Genomes and Genes
apolipoprotein A I
Gene Symbol: apolipoprotein A I
Description: apolipoprotein A1
Alias: apoA-I, apolipoprotein A-I, apo-AI, apolipoprotein A-1, preproapolipoprotein A-I
Products: apolipoprotein A I
- Mahlberg F, Rothblat G. Cellular cholesterol efflux. Role of cell membrane kinetic pools and interaction with apolipoproteins AI, AII, and Cs. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4541-50 pubmed..These results led us to propose a new model regarding the influence of multiple kinetic pools of cholesterol on the regulation of cholesterol desorption from the cell membrane. ..
- Ito J, Kheirollah A, Nagayasu Y, Lu R, Kato K, Yokoyama S. Apolipoprotein A-I increases association of cytosolic cholesterol and caveolin-1 with microtubule cytoskeletons in rat astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1034-43 pubmed
- Chiang A, Fan K, Shaw G, Yang U. Repetitive elements in the third intron of murine apolipoprotein A-I gene. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997;43:989-96 pubmed..These repetitive motifs are very similar to the sequences flanking human Alu and rodent B1 repetitive elements, although no evidence for the existence of Alu or B1 was found near the peculiar repetitive DNA sequences in apoA-I gene. ..
- Bueno G, Bueno O, Moreno L, Garcia R, Tresaco B, Garagorri J, et al. Diversity of metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese children and adolescents. J Physiol Biochem. 2006;62:125-33 pubmed..05) and Apo Al decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in both sexes when MS was present. Adequate metabolic syndrome risk factors criteria, mainly cut-off values, need to be defined in the European paediatric population. ..
- Shi N, Wu M. Apolipoprotein A-I attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:577-83 pubmed publisher..It seems likely that ApoA-I protects kidney from I/R injury by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines release and neutrophil infiltration and activation. ..
- Boyles J, Notterpek L, Anderson L. Accumulation of apolipoproteins in the regenerating and remyelinating mammalian peripheral nerve. Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:17805-15 pubmed..The results from this study provide evidence that several different apolipoproteins from various sources may play a role in lipid transport within neural tissues. ..
- Ito J, Nagayasu Y, Kato K, Sato R, Yokoyama S. Apolipoprotein A-I induces translocation of cholesterol, phospholipid, and caveolin-1 to cytosol in rat astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7929-35 pubmed
- Williamson R, Lee D, Hagaman J, Maeda N. Marked reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in mice genetically modified to lack apolipoprotein A-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7134-8 pubmed
- Vuilleumier N, Rossier M, Pagano S, Python M, Charbonney E, Nkoulou R, et al. Anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG as an independent cardiovascular prognostic marker affecting basal heart rate in myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:815-23 pubmed publisher..Knowing whether anti-apoA-1 IgG assessment could be of interest to identify an MI patient subset susceptible to benefit from apoA-1/IVIG therapy remains to be demonstrated. ..
- Mancone C, Amicone L, Fimia G, Bravo E, Piacentini M, Tripodi M, et al. Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Proteomics. 2007;7:143-54 pubmed..While the physiological relevance of our finding remains to be assessed, we believe that our results will be useful as reference for future studies of VLDL structure in specific physiopathological conditions. ..
- Hovingh G, Brownlie A, Bisoendial R, Dube M, Levels J, Petersen W, et al. A novel apoA-I mutation (L178P) leads to endothelial dysfunction, increased arterial wall thickness, and premature coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:1429-35 pubmed..These data illustrate the pivotal role in humans of apoA-I in the protection against CAD. ..
- Panzenboeck U, Balazs Z, Sovic A, Hrzenjak A, Levak Frank S, Wintersperger A, et al. ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B, type I, are modulators of reverse sterol transport at an in vitro blood-brain barrier constituted of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42781-9 pubmed..In conclusion, the apoA-I/ABCA1- and HDL/SR-BI-dependent pathways modulate polarized sterol mobilization at the BBB...
- Panin L, Polyakov L, Kolosova N, Russkikh G, Poteryaeva O. Distribution of tocopherol and apolipoprotein A-I immunoreactivity in rat liver chromatin. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;11:631-40 pubmed..A similar distribution pattern was observed for alpha-tocopherol. It is concluded that blood serum lipoproteins, primarily HDL, may transport tocopherol and other lipids into cell nuclei. ..
- Ritter M, Scanus A. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in the structure of human serum high density lipoproteins. Reconstitution studies. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:1208-16 pubmed..All of these observations strongly support the essential role of apo A-I in the structure of human HDL. ..
- Gordon J, Smith D, Andy R, Alpers D, Schonfeld G, Strauss A. The primary translation product of rat intestinal apolipoprotein A-I mRNA is an unusual preproprotein. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:971-8 pubmed..However, post-translational proteolytic processing of proapolipoprotein A-I must be unique, and could play a role in the formation of nascent high density lipoprotein particles. ..
- Das M, Mei X, Jayaraman S, Atkinson D, Gursky O. Amyloidogenic mutations in human apolipoprotein A-I are not necessarily destabilizing - a common mechanism of apolipoprotein A-I misfolding in familial amyloidosis and atherosclerosis. FEBS J. 2014;281:2525-42 pubmed publisher..This novel mechanism suggests potential therapeutic interventions for apoA-I amyloidosis. ..
- Riches K, Franklin L, Maqbool A, Peckham M, Adams M, Bond J, et al. Apolipoprotein(a) acts as a chemorepellent to human vascular smooth muscle cells via integrin ?V?3 and RhoA/ROCK-mediated mechanisms. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:1776-83 pubmed publisher..Circulating levels of Lp(a) are resistant to lipid-lowering strategies and hence a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying its functional effects on SMC may provide alternative therapeutic targets. ..
- Hirsch Reinshagen V, Zhou S, Burgess B, Bernier L, McIsaac S, Chan J, et al. Deficiency of ABCA1 impairs apolipoprotein E metabolism in brain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41197-207 pubmed..Additionally, the effect of ABCA1 on apoE is selective, as apoJ levels are unchanged in brains of ABCA1-/- mice. Taken together, these results show that glial ABCA1 is a key influence on apoE metabolism in the CNS...
- Bocharov A, Vishnyakova T, Baranova I, Remaley A, Patterson A, Eggerman T. Heat shock protein 60 is a high-affinity high-density lipoprotein binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;277:228-35 pubmed..In summary, these results provide a potential mechanism to explain the known association between immunity developed against hsp60 and the development of atherosclerosis. ..
- Weinberg R, Cook V, Beckstead J, Martin D, Gallagher J, Shelness G, et al. Structure and interfacial properties of human apolipoprotein A-V. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34438-44 pubmed..Given that overexpression of the apoA-V gene lowers plasma triglycerides in mice, these data together suggest that apoA-V may function intracellularly to modulate hepatic VLDL synthesis and/or secretion. ..
- Zhu H, Wang S, Xu Y, Chen Y. [Study on plasma lipids, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B100 in simple obese children]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2000;29:104-5 pubmed..05). The results suggested that metabolic disorder of lipid and apolipoprotein took place in obese children. The disorder which may increase the risk of AS should be paid great attention. ..
- Goodrum J, Bouldin T, Zhang S, Maeda N, Popko B. Nerve regeneration and cholesterol reutilization occur in the absence of apolipoproteins E and A-I in mice. J Neurochem. 1995;64:408-16 pubmed..These data suggest that there is considerable redundancy in the process of cholesterol reutilization within nerve, and that apolipoproteins other than apolipoproteins E and A-I may be involved in the recycling of myelin cholesterol. ..
- Vaziri N, Kim H, Moradi H, Farmand F, Navab K, Navab M, et al. Amelioration of nephropathy with apoA-1 mimetic peptide in apoE-deficient mice. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3525-34 pubmed publisher..These observations point to the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of renal disease in hyperlipidaemic animals and perhaps humans. ..
- Boguski M, Elshourbagy N, Taylor J, Gordon J. Comparative analysis of repeated sequences in rat apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, and E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:992-6 pubmed..Diversification of a duplicated ancestral sequence has resulted in three lipid-binding proteins with distinct and shared functions. ..
- Zeng L, Liao H, Liu Y, Lee T, Zhu M, Wang X, et al. Sterol-responsive element-binding protein (SREBP) 2 down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in vascular endothelial cells: a novel role of SREBP in regulating cholesterol metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48801-7 pubmed..Thus, this SREBP-regulated mechanism may control the efflux of cholesterol, which is a newly defined function of SREBP2 in ECs in addition to its role in cholesterol uptake and biosynthesis...
- Dodani S, Henkhaus R, Wick J, Vacek J, Gupta K, Dong L, et al. Metabolic syndrome in South Asian immigrants: more than low HDL requiring aggressive management. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:45 pubmed publisher..There is need to explore and understand non-traditional risk factors with special focus on Dys-HDL, knowing that SAIs have low HDL levels. Large prospective studies are needed to further strengthen current study results. ..
- Li H, Li C, Wu H, Zhang T, Wang J, Wang S, et al. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Proteome Sci. 2011;9:21 pubmed publisher..7% and 89.7% respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer. ..
- Di Bartolo B, Nicholls S, Bao S, Rye K, Heather A, Barter P, et al. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide ETC-642 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that are comparable to high density lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:395-400 pubmed publisher..05). These studies demonstrate that ETC-642 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that are comparable to apoA-I both in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are mediated via the NF-?B signaling pathway. ..
- Silver D, Jiang X, Tall A. Increased high density lipoprotein (HDL), defective hepatic catabolism of ApoA-I and ApoA-II, and decreased ApoA-I mRNA in ob/ob mice. Possible role of leptin in stimulation of HDL turnover. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4140-6 pubmed..The studies reveal a specific HDL particle catabolic pathway that is down-regulated in ob/ob mice and suggest that HDL apolipoprotein turnover may be regulated by obesity and/or leptin signaling. ..
- Chang C, Liao H, Chang C, Chen C, Chen C, Yang C, et al. Oxidized ApoC1 on MALDI-TOF and glycated-ApoA1 band on gradient gel as potential diagnostic tools for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;420:69-75 pubmed publisher..Gel identification of the highly-glycated and oxidized C band of ApoA1 and MALDI-TOF detection of oxidized ApoC1 in HDL may provide a new approach for early ASVD diagnosis. ..
- Parks J, Li H, Gebre A, Smith T, Maeda N. Effect of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation in mouse plasma. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:349-55 pubmed..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
- Plump A, Azrolan N, Odaka H, Wu L, Jiang X, Tall A, et al. ApoA-I knockout mice: characterization of HDL metabolism in homozygotes and identification of a post-RNA mechanism of apoA-I up-regulation in heterozygotes. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1033-47 pubmed..In the apoA-I knockout mouse model it appears that low HDL levels create a new steady state in which decreased cholesterol is delivered to both peripheral tissues and the liver. ..
- Ziegler M, Chen T, LeBlanc J, Wei X, Gjertson D, Li K, et al. Apolipoprotein A1 and C-terminal fragment of ?-1 antichymotrypsin are candidate plasma biomarkers associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation. 2011;92:388-95 pubmed publisher..Together ?-1 antichymotrypsin, Apo A1, and the unidentified 5191 Da peptide provide a plasma molecular profile, and this is associated with acute cellular renal allograft rejection. ..
- Cabana V, Reardon C, Wei B, Lukens J, Getz G. SAA-only HDL formed during the acute phase response in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1090-103 pubmed..The capacity to isolate lipoprotein particles containing SAA as the predominant or only apolipoprotein provides an important system to further explore the biological function of SAA. ..
- Vaziri N, Bai Y, Yuan J, Said H, Sigala W, Ni Z. ApoA-1 mimetic peptide reverses uremia-induced upregulation of pro-atherogenic pathways in the aorta. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:201-11 pubmed publisher..These abnormalities are attenuated by ApoA-1 mimetic peptide, pointing to its protective effect in CKD. Future studies are needed to explore the effect of these peptides in CKD patients. ..
- Chroni A, Duka A, Kan H, Liu T, Zannis V. Point mutations in apolipoprotein A-I mimic the phenotype observed in patients with classical lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14353-66 pubmed..The findings indicate a critical contribution of residue 160 of apoA-I to the in vivo activity of LCAT and the subsequent maturation of HDL and explain the low HDL levels in heterozygous subjects carrying this mutation. ..
- Adachi E, Kosaka A, Tsuji K, Mizuguchi C, Kawashima H, Shigenaga A, et al. The extreme N-terminal region of human apolipoprotein A-I has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:389-94 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that in addition to the 46-59 segment, the extreme N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the development of amyloid fibrils by the N-terminal fragment of amyloidogenic apoA-I variants. ..
- Wang E, Sun Y, Guo J, Gao X, Hu J, Zhou L, et al. Tetranectin and apolipoprotein A-I in cerebrospinal fluid as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 2010;122:350-9 pubmed publisher..Our preliminary results suggest that tetranectin and apoA-I may serve as potential biomarkers for PD, though further validation is needed. ..
- Needham E, Mattu R, Rees A, Stocks J, Galton D. A polymorphism in the human apolipoprotein AI promoter region: a study in hypertriglyceridaemic patients. Hum Hered. 1994;44:94-9 pubmed..On the basis of these results, the G-75-->A mutation is unlikely to be aetiological in predisposing to hypertriglyceridaemia. ..
- Gong E, Tan C, Shoukry M, Rubin E, Nichols A. Structural and functional properties of human and mouse apolipoprotein A-I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1213:335-42 pubmed..Our results demonstrate differences between apo A-Im and apo A-Ih that may contribute to the major changes in plasma HDL distribution and function observed in apo A-Ih transgenic mice. ..
- Carmena Ramon R, Ordovas J, Ascaso J, Real J, Priego M, Carmena R. Influence of genetic variation at the apo A-I gene locus on lipid levels and response to diet in familial hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 1998;139:107-13 pubmedWe have examined the apo AI - 75 (G/A) and apo AI + 83(MspI +/-) polymorphisms at the APOA1 gene locus for associations with plasma lipid levels and response to an NCEP-I diet in 69 (44 women, 25 men) heterozygotes for familial ..
- Attman P, Knight Gibson C, Tavella M, Samuelsson O, Alaupovic P. The compositional abnormalities of lipoproteins in diabetic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2833-41 pubmed..Increased levels of these lipoproteins may represent risk factors for the accelerated development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in these patients. ..
- Vishnyakova T, Bocharov A, Baranova I, Chen Z, Remaley A, Csako G, et al. Binding and internalization of lipopolysaccharide by Cla-1, a human orthologue of rodent scavenger receptor B1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22771-80 pubmed..In summary, Cla-1 was found to bind and internalize monomerized and HDL-associated LPS, indicating that Cla-1 may play important role in septic shock by affecting LPS cellular uptake and clearance. ..
- Furukawa Y, Urano T, Hida Y, Itoh H, Takahashi C, Kimura S. Interaction of rat lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase with rat apolipoprotein A-I and with lecithin-cholesterol vesicles. J Biochem. 1992;111:413-8 pubmed..This suggests that the mixture of rat enzyme, rat apo-A-I, and vesicles, which are the major components in the rat lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase reaction, forms a stronger complex than do the components of the human reaction. ..
- Francone O, Subbaiah P, Van Tol A, Royer L, Haghpassand M. Abnormal phospholipid composition impairs HDL biogenesis and maturation in mice lacking Abca1. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8569-78 pubmed..Taken together, these observations suggest that ABCA1 is necessary for the adequate lipidation of apoAI, which enables the interaction with LCAT and subsequent maturation...
- Remaley A, Stonik J, Demosky S, Neufeld E, Bocharov A, Vishnyakova T, et al. Apolipoprotein specificity for lipid efflux by the human ABCAI transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:818-23 pubmed..In summary, ABCAI-mediated cellular binding of apolipoproteins and lipid efflux is not specific for only apoA-I but can also occur with other apolipoproteins that contain multiple amphipathic helical domains...
- Fielding C, Shore V, Fielding P. A protein cofactor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1972;46:1493-8 pubmed
- Gruen M, Plummer M, Zhang W, Posey K, Linton M, Fazio S, et al. Persistence of high density lipoprotein particles in obese mice lacking apolipoprotein A-I. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2007-14 pubmed..Moreover, the presence of large HDLs without apoA-I provides evidence for an apoA-I-independent pathway of cholesterol efflux, possibly sustained by apoE. ..
- Martinez L, Agerholm Larsen B, Wang N, Chen W, Tall A. Phosphorylation of a pest sequence in ABCA1 promotes calpain degradation and is reversed by ApoA-I. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37368-74 pubmed
- Ohashi R, Mu H, Wang X, Yao Q, Chen C. Reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol efflux in atherosclerosis. QJM. 2005;98:845-56 pubmed..Further research on new modifying factors for RCT and cholesterol efflux is warranted...
- Ji A, Meyer J, Cai L, Akinmusire A, de Beer M, Webb N, et al. Scavenger receptor SR-BI in macrophage lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:106-12 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that SR-BI plays a significant role in macrophage cholesterol flux that may partly account for its effects on atherogenesis. ..
- Seetharam D, Mineo C, Gormley A, Gibson L, Vongpatanasin W, Chambliss K, et al. High-density lipoprotein promotes endothelial cell migration and reendothelialization via scavenger receptor-B type I. Circ Res. 2006;98:63-72 pubmed..Furthermore, reendothelialization is impaired in SR-BI(-/-) mice. Thus, HDL stimulates endothelial cell migration via SR-BI-initiated signaling, and these mechanisms promote endothelial monolayer integrity in vivo. ..
- Wong Y, Binger K, Howlett G, Griffin M. Methionine oxidation induces amyloid fibril formation by full-length apolipoprotein A-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1977-82 pubmed publisher..64 A and 9.92 A, indicating a cross-beta amyloid structure. This systematic study of fibril formation by full-length apoA-I represents the first demonstration that methionine oxidation can induce amyloid fibril formation. ..
- Nofer J, Remaley A, Feuerborn R, Wolinnska I, Engel T, von Eckardstein A, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I activates Cdc42 signaling through the ABCA1 transporter. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:794-803 pubmed..We conclude that ABCA1 transduces signals from apoA-I by complexing and activating Cdc42 and downstream kinases and, therefore, acts as a full apoA-I receptor...
- Roher A, Maarouf C, Sue L, Hu Y, Wilson J, Beach T. Proteomics-derived cerebrospinal fluid markers of autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Biomarkers. 2009;14:493-501 pubmed publisher..For the discrimination of AD from NADD subjects, measurement of Abeta1-42 alone was superior. ..
- Datta G, Gupta H, Zhang Z, Mayakonda P, Anantharamaiah G, White C. HDL Mimetic Peptide Administration Improves Left Ventricular Filling and Cardiac output in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Rats. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2011;2: pubmed..CONCLUSIONS: The ability of 4F to reduce inflammation and improve cardiac performance in LPS-treated rats may be due to its capacity to neutralize endotoxin and prevent adverse changes in HDL composition and function. ..
- Christoffersen C, Nielsen L, Axler O, Andersson A, Johnsen A, Dahlback B. Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein M-containing lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1833-43 pubmed..Nevertheless, apoM designates a subpopulation of HDL that protects LDL against oxidation and stimulates cholesterol efflux more efficiently than HDL lacking apoM. ..
- LaDu M, Lukens J, Reardon C, Getz G. Association of human, rat, and rabbit apolipoprotein E with beta-amyloid. J Neurosci Res. 1997;49:9-18 pubmed..These binding studies provide one possible explanation for protective effects of both apoE2 and E3 against the development of Alzheimer's disease. ..
- Lapolla A, Brioschi M, Banfi C, Tremoli E, Cosma C, Bonfante L, et al. Nonenzymatically glycated lipoprotein ApoA-I in plasma of diabetic and nephropathic patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1126:295-9 pubmed