apolipoprotein E


Gene Symbol: apolipoprotein E
Description: apolipoprotein E
Alias: APOEA, apolipoprotein E, apo-E
Species: rat
Products:     apolipoprotein E

Top Publications

  1. Gee J, Ding Q, Keller J. Age-related alterations of Apolipoprotein E and interleukin-1beta in the aging brain. Biogerontology. 2006;7:69-79 pubmed
    ..b>Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is produced in the brain and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of ..
  2. Rapp A, Gmeiner B, Hüttinger M. Implication of apoE isoforms in cholesterol metabolism by primary rat hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Biochimie. 2006;88:473-83 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been genetically linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease...
  3. Sullivan P, Mezdour H, Quarfordt S, Maeda N. Type III hyperlipoproteinemia and spontaneous atherosclerosis in mice resulting from gene replacement of mouse Apoe with human Apoe*2. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:130-5 pubmed
    To study isoform-specific effects of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in vivo, we generated mice with a human APOE*2 allele in place of the mouse Apoe gene via targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells...
  4. Zhang S, Reddick R, Piedrahita J, Maeda N. Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and arterial lesions in mice lacking apolipoprotein E. Science. 1992;258:468-71 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for receptors that clear remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins...
  5. Plump A, Smith J, Hayek T, Aalto Setala K, Walsh A, Verstuyft J, et al. Severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice created by homologous recombination in ES cells. Cell. 1992;71:343-53 pubmed
    ..apoE-deficient mice are a promising small animal model to help understand the role of apoE in vivo and the genetic and environmental determinants of atherosclerosis. ..
  6. Matsuura J, Swaney J. High density lipoprotein subpopulations from galactosamine-treated rats and their transformation by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. J Lipid Res. 1991;32:581-94 pubmed
    ..8-35 nm. Characterization of these subpopulations has revealed that the larger fractions are enriched in apolipoprotein E, phospholipid, and cholesterol, but contain little cholesteryl ester, while the smallest two fractions ..
  7. Bugnicourt J, Da Silveira C, Bengrine A, Godefroy O, BAUMBACH G, Sevestre H, et al. Chronic renal failure alters endothelial function in cerebral circulation in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..in cerebral arterioles after 4 wk of chronic renal failure (CRF) in a well-defined murine model (C57BL/6J and apolipoprotein E knockout female mice)...
  8. Rensen P, Oosten M, Bilt E, Eck M, Kuiper J, Berkel T. Human recombinant apolipoprotein E redirects lipopolysaccharide from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells in rats In vivo. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:2438-45 pubmed
    ..Recently, we developed recombinant chylomicrons from commercially available lipids and human recombinant apolipoprotein E. The current study explored the effectiveness of these apoE-enriched emulsions in redirecting LPS from ..
  9. Hohl M, Linz D, Fries P, Muller A, Stroeder J, Urban D, et al. Modulation of the sympathetic nervous system by renal denervation prevents reduction of aortic distensibility in atherosclerosis prone ApoE-deficient rats. J Transl Med. 2016;14:167 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) rodents spontaneously develop severe hypercholesterolemia and increased aortic stiffness, both accepted risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans...

More Information


  1. Cao C, Zhu Y, Chen W, Li L, Qi Y, Wang X, et al. IKK? knockout prevents high fat diet induced arterial atherosclerosis and NF-?B signaling in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64930 pubmed publisher
  2. Cazzin C, Mion S, Caldara F, Rimland J, Domenici E. Microarray analysis of cultured rat hippocampal neurons treated with brain derived neurotrophic factor. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the expression of genes apolipoprotein E (ApoE), delta-6 fatty acid desaturase (Fads2) and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (Mmp14), which play a role in ..
  3. Economou Petersen E, Aessopos A, Kladi A, Flevari P, Karabatsos F, Fragodimitri C, et al. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele as a genetic risk factor for left ventricular failure in homozygous beta-thalassemia. Blood. 1998;92:3455-9 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to determine whether the decreased antioxidant activity of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele could represent a genetic risk factor for the development of left ventricular failure (LVF) ..
  4. Aleong R, Blain J, Poirier J. Pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate glial apolipoprotein E secretion. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008;5:33-7 pubmed
    ..Studies have also established the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene to be a risk factor for AD with epsilon4 carriers having been found to show lower levels of brain ..
  5. Mancone C, Amicone L, Fimia G, Bravo E, Piacentini M, Tripodi M, et al. Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Proteomics. 2007;7:143-54 pubmed
    ..While the physiological relevance of our finding remains to be assessed, we believe that our results will be useful as reference for future studies of VLDL structure in specific physiopathological conditions. ..
  6. Cartwright C, Ragland J, Weidman S, Sabesin S. Alterations in lipoprotein composition associated with galactosamine-induced rat liver injury. J Lipid Res. 1982;23:667-79 pubmed
    ..These abnormal lipoproteins may represent an abnormal level of normal LCAT substrates important in the transport and esterification of plasma cholesterol. ..
  7. Ritorto M, Borlak J. Combined serum and tissue proteomic study applied to a c-Myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma identified novel disease regulated proteins suitable for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:3012-30 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins were identified with retinol binding protein 4, transthyretin, major urinary protein family, apolipoprotein E, and glutathione peroxidase being regulated in common in tissue and serum of HCC mice...
  8. Brenneman D, Spong C, Hauser J, Abebe D, Pinhasov A, Golian T, et al. Protective peptides that are orally active and mechanistically nonchiral. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;309:1190-7 pubmed
    ..of peptides was tested in a model of fetal alcohol syndrome and in a model of learning impairment: apolipoprotein E knockout mice...
  9. Bagavant H, Scindia Y, Nackiewicz D, Nandula S, Doran A, Cutchins A, et al. Deficiency of a transcriptional regulator, inhibitor of differentiation 3, induces glomerulonephritis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: a model linking hyperlipidemia and renal disease. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice develop hyperlipidemia and are a model for atherosclerosis...
  10. Ito J, Nagayasu Y, Miura Y, Yokoyama S, Michikawa M. Astrocyte?s endogenous apoE generates HDL-like lipoproteins using previously synthesized cholesterol through interaction with ABCA1. Brain Res. 2014;1570:1-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the brain is predominantly synthesized in and secreted from astrocytes to generate apoE-containing high-density lipoprotein-like particles (apoE/HDL)...
  11. Hudry E, Dashkoff J, Roe A, Takeda S, Koffie R, Hashimoto T, et al. Gene transfer of human Apoe isoforms results in differential modulation of amyloid deposition and neurotoxicity in mouse brain. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:212ra161 pubmed publisher
    Inheritance of the ?4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest genetic risk factor associated with the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas the rare APOE ?2 allele has the opposite effect...
  12. Zhao Y, Thorngate F, Weisgraber K, Williams D, Parks J. Apolipoprotein E is the major physiological activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) on apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1013-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that apoE is a more significant activator of LCAT than apoA-I on mouse apoB lipoproteins. ..
  13. Lu Y, Tian Q, Endo S, Suzuki T. A role for LRP4 in neuronal cell viability is related to apoE-binding. Brain Res. 2007;1177:19-28 pubmed
    The distribution pattern of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in cortical neurons in culture resembles that of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4)...
  14. Frikke Schmidt R, Sing C, Nordestgaard B, Steffensen R, Tybjaerg Hansen A. Subsets of SNPs define rare genotype classes that predict ischemic heart disease. Hum Genet. 2007;120:865-77 pubmed
    ..In this study we determined the utility of exonic and 5' SNPs in apolipoprotein E (APOE) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) when considered singly and in combination for predicting incidence of IHD ..
  15. Mullick A, Deckelbaum R, Goldberg I, Al Haideri M, Rutledge J. Apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase increase triglyceride-rich particle binding but decrease particle penetration in arterial wall. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:2080-5 pubmed
    Liver-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) decreases atherosclerosis without altering the circulating concentrations of plasma lipoproteins...
  16. Wilhelmus M, Bol J, van Haastert E, Rozemuller A, Bu G, Drukarch B, et al. Apolipoprotein E and LRP1 Increase Early in Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a link between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) expression, ?-synuclein aggregation, and neurodegeneration was suggested...
  17. Veniant M, Zlot C, Walzem R, Pierotti V, Driscoll R, Dichek D, et al. Lipoprotein clearance mechanisms in LDL receptor-deficient "Apo-B48-only" and "Apo-B100-only" mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1559-68 pubmed
    ..These data imply that LRP is important for the clearance of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins but plays no significant role in the clearance of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins. ..
  18. Cabana V, Feng N, Reardon C, Lukens J, Webb N, de Beer F, et al. Influence of apoA-I and apoE on the formation of serum amyloid A-containing lipoproteins in vivo and in vitro. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:317-25 pubmed
    ..10 g/ml) when either apoA-I or apolipoprotein E (apoE) was present...
  19. Shen L, Carey K, Wang D, Woods S, Liu M. Food-entrained rhythmic expression of apolipoprotein E expression in the hypothalamus of rats. Brain Res. 2009;1273:66-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a protein mainly synthesized in the liver and brain...
  20. Souied E, Benlian P, Amouyel P, Feingold J, Lagarde J, Munnich A, et al. The epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene as a potential protective factor for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:353-9 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a polymorphic protein that plays a central part in plasma metabolism of lipids and in central nervous system lipid homeostasis...
  21. Lynch C, Brazil J, Cullen B, Coakley D, Gill M, Lawlor B, et al. Apolipoprotein E promoter polymorphisms (-491A/T and -427T/C) and Alzheimer's disease: no evidence of association in the Irish population. Ir J Med Sci. 2008;177:29-33 pubmed
    ..However, this association was mainly due to the highly significant association of the APOE e4 allele with AD and not of the promoter variants. ..
  22. Fung W, Howlett G, Schreiber G. Structure and expression of the rat apolipoprotein E gene. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:13777-83 pubmed
    The rat apolipoprotein E gene was isolated from a genomic library by screening with a cDNA probe. The nucleotide sequence of the gene plus a 5' flanking region of 623 nucleotides and a 3' flanking region of 234 nucleotides was determined...
  23. Meyer B, Duvillard L, Owen A, Packard C, Caslake M. Fractionation of cholesteryl ester rich intermediate density lipoprotein subpopulations by chondroitin sulphate. Atherosclerosis. 2007;195:e28-34 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined if these cholesterol rich IDL particles are potentially more atherogenic than the triglyceride rich IDL particles. ..
  24. Marques F, Campain A, Yang Y, Morris B. Meta-analysis of genome-wide gene expression differences in onset and maintenance phases of genetic hypertension. Hypertension. 2010;56:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our meta-analysis has revealed many new genes for which the expression is altered in hypertension, so pointing to novel potential causative, maintenance, and responsive mechanisms and pathways. ..
  25. Chang S, Hou M, Tsai S, Kao J, Wu S, Hou L, et al. Association between the apolipoprotein E genotypes and breast cancer patients in Taiwanese. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;98:109-13 pubmed
    To display the association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and breast cancer patients, a cross sectional study including 291 patients and 148 controls was performed...
  26. Dahan S, Ahluwalia J, Wong L, Posner B, Bergeron J. Concentration of intracellular hepatic apolipoprotein E in Golgi apparatus saccular distensions and endosomes. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1859-69 pubmed
    The intrahepatic distribution of apolipoprotein E has been assessed by immunogold labeling of cryosections as well as by Western blotting of organelles isolated from liver homogenates...
  27. Takeda S, Hashimoto T, Roe A, Hori Y, Spires Jones T, Hyman B. Brain interstitial oligomeric amyloid ? increases with age and is resistant to clearance from brain in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. FASEB J. 2013;27:3239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..01)], suggesting that HMW A? oligomers clear more slowly than other forms from the brain. These data reveal the dynamic metabolism of neurotoxic A? oligomers in AD brain and could provide new insights into A?-targeted therapies for AD. ..
  28. Oh J, Nam Y, Jo A, Cheon H, Rhee S, Park J, et al. Apolipoprotein E mRNA is transported to dendrites and may have a role in synaptic structural plasticity. J Neurochem. 2010;114:685-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) mRNA was isolated from the dendritic mRNA-specific cDNA library...
  29. Liu M, Shen L, Begg D, D Alessio D, Woods S. Insulin increases central apolipoprotein E levels as revealed by an improved technique for collection of cerebrospinal fluid from rats. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;209:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..technique to provide proof of principle by examining the effect of intraperitoneal insulin on the level of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the CSF. Insulin (0...
  30. Arold S, Sullivan P, Bilousova T, Teng E, Miller C, Poon W, et al. Apolipoprotein E level and cholesterol are associated with reduced synaptic amyloid beta in Alzheimer's disease and apoE TR mouse cortex. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:39-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used flow cytometry analysis to measure apolipoprotein E (apoE) and amyloid beta peptide (A?) levels in large populations of synaptic terminals from AD and aged ..
  31. Takahashi S, Kawarabayasi Y, Nakai T, Sakai J, Yamamoto T. Rabbit very low density lipoprotein receptor: a low density lipoprotein receptor-like protein with distinct ligand specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9252-6 pubmed
    ..specificity, and tissue expression of the mRNAs, we suggest that this VLDL receptor may mediate uptake of apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins enriched with triglyceride in nonhepatic tissues that are active in fatty acid ..
  32. Webb N, De Beer M, van der Westhuyzen D, Kindy M, Banka C, Tsukamoto K, et al. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of serum amyloid A in apoA-I-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1583-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SAA is unable to substitute for apoA-I in HDL particle formation. ..
  33. Chen J, Chen Z, Chintagari N, Bhaskaran M, Jin N, Narasaraju T, et al. Alveolar type I cells protect rat lung epithelium from oxidative injury. J Physiol. 2006;572:625-38 pubmed
    ..Nine out of 10 selected genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Two genes, apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and transferrin, were further characterized and functionally studied...
  34. Rougeron V, Woods C, Tiedje K, Bodeau Livinec F, Migot Nabias F, Deloron P, et al. Epistatic Interactions between apolipoprotein E and hemoglobin S Genes in regulation of malaria parasitemia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76924 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein E is a monomeric protein secreted by the liver and responsible for the transport of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides...
  35. Tran T, Kim S, Gallo C, Amaya M, Kyees J, Narayanaswami V. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant rat apolipoprotein E: similarities to human apolipoprotein E3. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;529:18-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an anti-atherogenic protein that plays a critical role in maintaining plasma cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis by virtue of its ability to act as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) ..
  36. Inbal A, Freimark D, Modan B, Chetrit A, Matetzky S, Rosenberg N, et al. Synergistic effects of prothrombotic polymorphisms and atherogenic factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. Blood. 1999;93:2186-90 pubmed
    ..7; 95% CI, 7.17 to 84.9). The presented data suggest a synergistic effect between atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factors in the pathogenesis of AMI, as was recently found in a similar cohort of women. ..
  37. McLean J, Fukazawa C, Taylor J. Rat apolipoprotein E mRNA. Cloning and sequencing of double-stranded cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8993-9000 pubmed
    A 900-base pair clone corresponding to rat liver apolipoprotein E (apo-E) mRNA, and containing a 3'-terminal poly(A) segment, was identified from a library of rat liver cDNA clones in the plasmid pBR322 by specific hybrid selection and ..
  38. Miller R, Federoff H. Isoform-specific effects of ApoE on HSV immediate early gene expression and establishment of latency. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:71-7 pubmed
    ..addition to age, the most prevalent known risk factor for developing AD is carriage of the epsilon4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)...
  39. Black D, Tso P, Weidman S, Sabesin S. Intestinal lipoproteins in the rat with D-(+)-galactosamine hepatitis. J Lipid Res. 1983;24:977-92 pubmed
    ..006 g/ml intestinal Lps. We conclude that GalN hepatitis is a model that allows study of intestinal Lps with normal lipid digestion and absorption in the face of severe hepatic injury and LCAT deficiency. ..
  40. Takahashi H, Hashimoto N, Kawasaki T, Kikuchi T, Uchiyama M. The usefulness of measuring body fat deposition for detecting obesity and atherogenesity in Japanese school children. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1996;38:634-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the measurement of body fat deposition, together with relative weight, was useful for detecting obesity and atherogenesity in Japanese school children. ..
  41. Raman K, Gandley R, Rohland J, Zenati M, Tzeng E. Early hypercholesterolemia contributes to vasomotor dysfunction and injury associated atherogenesis that can be inhibited by nitric oxide. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53:754-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Common carotid arteries (CCA) from wild-type C57BL6 (WT or C57) and apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE KO) mice fed normal or Western diets for 6 to 8 weeks were tested for vasomotor function ..
  42. Nilsson S, Lookene A, Beckstead J, Gliemann J, Ryan R, Olivecrona G. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3896-904 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. ..
  43. Weinberg J, Volkheimer A, Mihovilovic M, Jiang N, Chen Y, Bond K, et al. Apolipoprotein E genotype as a determinant of survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2008;22:2184-92 pubmed publisher
  44. Bartres Faz D, Clemente I, Junque C, Valveny N, López Alomar A, Sánchez Aldeguer J, et al. APOE and APOC1 genetic polymorphisms in age-associated memory impairment. Neurogenetics. 2001;3:215-9 pubmed
  45. Lee C, Kuo T, Wu C, Wang J, Pan T. Red mold rice promotes neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion instead of Alzheimer's risk factors and amyloid beta expression in hyperlipidemic Abeta40-infused rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Abeta40 formation and deposition by suppressing the cholesterol-raised beta-secretase activity and apolipoprotein E expression, as well as mediates the proteolytic process of APP toward neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion in ..
  46. Plump A, Azrolan N, Odaka H, Wu L, Jiang X, Tall A, et al. ApoA-I knockout mice: characterization of HDL metabolism in homozygotes and identification of a post-RNA mechanism of apoA-I up-regulation in heterozygotes. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1033-47 pubmed
    ..In the apoA-I knockout mouse model it appears that low HDL levels create a new steady state in which decreased cholesterol is delivered to both peripheral tissues and the liver. ..
  47. Bibeau K, Battista M, Houde V, Brochu M. Fetal adrenal gland alterations in a rat model of adverse intrauterine environment. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R899-911 pubmed publisher
    ..to result from alterations in gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism, such as the augmented apolipoprotein E levels, and in steroidogenesis, like the decreased levels of cytochrome P45011beta-hydroxylase...
  48. Furumoto H, Shimizu T, Asagami C, Muto M, Takahashi M, Hoshii Y, et al. Apolipoprotein E is present in primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:417-21 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is one of the amyloid associated proteins that is found in the amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease and systemic amyloidosis...
  49. Aoki T, Moriwaki T, Takagi Y, Kataoka H, Yang J, Nozaki K, et al. The efficacy of apolipoprotein E deficiency in cerebral aneurysm formation. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21:453-9 pubmed
    ..The relation of hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) to cerebral aneurysm formation, has been unclear until now...
  50. Chen Q, Reis S, Kammerer C, McNamara D, Holubkov R, Sharaf B, et al. APOE polymorphism and angiographic coronary artery disease severity in the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. Atherosclerosis. 2003;169:159-67 pubmed
    Genetic variation in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a significant determinant of variation in plasma cholesterol levels and it also affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  51. Plump A, Erickson S, Weng W, Partin J, Breslow J, Williams D. Apolipoprotein A-I is required for cholesteryl ester accumulation in steroidogenic cells and for normal adrenal steroid production. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:2660-71 pubmed
    ..In this study we have used apo A-I-, apo A-II-, and apo E-deficient mice created by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to test the importance of the three major HDL ..
  52. Connelly P, Maguire G, Vezina C, Hegele R, Little J. Identification of disulfide-linked apolipoprotein species in human lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 1993;34:1717-27 pubmed
    ..was found in homodimeric form and as heterodimers with apolipoprotein A-II, apolipoprotein B-100, and apolipoprotein E. Of particular interest was the demonstration of the existence of the disulfide-linked species apolipoprotein ..
  53. Yan L, Tonack S, Smith R, Dodd S, Jenkins R, Kitteringham N, et al. Confounding effect of obstructive jaundice in the interpretation of proteomic plasma profiling data for pancreatic cancer. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..or biliary duct obstruction, we observed that the plasma levels of apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein E, when examined in isolation, were each associated with pancreatic cancer...