Gene Symbol: Apoa4
Description: apolipoprotein A4
Alias: Apo-AIV, ApoA-IV, apoAIV, apolipoprotein A-IV
Species: rat
Products:     Apoa4

Top Publications

  1. Wong W, Gerry A, Putt W, Roberts J, Weinberg R, Humphries S, et al. Common variants of apolipoprotein A-IV differ in their ability to inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:266-74 pubmed
    ..The reduced inhibition of LDL oxidation by apoA-IV-S347 compared to wild type apoA-IV may account for the previous association of the APOA4 S347 variant with increased CHD risk and oxidative stress.
  2. Shen L, Pearson K, Xiong Y, Lo C, Tso P, Woods S, et al. Characterization of apolipoprotein A-IV in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data collectively support the hypothesis that apo A-IV, produced by neuronal cells, may exert its anorectic action by interacting with catabolic regulatory neuropeptides. ..
  3. Ji Y, Urakami K, Adachi Y, Nakashima K. No association between apolipoprotein A-IV codon 360 mutation and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in the Japanese population. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1999;10:473-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there was no association between apoA-IV genotype and LOAD in the Japanese population. Copyrightz1999S.KargerAG,Basel ..
  4. Luczak M, Formanowicz D, Pawliczak E, Wanic Kossowska M, Wykretowicz A, Figlerowicz M. Chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis - proteomic studies of blood plasma. Proteome Sci. 2011;9:25 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the down- and up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-IV in CVD and CKD groups, respectively, suggests that substantial differences exist in the efficacy of cholesterol transport in both groups of patients. ..
  5. Domanski D, Cohen Freue G, Sojo L, Kuzyk M, Ratkay L, Parker C, et al. The use of multiplexed MRM for the discovery of biomarkers to differentiate iron-deficiency anemia from anemia of inflammation. J Proteomics. 2012;75:3514-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Understanding genome regulation and genetic diversity by mass spectrometry. ..
  6. Rewers M, Kamboh M, Hoag S, Shetterly S, Ferrell R, Hamman R. ApoA-IV polymorphism associated with myocardial infarction in obese NIDDM patients. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetes. 1994;43:1485-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that approximately 17% of NIDDM patients have a high MI risk apoA-IV phenotype that is particularly deleterious in obese patients. ..
  7. Deng X, Morris J, Dressmen J, Tubb M, Tso P, Jerome W, et al. The structure of dimeric apolipoprotein A-IV and its mechanism of self-association. Structure. 2012;20:767-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This also provides a logical basis for antiparallel arrangements recently described for lipid-containing particles. Furthermore, we propose a "swinging door" model for apoA-IV lipid association. ..
  8. Weinberg R, Anderson R, Cook V, Emmanuel F, Denefle P, Tall A, et al. Interfacial exclusion pressure determines the ability of apolipoprotein A-IV truncation mutants to activate cholesterol ester transfer protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21549-53 pubmed
  9. Boguski M, Birkenmeier E, Elshourbagy N, Taylor J, Gordon J. Evolution of the apolipoproteins. Structure of the rat apo-A-IV gene and its relationship to the human genes for apo-A-I, C-III, and E. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:6398-407 pubmed
    ..However, conservation of the fundamental amphipathic pattern allowed members of this protein family to retain their lipid-binding properties. ..

More Information


  1. Goldberg I, Scheraldi C, Yacoub L, Saxena U, Bisgaier C. Lipoprotein ApoC-II activation of lipoprotein lipase. Modulation by apolipoprotein A-IV. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:4266-72 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that apoA-IV is required for efficient release of apoC-II from either HDL or VLDL, which then allows for LPL-mediated hydrolysis of TG in nascent chylomicrons. ..
  2. Gotoh K, Liu M, Benoit S, Clegg D, Davidson W, D ALESSIO D, et al. Apolipoprotein A-IV interacts synergistically with melanocortins to reduce food intake. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R202-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, c-Fos expression was not colocalized with proopiomelanocortin-positive neurons. These data support a synergistic interaction between apo A-IV and melanocortins that reduces food intake by acting downstream of the arcuate. ..
  3. Schonfeld G, George P, Miller J, Reilly P, Witztum J. Apolipoprotein C-II and C-III levels in hyperlipoproteinemia. Metabolism. 1979;28:1001-10 pubmed
  4. D Aguanno S, Barassi A, Lupisella S, d Eril G, Del Boccio P, Pieragostino D, et al. Differential cerebro spinal fluid proteome investigation of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;193:156-60 pubmed
    ..Both CSF of LHON or MS patients are characterized by lower level of transthyretin dimer adduct while a specific up regulation of Apo A-IV was detected in LHON CSF. ..
  5. Liu X, Zeng B, Xu J, Zhu H, Xia Q. Proteomic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lumbar disk herniation. Proteomics. 2006;6:1019-28 pubmed
    ..The functional implications of the alterations in the levels of these proteins are discussed in this paper. ..
  6. Li T, Zheng B, Huang Z, Lin Q, Zhao L, Liao Z, et al. Screening disease-associated proteins from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative proteomic study. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:537-43 pubmed
    ..There were 8 identified proteins differentially expressed between RA group and volunteer group, which might be candidate RA-associated proteins and might be promising diagnostic indicators or therapeutic targets for RA. ..
  7. Carboni L, Becchi S, Piubelli C, Mallei A, Giambelli R, Razzoli M, et al. Early-life stress and antidepressants modulate peripheral biomarkers in a gene-environment rat model of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to MS induced changes in inflammation and transport proteins which became apparent in response to antidepressant treatments. Modulated proteins could suggest biomarker studies in humans. ..
  8. Papassotiropoulos A, Wollmer M, Tsolaki M, Brunner F, Molyva D, Lutjohann D, et al. A cluster of cholesterol-related genes confers susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:940-7 pubmed
    ..identified a cluster of polymorphisms in APOE, SOAT1, APOE 5'-untranslated region, OLR1, CYP46A1, LPL, LIPA, and APOA4 conferring significant (p = .0002) susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease...
  9. Bouhenni R, Al Shahwan S, Morales J, Wakim B, Chomyk A, Alkuraya F, et al. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in the aqueous humor of primary congenital glaucoma. Exp Eye Res. 2011;92:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that similar to AD, the pathologic changes in PCG during development could be influenced by the availability of RA in the anterior chamber...
  10. Santos Gonzalez M, Lopez Miranda J, Perez Jimenez F, Navas P, Villalba J. Dietary oil modifies the plasma proteome during aging in the rat. Age (Dordr). 2012;34:341-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our unbiased analysis reinforces the beneficial role of a diet rich in virgin olive oil compared with a diet rich in sunflower oil, modulating inflammation, homeostasis, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk during aging. ..
  11. Plump A, Azrolan N, Odaka H, Wu L, Jiang X, Tall A, et al. ApoA-I knockout mice: characterization of HDL metabolism in homozygotes and identification of a post-RNA mechanism of apoA-I up-regulation in heterozygotes. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1033-47 pubmed
    ..In the apoA-I knockout mouse model it appears that low HDL levels create a new steady state in which decreased cholesterol is delivered to both peripheral tissues and the liver. ..
  12. Lo C, Langhans W, Georgievsky M, Arnold M, Caldwell J, Cheng S, et al. Apolipoprotein AIV requires cholecystokinin and vagal nerves to suppress food intake. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5857-65 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are gastrointestinal satiation signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Previous studies have demonstrated that peripheral apo AIV cannot cross the blood-brain barrier...
  13. Hebiguchi T, Mezaki Y, Morii M, Watanabe R, Yoshikawa K, Miura M, et al. Massive bowel resection upregulates the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II and apolipoprotein A-IV and alters the intestinal vitamin A status in rats. Int J Mol Med. 2015;35:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II, gene symbol Rbp2) and apolipoprotein A-IV (gene symbol Apoa4) were higher than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by RT-qPCR...
  14. Boyles J, Notterpek L, Anderson L. Accumulation of apolipoproteins in the regenerating and remyelinating mammalian peripheral nerve. Identification of apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and apolipoprotein A-I. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:17805-15 pubmed
    ..The results from this study provide evidence that several different apolipoproteins from various sources may play a role in lipid transport within neural tissues. ..
  15. Langner C, Birkenmeier E, Roth K, Bronson R, Gordon J. Characterization of the peripheral neuropathy in neonatal and adult mice that are homozygous for the fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:11955-64 pubmed
  16. Cui Y, Huang M, He Y, Zhang S, Luo Y. Genetic ablation of apolipoprotein A-IV accelerates Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis in a mouse model. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that apoA-IV deficiency increases A? deposition and results in cognitive damage in the mouse model. Enhancing levels of apoA-IV may have therapeutic potential in AD treatment. ..
  17. Tumani H, Pfeifle M, Lehmensiek V, Rau D, Mogel H, Ludolph A, et al. Candidate biomarkers of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP): proteome analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;214:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..10 proteins that were upregulated in CIDP (two transferrin isoforms, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 1 precursor, apolipoprotein A IV, two haptoglobin isoforms, transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein and two isoforms of ..
  18. Lu C, Zhu W, Shen C, Gao W. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38332 pubmed publisher
    ..of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1)...
  19. Lo C, Davidson W, Hibbard S, Georgievsky M, Lee A, Tso P, et al. Intraperitoneal CCK and fourth-intraventricular Apo AIV require both peripheral and NTS CCK1R to reduce food intake in male rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1700-7 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are secreted in response to fat consumption, and both cause satiation via CCK 1 receptor (CCK-1R)-containing vagal afferent nerves to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), where ..
  20. Mancone C, Amicone L, Fimia G, Bravo E, Piacentini M, Tripodi M, et al. Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Proteomics. 2007;7:143-54 pubmed
    ..While the physiological relevance of our finding remains to be assessed, we believe that our results will be useful as reference for future studies of VLDL structure in specific physiopathological conditions. ..
  21. Shen L, Lo C, Woollett L, Liu M. Apolipoprotein A-IV exerts its anorectic action through a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:152-157 pubmed publisher
  22. Haddad I, Ordovas J, Fitzpatrick T, Karathanasis S. Linkage, evolution, and expression of the rat apolipoprotein A-I, C-III, and A-IV genes. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:13268-77 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results indicate that expression of the rat apoA-I, apoC-III, and apoA-IV genes is liver- and intestine-specific and regulated by fetal-, neonatal-, and aging-related factors. ..
  23. Jiang L, Lindpaintner K, Li H, Gu N, Langen H, He L, et al. Proteomic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Amino Acids. 2003;25:49-57 pubmed
    ..The levels of certain other proteins, like haptoglobin, fibrinogen, complement component 3, and Gc-globulin, were altered in the disease group as well, however, the changes did not reach a statistical significance. ..
  24. Quilliot D, Walters E, Guerci B, Fruchart J, Duriez P, Drouin P, et al. Effect of the inflammation, chronic hyperglycemia, or malabsorption on the apolipoprotein A-IV concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus and in diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis. Metabolism. 2001;50:1019-24 pubmed
    ..As apo A-IV is involved in reverse cholesterol transport, its low level in CP-DM may contribute to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in these patients. ..
  25. Wong W, Hawe E, Li L, Miller G, Nicaud V, Pennacchio L, et al. Apolipoprotein AIV gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower plasma apolipoprotein AIV levels. Circ Res. 2003;92:969-75 pubmed
    ..To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIV levels, the relationship was examined in 1600 healthy young European men and women...
  26. Lo C, Xu M, Yang Q, Zheng S, Carey K, Tubb M, et al. Effect of intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of cholecystokinin-8 and apolipoprotein AIV on intestinal lymphatic CCK-8 and apo AIV concentration. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R43-50 pubmed publisher
    CCK and apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) are gastrointestinal satiety signals whose synthesis and secretion by the gut are stimulated by fat absorption...
  27. Huang Y, Wu Y, Tseng M, Chen Y, Hsieh S, Chen C. Increased prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and haptoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15809 pubmed publisher
    ..The results implicate that increased CSF prothrombin, Apo A-IV, and haptoglobin may be involved in pathogenesis of HD and may serve as potential biomarkers for HD. ..
  28. Kee F, Amouyel P, Fumeron F, Arveiler D, Cambou J, Evans A, et al. Lack of association between genetic variations of apo A-I-C-III-A-IV gene cluster and myocardial infarction in a sample of European male: ECTIM study. Atherosclerosis. 1999;145:187-95 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in the ECTIM study, the apo A-I, C-III, A-IV gene cluster polymorphism is associated with neither circulating plasma variables nor MI survival. ..
  29. Makino Y, Noguchi E, Takahashi N, Matsumoto Y, Kubo S, Yamada T, et al. Apolipoprotein A-IV is a candidate target molecule for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:1163-9.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Our data will increase the understanding of the mechanism of SLIT and may provide novel insights into the treatment of allergic rhinitis. ..
  30. Pearson K, Tubb M, Tanaka M, Zhang X, Tso P, Weinberg R, et al. Specific sequences in the N and C termini of apolipoprotein A-IV modulate its conformation and lipid association. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38576-82 pubmed
    ..We propose a structural model in which these sequences can modulate the conformation and lipid affinity of apoA-IV. ..
  31. Remaley A, Stonik J, Demosky S, Neufeld E, Bocharov A, Vishnyakova T, et al. Apolipoprotein specificity for lipid efflux by the human ABCAI transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:818-23 pubmed
    ..In summary, ABCAI-mediated cellular binding of apolipoproteins and lipid efflux is not specific for only apoA-I but can also occur with other apolipoproteins that contain multiple amphipathic helical domains...
  32. Webb N, De Beer M, van der Westhuyzen D, Kindy M, Banka C, Tsukamoto K, et al. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of serum amyloid A in apoA-I-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1583-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SAA is unable to substitute for apoA-I in HDL particle formation. ..
  33. Ghiselli G, Krishnan S, Beigel Y, Gotto A. Plasma metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV in humans. J Lipid Res. 1986;27:813-27 pubmed
  34. Broedl U, Schachinger V, Lingenhel A, Lehrke M, Stark R, Seibold F, et al. Apolipoprotein A-IV is an independent predictor of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:391-7 pubmed
    ..435, 95% CI 0.995-11.853, P = 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an association of apoA-IV with disease activity in patients with CD. Further studies are needed to define the relationship of apoA-IV to IBD. ..
  35. Shen L, Liu Y, Wang D, Tso P, Woods S, Liu M. Estradiol stimulates apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract through estrogen receptor-?. Endocrinology. 2014;155:3882-90 pubmed publisher
  36. Vowinkel T, Mori M, Krieglstein C, Russell J, Saijo F, Bharwani S, et al. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits experimental colitis. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:260-9 pubmed
    ..This anti-inflammatory effect likely involves the inhibition of P-selectin-mediated leukocyte and platelet adhesive interactions. ..
  37. Bai H, Saku K, Liu R, Oribe Y, Yamamoto K, Arakawa K. Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein A-IV gene and its significance in lipid metabolism and coronary heart disease in a Japanese population. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996;26:1115-24 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the apo A-IV gene is not a major determinant of the risk for CHD in Japanese. ..
  38. Ebrini I, Agnello D, Miller I, Villa P, Fratelli M, Ghezzi P, et al. Proteins of rat serum V: adjuvant arthritis and its modulation by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:2170-9 pubmed
    ..Protein quantitation after two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reveals some effects of the drugs per se which escape detection by other routine tests. ..
  39. Huang W, Liu R, Ou Y, Li X, Qiang O, Yu T, et al. Octreotide promotes weight loss via suppression of intestinal MTP and apoB48 expression in diet-induced obesity rats. Nutrition. 2013;29:1259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..apolipoproteinB48 (apoB48), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoproteinAIV (apoAIV) in a high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model...
  40. Ito Y, Azrolan N, O CONNELL A, Walsh A, Breslow J. Hypertriglyceridemia as a result of human apo CIII gene expression in transgenic mice. Science. 1990;249:790-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, overexpression of apolipoprotein CIII can be a primary cause of hypertriglyceridemia in vivo and may provide one possible etiology for this common disorder in humans. ..
  41. Duverger N, Murry Brelier A, Latta M, Reboul S, Castro G, Mayaux J, et al. Functional characterization of human recombinant apolipoprotein AIV produced in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1991;201:373-83 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein AIV (apoAIV), a protein which is known to activate the enzyme lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, to bind to apoAI/AII receptor sites and also to promote cholesterol efflux from adipose cells, may play an important role ..
  42. Weinstock P, Bisgaier C, Hayek T, Aalto Setala K, Sehayek E, Wu L, et al. Decreased HDL cholesterol levels but normal lipid absorption, growth, and feeding behavior in apolipoprotein A-IV knockout mice. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1782-94 pubmed
  43. Shitama T, Hayashi H, Noge S, Uchio E, Oshima K, Haniu H, et al. Proteome Profiling of Vitreoretinal Diseases by Cluster Analysis. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2008;2:1265-1280 pubmed
    ..when compared to the control and to each other: 1) the levels of inflammation-associate proteins such as AAT, APOA4, ALB, and TF were significantly higher in all four types of vitreoretinal diseases, and 2) each vitreoretinal ..
  44. Liu M, Shen L, Liu Y, Woods S, Seeley R, D ALESSIO D, et al. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet downregulates apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in rat hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E366-70 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that dysregulation of hypothalamic apo A-IV could contribute to diet-induced obesity. ..
  45. Glatzle J, Darcel N, Rechs A, Kalogeris T, Tso P, Raybould H. Apolipoprotein A-IV stimulates duodenal vagal afferent activity to inhibit gastric motility via a CCK1 pathway. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R354-9 pubmed
  46. Corella D, Ordovas J. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS THAT INFLUENCE LIPID METABOLISM: Interaction with Dietary Factors. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:341-90 pubmed
    ..Several loci (i.e., APOA1, APOA4, APOE, and LIPC) are providing proof-of-concept for the potential application of genetics in the context of ..
  47. Tumani H, Lehmensiek V, Rau D, Guttmann I, Tauscher G, Mogel H, et al. CSF proteome analysis in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): candidate markers for conversion to definite multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CIS-CIS. For Fetuin-A, our findings could be confirmed by ELISA. The pathophysiological role as well as clinical relevance of these candidate proteins in CIS remains to be further clarified by future studies. ..
  48. Csaszar A, Kalman J, Szalai C, Janka Z, Romics L. Association of the apolipoprotein A-IV codon 360 mutation in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 1997;230:151-4 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the apoA-IV-2 allele may confer one of the susceptibility markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and strengthen the polygenic risk determination of the variability in expression of AD. ..
  49. McGuirk J, Hao G, Hou W, Abhyankar S, Williams C, Yan W, et al. Serum proteomic profiling and haptoglobin polymorphisms in patients with GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Hematol Oncol. 2009;2:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the data suggest the possibility that specific Hp polymorphisms may be associated with cGVHD development and warrant further investigation. ..
  50. Goodrum J, Bouldin T, Zhang S, Maeda N, Popko B. Nerve regeneration and cholesterol reutilization occur in the absence of apolipoproteins E and A-I in mice. J Neurochem. 1995;64:408-16 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that there is considerable redundancy in the process of cholesterol reutilization within nerve, and that apolipoproteins other than apolipoproteins E and A-I may be involved in the recycling of myelin cholesterol. ..
  51. Boguski M, Elshourbagy N, Taylor J, Gordon J. Rat apolipoprotein A-IV contains 13 tandem repetitions of a 22-amino acid segment with amphipathic helical potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5021-5 pubmed
    ..This finding raises the possibility of close tandem linkage of the apo A-I and A-IV genes and suggests unequal crossing-over as a mechanism for the evolution of these genes. ..
  52. Yang Y, Liu S, Qin Z, Liu F, Qin Y, Bai S, et al. Comparative proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These identified proteins may be involved in the pathophysiological process of GBS and call for further studying the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease...
  53. Zervos E, Tanner S, Osborne D, Bloomston M, Rosemurgy A, Ellison E, et al. Differential gene expression in patients genetically predisposed to pancreatic cancer. J Surg Res. 2006;135:317-22 pubmed
    ..Apolipoprotein A4 is preferentially expressed in familial patients, suggesting that the importance of fatty acid synthesis in carcinogenesis be investigated further. ..