nervous system.
  21. Nicchia G, Srinivas M, Li W, Brosnan C, Frigeri A, Spray D. New possible roles for aquaporin-4 in astrocytes: cell cytoskeleton and functional relationship with connexin43. FASEB J. 2005;19:1674-6 pubmed
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel in the brain, is expressed in the perivascular membranes of mouse, rat, and human astrocytes...
  22. Pisani F, Mastrototaro M, Rossi A, Nicchia G, Tortorella C, Ruggieri M, et al. Identification of two major conformational aquaporin-4 epitopes for neuromyelitis optica autoantibody binding. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9216-24 pubmed publisher
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in the patient sera...
  23. Qin Y, Xu G, Fan J, Witt R, Da C. High-salt loading exacerbates increased retinal content of aquaporins AQP1 and AQP4 in rats with diabetic retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:741-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal content and immunolocalization of two water channels, AQP1 and AQP4, in the diabetic rat retinas during high-salt loading were examined in this study...
  24. Nicchia G, Rossi A, Mola M, Pisani F, Stigliano C, Basco D, et al. Higher order structure of aquaporin-4. Neuroscience. 2010;168:903-14 pubmed publisher
    Unlike other mammalian AQPs, multiple tetramers of AQP4 associate in the plasma membrane to form peculiar structures called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs), that are observable by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM)...
  25. Satoh J, Tabunoki H, Yamamura T, Arima K, Konno H. Human astrocytes express aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in vitro and in vivo. Neuropathology. 2007;27:245-56 pubmed
    ..Previous studies indicate that AQP1 is expressed exclusively in the choroid plexus epithelium, while AQP4 is localized on the vascular foot of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) under physiological conditions...
  26. Suzuki H, Nishikawa K, Hiroaki Y, Fujiyoshi Y. Formation of aquaporin-4 arrays is inhibited by palmitoylation of N-terminal cysteine residues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    Tetramers of the mammalian water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) assemble into square arrays and mediate bidirectional water transport across the blood-brain interface. The aqp4 gene expresses two splicing isoforms...
  27. Ito H, Yamamoto N, Arima H, Hirate H, Morishima T, Umenishi F, et al. Interleukin-1beta induces the expression of aquaporin-4 through a nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in rat astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006;99:107-18 pubmed
    ..Aquaporin (AQP)4 is also reported to be involved in the progression of brain edema. We tested the hypothesis that AQP4 is induced in response to IL-1beta...
  28. Kiening K, van Landeghem F, Schreiber S, Thomale U, von Deimling A, Unterberg A, et al. Decreased hemispheric Aquaporin-4 is linked to evolving brain edema following controlled cortical impact injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;324:105-8 pubmed
    The cerebral Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel is suggested to be involved in brain edema formation aggravated by reduced cerebral blood flow early after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  29. Iandiev I, Pannicke T, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P, Bringmann A. Diabetes alters the localization of glial aquaporins in rat retina. Neurosci Lett. 2007;421:132-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether the immunolocalization of two water channels, AQP1 and AQP4, alters in the rat retina during experimental diabetes...
  30. Zou Y, Lu J, Poon D, Kaur C, Cao Q, Teo A, et al. Combustion smoke exposure induces up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, aquaporin 4, nitric oxide synthases and vascular permeability in the retina of adult rats. Neuroscience. 2009;160:698-709 pubmed publisher
    ..The major changes included up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
  31. Lennon V, Kryzer T, Pittock S, Verkman A, Hinson S. IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med. 2005;202:473-7 pubmed
    ..NMO may represent the first example of a novel class of autoimmune channelopathy. ..
  32. Liu X, Kobayashi H, Jin Z, Wada A, Nao I N. Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat. Mol Vis. 2007;13:309-17 pubmed
    The inwardly rectifying potassium channel protein Kir4.1 and the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) have been suggested to play essential roles in the potassium and water homeostasis of the retina...
  33. Dibas A, Yang M, He S, Bobich J, Yorio T. Changes in ocular aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression following retinal injury. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1770-83 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 following elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and after intravitreal endothelin-1 injection and the potential ..
  34. Huber V, Tsujita M, Yamazaki M, Sakimura K, Nakada T. Identification of arylsulfonamides as Aquaporin 4 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:1270-3 pubmed
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors AZA, EZA, and 4-acetamidobenzsulfonamide were found to inhibit human AQP4-M23 mediated water transport by 80%, 68%, and 23%, respectively, at 20 microM in an in vitro functional assay...
  35. Hasegawa H, Ma T, Skach W, Matthay M, Verkman A. Molecular cloning of a mercurial-insensitive water channel expressed in selected water-transporting tissues. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5497-500 pubmed
    ..water permeability in lung alveolus, we cloned a 32-kDa water channel (mercurial-insensitive water channel (MIWC)) from a rat lung cDNA library with several novel features...
  36. Kamsteeg E, Heijnen I, Van Os C, Deen P. The subcellular localization of an aquaporin-2 tetramer depends on the stoichiometry of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated monomers. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:919-30 pubmed
  37. Hatakeyama S, Yoshida Y, Tani T, Koyama Y, Nihei K, Ohshiro K, et al. Cloning of a new aquaporin (AQP10) abundantly expressed in duodenum and jejunum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:814-9 pubmed
    ..The specific expression of AQP10 suggests its contribution to the water transport in the upper portion of small intestine. ..
  38. Verkman A, Yang B, Song Y, Manley G, Ma T. Role of water channels in fluid transport studied by phenotype analysis of aquaporin knockout mice. Exp Physiol. 2000;85 Spec No:233S-241S pubmed
    ..For example, in kidney, deletion of AQP1 or AQP3 produced marked polyuria whereas AQP4 deletion produced only a mild concentrating defect...
  39. Aghayev K, Bal E, Rahimli T, Mut M, Balci S, Vrionis F, et al. Aquaporin-4 expression is not elevated in mild hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:753-9; discussion 759 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results indicate that aqp-4 is not up-regulated during the initial stages of hydrocephalus. This implies that aqp-4 may not play a significant role in hydrocephalus compensation until severe ventricular dilatation occurs. ..
  40. Duan H, Hao C, Fan Y, Wang H, Liu Y, Hao J, et al. The role of neuropeptide Y and aquaporin 4 in the pathogenesis of intestinal dysfunction caused by traumatic brain injury. J Surg Res. 2013;184:1006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were designed to study the roles of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of intestinal dysfunction caused by TBI and to find some new solutions for the ..
  41. Splinter P, Masyuk A, Marinelli R, Larusso N. AQP4 transfected into mouse cholangiocytes promotes water transport in biliary epithelia. Hepatology. 2004;39:109-16 pubmed
    ..In this study, we established a novel AQP4-transfected polarized mouse cholangiocyte cell line suitable for functional studies of transepithelial water ..
  42. Hub J, de Groot B. Mechanism of selectivity in aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, a hydrophobic effect, together with steric restraints, determines the selectivity of aquaporins. ..
  43. Noell S, Ritz R, Wolburg Buchholz K, Wolburg H, Fallier Becker P. An allograft glioma model reveals the dependence of aquaporin-4 expression on the brain microenvironment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36555 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ...
  44. Ishiyama G, Lopez I, Beltran Parrazal L, Ishiyama A. Immunohistochemical localization and mRNA expression of aquaporins in the macula utriculi of patients with Meniere's disease and acoustic neuroma. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..acoustic neuroma to conduct quantitative real-time reverse transcription with polymerase chain reaction for AQP1, AQP4, and AQP6...
  45. Cai S, Zhu S. [The effects of ketamine pretreated on cerebral edema and AQP4 expression after transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:1648-51 pubmed
    ..on cerebral edema following brain ischemia reperfusion injury in rats and assess the involvement of Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression...
  46. Basco D, Blaauw B, Pisani F, Sparaneo A, Nicchia G, Mola M, et al. AQP4-dependent water transport plays a functional role in exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58712 pubmed publisher
    In this study we assess the functional role of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the skeletal muscle by analyzing whether physical activity modulates AQP4 expression and whether the absence of AQP4 has an effect on osmotic behavior, muscle ..
  47. Chen S, Yang J, Kong F, Ren J, Hao K, Li M, et al. Overactivation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 and aquaporin-4 by hypoxia induces cerebral edema. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..and increases the expression of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the cortex...
  48. Eefsen M, Jelnes P, Schmidt L, Vainer B, Bisgaard H, Larsen F. Brain expression of the water channels aquaporin-1 and -4 in mice with acute liver injury, hyperammonemia and brain edema. Metab Brain Dis. 2010;25:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The water channels Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) and -4 (Aqp4) has been associated with brain edema formation in several neuropathological conditions, indicating a possible role ..
  49. Li C, Wang W, Knepper M, Nielsen S, Frøkiaer J. Downregulation of renal aquaporins in response to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F1066-79 pubmed
    ..a significant decrease in the expression of inner medullary AQP2 to 42 +/- 4, p-AQP2 to 23 +/- 5, AQP3 to 19 +/- 6, AQP4 to 11 +/- 5, and AQP1 to 64 +/- 8% of sham levels...
  50. Nicchia G, Rossi A, Mola M, Procino G, Frigeri A, Svelto M. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling governs aquaporin-4 localization in astrocytes. Glia. 2008;56:1755-66 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is constitutively concentrated in the plasma membrane of the perivascular glial processes, and its expression is altered in certain pathological conditions associated with brain edema or altered glial migration...
  51. Cadnapaphornchai M, Kim Y, Gurevich A, Summer S, Falk S, Thurman J, et al. Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:566-74 pubmed
    ..There was however a significant decrease in protein abundance of AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4 in HT rats as compared with CTL and HT+T rats...
  52. Sun M, Honey C, Berk C, Wong N, Tsui J. Regulation of aquaporin-4 in a traumatic brain injury model in rats. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:565-9 pubmed
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays a significant role in the regulation of brain water homeostasis. In this study the authors investigated the regulation of AQP4 following a focal cortical contusion injury in rats...
  53. Illarionova N, Gunnarson E, Li Y, Brismar H, Bondar A, Zelenin S, et al. Functional and molecular interactions between aquaporins and Na,K-ATPase. Neuroscience. 2010;168:915-25 pubmed publisher
    The water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed in astrocytes and provides a mechanism by which water permeability of the plasma membrane can be regulated...