Apln

Summary

Gene Symbol: Apln
Description: apelin
Alias: Apel, apelin, APJ endogenous ligand, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
Species: rat
Products:     Apln

Top Publications

  1. Gurzu B, Petrescu B, Costuleanu M, Petrescu G. Interactions between apelin and angiotensin II on rat portal vein. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2006;7:212-6 pubmed
    b>Apelin (AP), an endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Regardless the multiple similarities between AP and angiotensin II (Ang II), their roles seem to be different...
  2. Reaux A, De Mota N, Skultetyova I, Lenkei Z, El Messari S, Gallatz K, et al. Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain. J Neurochem. 2001;77:1085-96 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a peptide recently isolated from bovine stomach tissue extracts, has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan APJ receptor...
  3. Habata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Fukusumi S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, et al. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1452:25-35 pubmed
    ..Hinuma et al., Nature 393 (1998) 272-276], we have recently identified a natural ligand, apelin, for the orphan 7TMR, APJ [K. Tatemoto et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (1998) 471-476]...
  4. Kawamata Y, Habata Y, Fukusumi S, Hosoya M, Fujii R, Hinuma S, et al. Molecular properties of apelin: tissue distribution and receptor binding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1538:162-71 pubmed
    We analyzed the tissue distribution of apelin mRNA in rats by a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and that of immunoreactive apelin (ir-apelin) by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using a monoclonal antibody...
  5. Wang G, Anini Y, Wei W, Qi X, OCarroll A, Mochizuki T, et al. Apelin, a new enteric peptide: localization in the gastrointestinal tract, ontogeny, and stimulation of gastric cell proliferation and of cholecystokinin secretion. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1342-8 pubmed
    b>Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor...
  6. Falcao Pires I, Gonçalves N, Henriques Coelho T, Moreira Gonçalves D, Roncon Albuquerque R, Leite Moreira A. Apelin decreases myocardial injury and improves right ventricular function in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H2007-14 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the endogenous production of apelin and the cardiac and pulmonary effects of its chronic administration in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
  7. Zhang J, Ren C, Qi Y, Lou L, Chen L, Zhang L, et al. Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 2006;79:1153-9 pubmed
    Because apelin may play an important regulatory role in human cardiac dysfunction, we investigated alterations in cardiovascular content of apelin and its receptor, APJ, during hypertension and the effect of exercise training on the ..
  8. Kim J, Kang Y, Kojima Y, Lighthouse J, Hu X, Aldred M, et al. An endothelial apelin-FGF link mediated by miR-424 and miR-503 is disrupted in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nat Med. 2013;19:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a microRNA (miRNA)-dependent association between apelin (APLN) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs)...
  9. Han S, Wang G, Qi X, Lee H, Englander E, Greeley G. A possible role for hypoxia-induced apelin expression in enteric cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R1832-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, and apelin and APJ are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Intestinal inflammation increases intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and apelin expression...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Zhong J, Huang D, Liu G, Jin H, Yang Y, Li Y, et al. Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on orphan receptor APJ signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;65:743-50 pubmed
    ..chain reaction and Western blot methods were performed to examine the expression of APJ and its endogenous ligand apelin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after chronic atRA treatment...
  2. Goetze J, Rehfeld J, Carlsen J, Videbaek R, Andersen C, Boesgaard S, et al. Apelin: a new plasma marker of cardiopulmonary disease. Regul Pept. 2006;133:134-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore examined whether plasma concentrations of apelin, a novel inotropic hormone, is affected in patients with chronic parenchymal lung disease without cardiac ..
  3. Ronkainen V, Ronkainen J, Hänninen S, Leskinen H, Ruas J, Pereira T, et al. Hypoxia inducible factor regulates the cardiac expression and secretion of apelin. FASEB J. 2007;21:1821-30 pubmed
    b>Apelin and its G-protein-coupled receptor APJ have various beneficial effects on cardiac function and blood pressure. The mechanisms that regulate apelin gene expression are not known...
  4. Iwanaga Y, Kihara Y, Takenaka H, Kita T. Down-regulation of cardiac apelin system in hypertrophied and failing hearts: Possible role of angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor system. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;41:798-806 pubmed
    Cardiac apelin has recently been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) in humans. In animal experiments, its infusion acutely improved systolic as well as diastolic LV function...
  5. Lee D, Saldivia V, Nguyen T, Cheng R, George S, O Dowd B. Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action. Endocrinology. 2005;146:231-6 pubmed
    The apelin peptide is the endogenous ligand for the apelin G protein-coupled receptor...
  6. Zhang Q, Yao F, Raizada M, O Rourke S, Sun C. Apelin gene transfer into the rostral ventrolateral medulla induces chronic blood pressure elevation in normotensive rats. Circ Res. 2009;104:1421-8 pubmed publisher
    The peripheral apelin system plays a significant role in cardiovascular homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases...
  7. Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou M, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;251:471-6 pubmed
    ..By monitoring this activity, we isolated an APJ receptor ligand, designated apelin, from bovine stomach extracts...
  8. Tiani C, Garcia Pras E, Mejias M, De Gottardi A, Berzigotti A, Bosch J, et al. Apelin signaling modulates splanchnic angiogenesis and portosystemic collateral vessel formation in rats with portal hypertension. J Hepatol. 2009;50:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The apelin/APJ signaling pathway plays a crucial role in angiogenesis...
  9. Heinonen M, Purhonen A, Miettinen P, Paakkonen M, Pirinen E, Alhava E, et al. Apelin, orexin-A and leptin plasma levels in morbid obesity and effect of gastric banding. Regul Pept. 2005;130:7-13 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated basal plasma levels of apelin, orexin-A, and leptin in morbid obese patients...
  10. O Donnell L, Agrawal A, Sabnekar P, Dichter M, Lynch D, Kolson D. Apelin, an endogenous neuronal peptide, protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxic injury. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1905-1917 pubmed publisher
    ..We now demonstrate that the endogenous APJ peptide ligand apelin activates signaling pathways in rat hippocampal neurons and modulates neuronal survival...
  11. Zhang Z, Yu B, Tao G. Apelin protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:2360-5 pubmed
    Apoptosis is a major cause of ischemic heart dysfunction. Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor, has been reported to exert cardioprotective effects during myocardial injury...
  12. Lee D, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam A, Liu Y, et al. Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. J Neurochem. 2000;74:34-41 pubmed
    The apelin peptide was recently discovered and demonstrated to be the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ...
  13. Jia Y, Pan C, Zhang J, Geng B, Zhao J, Gerns H, et al. Apelin protects myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats. Regul Pept. 2006;133:147-54 pubmed
    We aimed to explore the change in level of apelin and its receptor APJ during myocardial injury and the therapeutic effects of apelin in myocardial injury...
  14. Falcao Pires I, Gonçalves N, Gavina C, Pinho S, Teixeira T, Moura C, et al. Correlation between plasma levels of apelin and myocardial hypertrophy in rats and humans: possible target for treatment?. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2010;14:231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..procured from aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis patients during surgery to evaluate myocardial expression of apelin and APJ-receptor and plasma levels of apelin...
  15. Liu Q, Yu H, Sun L, You L, Tao G, Qu B. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:617-21 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway...
  16. Zhang X, Hu W, Feng F, Xu J, Wu F. Apelin-13 protects against myocardial infarction-induced myocardial fibrosis. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:5262-8 pubmed publisher
    Myocardial infarction is a serious health threat. Apelin is an endogenous ligand of angiotensin II receptor-like 1 (APJ) and the apelin/APJ system is associated with various types of heart disease...
  17. Bülbül M, Ä°zgüt Uysal V, Sinen O, Birsen Ä, Tanrıöver G. Central apelin mediates stress-induced gastrointestinal motor dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G249-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, an endogenous ligand for APJ receptor, has been reported to be upregulated in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following stress. Central apelin is known to stimulate release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) via APJ receptor...
  18. De Mota N, Reaux Le Goazigo A, El Messari S, Chartrel N, Roesch D, Dujardin C, et al. Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10464-9 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a recently isolated neuropeptide that is expressed in the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei, acts on specific receptors located on vasopressinergic neurons...
  19. Akcılar R, Turgut S, Caner V, Akcılar A, Ayada C, Elmas L, et al. Apelin effects on blood pressure and RAS in DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2013;35:550-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, a novel multifunctional peptide implicated in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure and cardiac function control, has been postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and ..
  20. Jászberényi M, Bujdosó E, Telegdy G. Behavioral, neuroendocrine and thermoregulatory actions of apelin-13. Neuroscience. 2004;129:811-6 pubmed
    As the distribution of apelinergic neurons in the brain suggests an important role of apelin-13 in the regulation of neuroendocrine processes, in the present experiments the effects of this recently identified neuropeptide on the open-..
  21. Wang G, Kundu R, Han S, Qi X, Englander E, Quertermous T, et al. Ontogeny of apelin and its receptor in the rodent gastrointestinal tract. Regul Pept. 2009;158:32-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor and both apelin and APJ are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
  22. Wang C, Liu N, Luan R, Li Y, Wang D, Zou W, et al. Apelin protects sarcoplasmic reticulum function and cardiac performance in ischaemia-reperfusion by attenuating oxidation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and ryanodine receptor. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:114-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, an endogenous cytokine, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system, including a cardioprotective effect and calcium modulation...
  23. Hofmann A, Friedmacher F, Takahashi H, Hunziker M, Gosemann J, Puri P. Decreased apelin and apelin-receptor expression in the pulmonary vasculature of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Surg Int. 2014;30:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apelin (APLN), a target gene of bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2), is known to play an important and manifold ..
  24. Modgil A, Guo L, O Rourke S, Sun C. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83051 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear...
  25. Chen S, Xue F, Jin H, Chen L, Chen Y, Wang G, et al. [Effect of swimming exercise on the expression of apelin and its receptor in pulmonary tissues of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2012;28:5-8 pubmed
    To study the effects of swimming exercise on the expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) system in pulmonary tissues of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia...
  26. Xie F, Liu W, Feng F, Li X, He L, Lv D, et al. Apelin-13 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2015;47:969-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is highly expressed in rat left ventricular hypertrophy Sprague Dawley rat models, and it plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular system...
  27. Lu Q, Feng J, Jiang Y. The role of apelin in the retina of diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69703 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a novel adipocytokine participating in diabetes, but its role in diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown...
  28. Mayeur S, Wattez J, Lukaszewski M, Lecoutre S, Butruille L, Drougard A, et al. Apelin Controls Fetal and Neonatal Glucose Homeostasis and Is Altered by Maternal Undernutrition. Diabetes. 2016;65:554-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Growing evidences indicate that apelin and its receptor, APJ, which are expressed across a wide range of tissues, exert important roles in glucose ..
  29. Han S, Wang G, Qi X, Englander E, Greeley G. Involvement of a Stat3 binding site in inflammation-induced enteric apelin expression. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G1068-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor; both are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental colitis in rodents and inflammatory bowel disease in humans are associated with increased intestinal apelin production...
  30. Ohno S, Yakabi K, Ro S, Ochiai M, Onouchi T, Sakurada T, et al. Apelin-12 stimulates acid secretion through an increase of histamine release in rat stomachs. Regul Pept. 2012;174:71-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a peptide that was originally isolated from bovine stomach extract and has been demonstrated to be an endogenous ligand for orphan receptor APJ. Both apelin and the APJ receptor are widely distributed in the whole body...
  31. Han S, Wang G, Qiu S, de la Motte C, Wang H, Gomez G, et al. Increased colonic apelin production in rodents with experimental colitis and in humans with IBD. Regul Pept. 2007;142:131-7 pubmed
    b>Apelin and its receptor, the APJ receptor, are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract...
  32. Reaux Le Goazigo A, Alvear Perez R, Zizzari P, Epelbaum J, Bluet Pajot M, Llorens Cortes C. Cellular localization of apelin and its receptor in the anterior pituitary: evidence for a direct stimulatory action of apelin on ACTH release. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E7-15 pubmed
    b>Apelin is a bioactive peptide recently identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ...
  33. Lee D, Lança A, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Ji X, Gobeil F, et al. Agonist-independent nuclear localization of the Apelin, angiotensin AT1, and bradykinin B2 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7901-8 pubmed
    Signaling of the apelin, angiotensin, and bradykinin peptides is mediated by G protein-coupled receptors related through structure and similarities of physiological function...
  34. Cheng X, Cheng X, Pang C. Venous dilator effect of apelin, an endogenous peptide ligand for the orphan APJ receptor, in conscious rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;470:171-5 pubmed
    b>Apelin is an endogenous depressor peptide for the G protein-coupled APJ receptor. Our hypothesis is that apelin is a venodilator, and it reduces mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP; index of venous tone)...
  35. Perjés Ã, Kilpiö T, Ulvila J, Magga J, Alakoski T, Szabó Z, et al. Characterization of apela, a novel endogenous ligand of apelin receptor, in the adult heart. Basic Res Cardiol. 2016;111:2 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled apelin receptor regulates important processes of the cardiovascular homeostasis, including cardiac development, cardiac contractility, and vascular tone...
  36. Xu R, Zhang Z, Chen L, Yu H, Guo S, Xu Y, et al. Ascending aortic adventitial remodeling and fibrosis are ameliorated with Apelin-13 in rats after TAC via suppression of the miRNA-122 and LGR4-?-catenin signaling. Peptides. 2016;86:85-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin has been proved to be a critical mediator of vascular function and homeostasis. Here, we investigated roles of Apelin in aortic remodeling and fibrosis in rats with transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
  37. Dib N, Kiciak A, Pietrzak P, Ferenc K, Jaworski P, Kapica M, et al. Early-effect of bariatric surgery (Scopinaro method) on intestinal hormones and adipokines in insulin resistant Wistar rat. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;64:571-7 pubmed
    ..Concluding, model studies on rats allowed better understanding of mechanisms important for early normalization of glycemic index and insulin resistance reduction in rats. ..
  38. Liu Q, Yu H, You L, Liu M, Li K, Tao G. Apelin-13-induced proliferation and migration induced of rat vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by the upregulation of Egr-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:235-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin-13 plays an important role in the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs); however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear...
  39. Galon Tilleman H, Yang H, Bednarek M, Spurlock S, Paavola K, Ko B, et al. Apelin-36 Modulates Blood Glucose and Body Weight Independently of Canonical APJ Receptor Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:1925-1933 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin-36 was discovered as the endogenous ligand for the previously orphan receptor APJ...
  40. Rostamzadeh F, Najafipour H, Yeganeh Hajahmadi M, Esmaeili Mahani S, Joukar S, Iranpour M. Heterodimerization of apelin and opioid receptors and cardiac inotropic and lusitropic effects of apelin in 2K1C hypertension: Role of pERK1/2 and PKC. Life Sci. 2017;191:24-33 pubmed publisher
    Kappa Opioid receptors (KORs) change the impact of apelin on the phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2)...
  41. Dai L, Smith P, Kuksis M, Ferguson A. Apelin acts in the subfornical organ to influence neuronal excitability and cardiovascular function. J Physiol. 2013;591:3421-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in the regulation of water balance, food intake and the cardiovascular system partially through actions in the CNS...
  42. Czarzasta K, Cudnoch Jedrzejewska A, Szczepanska Sadowska E, Fus L, Puchalska L, Gondek A, et al. The role of apelin in central cardiovascular regulation in rats with post-infarct heart failure maintained on a normal fat or high fat diet. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2016;43:983-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of the present study was to clarify the role of apelin-13 in the central regulation of the cardiovascular system in Sprague Dawley rats with HF or sham operated (SO) and ..
  43. Kagiyama S, Fukuhara M, Matsumura K, Lin Y, Fujii K, Iida M. Central and peripheral cardiovascular actions of apelin in conscious rats. Regul Pept. 2005;125:55-9 pubmed
    ..b>Apelin is a peptide that has recently been identified as an endogenous ligand of the APJ...
  44. Deng C, Chen H, Yang N, Feng Y, Hsueh A. Apela Regulates Fluid Homeostasis by Binding to the APJ Receptor to Activate Gi Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:18261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..51 nm) and the ability of apelin, the known peptide ligand for APJ, to compete for apela binding...
  45. Huang Z, Bai S, Chen L, Wang J, Ding B. [Effect of puerarin combined with felodipine on mRNA and protein expression of apelin and APJ in renovascular hypertensive rat]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:381-5 pubmed
    To explore the effect of puerarin combined with felodipine on the mRNA and protein expression of apelin and APJ in renal tissue of renovascular hypertensive rat...
  46. Than A, He H, Chua S, Xu D, Sun L, Leow M, et al. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:14679-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism...
  47. Ceraudo E, Galanth C, Carpentier E, Banegas Font I, Schönegge A, Alvear Perez R, et al. Biased signaling favoring gi over ?-arrestin promoted by an apelin fragment lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:24599-610 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin plays a prominent role in body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis...
  48. Najafipour H, Vakili A, Shahouzehi B, Soltani Hekmat A, Masoomi Y, Yeganeh Hajahmadi M, et al. Investigation of changes in apelin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the myocardium and aorta of rats with two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension. J Physiol Biochem. 2015;71:165-75 pubmed publisher
    Experimental and clinical evidences suggest that apelin and its receptor APJ are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. However, the role of apelin/APJ in hypertension is not sufficiently understood...
  49. Wang G, Qi X, Wei W, Englander E, Greeley G. Characterization of the 5'-regulatory regions of the rat and human apelin genes and regulation of breast apelin by USF. FASEB J. 2006;20:2639-41 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a peptide widely expressed in the body, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor...
  50. Antuschevich H, Kapica M, Krawczynska A, Herman A, Kato I, Kuwahara A, et al. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:403-9 pubmed
    b>Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior...
  51. Bodineau L, Taveau C, Lê Quan Sang H, Osterstock G, Queguiner I, Moos F, et al. Data supporting a new physiological role for brain apelin in the regulation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in lactating rats. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3492-503 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a bioactive peptide identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ in 1998...
  52. Son J, Kim H, Son Y, Lee H, Chae S, Seong J, et al. Effects of exercise-induced apelin levels on skeletal muscle and their capillarization in type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle Nerve. 2017;56:1155-1163 pubmed publisher
    Exercise-induced apelin as a myokine is believed to play a role in the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and capillarization...
  53. Li Z, Bai Y, Hu J. Reduced apelin levels in stable angina. Intern Med. 2008;47:1951-5 pubmed
    To investigate the change in the plasma apelin level in patients with stable angina. The study enrolled 96 patients with stable angina as the Stable Angina Group and another 78 outpatients with no angina as the Control Group...
  54. Wang X, Tao Y, Lu Q, Jiang Y. Apelin supports primary rat retinal Müller cells under chemical hypoxia and glucose deprivation. Peptides. 2012;33:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The apelin peptide, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in numbers of physiological and ..
  55. Ellinor P, Low A, Macrae C. Reduced apelin levels in lone atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:222-6 pubmed
    b>Apelin is an endogenous peptide hormone that appears to have a physiological role in counter-regulation of the angiotensin and vasopressin systems...
  56. Peyronnet R, Bollensdorff C, Capel R, Rog Zielinska E, Woods C, Charo D, et al. Load-dependent effects of apelin on murine cardiomyocytes. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2017;130:333-343 pubmed publisher
    The apelin peptide is described as one of the most potent inotropic agents, produced endogenously in a wide range of cells, including cardiomyocytes...
  57. Yang P, Read C, Kuc R, Buonincontri G, Southwood M, Torella R, et al. Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Circulation. 2017;135:1160-1173 pubmed publisher
    Elabela/toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G-protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin...
  58. Bo Y, Yuan L. Glomerular expression of apelin and its association with proteinuria. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79:1028-32 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the distribution and expression of apelin in kidney of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephrotic rats, and to explore the possible association of apelin expression with the development of proteinuria...
  59. Soriguer F, Garrido Sanchez L, Garcia Serrano S, Garcia Almeida J, Garcia Arnes J, Tinahones F, et al. Apelin levels are increased in morbidly obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obes Surg. 2009;19:1574-80 pubmed publisher
    The physiological role of apelin in obesity and diabetes remains unclear. Although apelin has been studied in persons with different conditions, no studies have yet examined the joint influence of obesity and diabetes on apelin levels...
  60. Principe A, Melgar Lesmes P, Fernandez Varo G, Del Arbol L, Ros J, Morales Ruiz M, et al. The hepatic apelin system: a new therapeutic target for liver disease. Hepatology. 2008;48:1193-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a peptide that plays an important role in heart physiology and pathophysiology, inflammation, and angiogenesis...
  61. Faraji Shahrivar F, Badavi M, Dianat M, Mard A, Ahangarpour A, Samarbaf Zadeh A. Exogenous apelin changes alpha and beta myosin heavy chain mRNA expression and improves cardiac function in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Gene. 2016;595:25-30 pubmed publisher
    The most important conditions associated with hypothyroidism is the cardiac dysfunction. Apelin is an endogenous ligand, involved in energy storage and metabolism which improves cardiac contractility...
  62. Ivars J, Butruille L, Knauf C, Bouckenooghe T, Mayeur S, Vieau D, et al. Maternal hypertension induces tissue-specific modulations of the apelinergic system in the fetoplacental unit in rat. Peptides. 2012;35:136-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin and its receptor APJ are expressed in fetal tissues but their function and regulation remain largely unknown...
  63. Erdem G, Dogru T, Tasci I, Sonmez A, Tapan S. Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116:289-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate blood apelin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had no additional disorder and to investigate the association of apelin with adiponectin, body mass indexes (BMI)..
  64. Hus Citharel A, Bouby N, Frugière A, Bodineau L, Gasc J, Llorens Cortes C. Effect of apelin on glomerular hemodynamic function in the rat kidney. Kidney Int. 2008;74:486-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a vasoactive peptide identified as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor called APJ. Apelin and its receptor have been found in the brain and the cardiovascular system...
  65. O Carroll A, Lolait S. Regulation of rat APJ receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in magnocellular neurones of the paraventricular and supraopric nuclei by osmotic stimuli. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:661-6 pubmed
    The novel apelin receptor (APJ receptor, APJR) has a restricted expression in the central nervous system suggestive of an involvement in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis...
  66. Wang C, Wen J, Zhou Y, Li L, Cui X, Wang J, et al. Apelin induces vascular smooth muscle cells migration via a PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a/MMP-2 pathway. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;69:173-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is an adipokine that has a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, which may offer potential for therapy...
  67. Dai T, Ramirez Correa G, Gao W. Apelin increases contractility in failing cardiac muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;553:222-8 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a ligand for apelin-angiotension receptor-like 1 (APJ), has recently been shown to be a potent positive inotropic agent in normal hearts...
  68. Cudnoch Jedrzejewska A, Gomolka R, Szczepanska Sadowska E, Czarzasta K, Wrzesień R, Koperski L, et al. High-fat diet and chronic stress reduce central pressor and tachycardic effects of apelin in Sprague-Dawley rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2015;42:52-62 pubmed publisher
    Central application of apelin elevates blood pressure and influences neuroendocrine responses to stress and food consumption...
  69. Xiong Q, He W, Wang H, Zhou J, Zhang Y, He J, et al. Effect of the spinal apelin‑APJ system on the pathogenesis of chronic constriction injury‑induced neuropathic pain in rats. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:1223-1231 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is hypothesized to serve a dual function in pain processing. Spinal administration of apelin induces hyperalgesia, while opioid receptors are implicated in the antinociceptive effects of apelin in acute nociceptive models...
  70. Sharma B, Ho L, Ford G, Chen H, Goldstone A, Woo Y, et al. Alternative Progenitor Cells Compensate to Rebuild the Coronary Vasculature in Elabela- and Apj-Deficient Hearts. Dev Cell. 2017;42:655-666.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that by diversifying their responsivity to growth cues, distinct coronary progenitor pools are able to compensate for each other during coronary development, thereby providing robustness to organ development. ..
  71. Van Mieghem T, van Bree R, Van Herck E, Pijnenborg R, Deprest J, Verhaeghe J. Maternal apelin physiology during rat pregnancy: the role of the placenta. Placenta. 2010;31:725-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a multifunctional peptide which is catabolized by the angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase-2 (ACE2). The peptide is well known for its hemodynamic effects and its role in energy and fluid homeostasis...
  72. Hashimoto T, Kihara M, Ishida J, Imai N, Yoshida S, Toya Y, et al. Apelin stimulates myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1267-72 pubmed
    Physiological roles of apelin and its specific receptor APJ signaling were investigated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...