Apln

Summary

Gene Symbol: Apln
Description: apelin
Alias: Apel, APJ endogenous ligand, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. ncbi [Effect of puerarin combined with felodipine on mRNA and protein expression of apelin and APJ in renovascular hypertensive rat]
    Zhen Gui Huang
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Grade Three Laboratory, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, China
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38:381-5. 2013
  2. doi Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
    G Erdem
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 116:289-92. 2008
  3. doi Up-regulation of apelin in brain tissue of patients with epilepsy and an epileptic rat model
    Xiaogang Zhang
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, 1st Youyi Road, Chongqing 400016, China
    Peptides 32:1793-9. 2011
  4. doi Glomerular expression of apelin and its association with proteinuria
    Yan Bo
    Department of Medical Technology, Anhui Medical College, Hefei, China
    Indian J Pediatr 79:1028-32. 2012
  5. doi Apelin-12 stimulates acid secretion through an increase of histamine release in rat stomachs
    Shino Ohno
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe City, Saitama, Japan
    Regul Pept 174:71-8. 2012
  6. doi Apelin supports primary rat retinal Müller cells under chemical hypoxia and glucose deprivation
    Xin lei Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology, People s Hospital, Peking University, and Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China
    Peptides 33:298-306. 2012
  7. doi Maternal hypertension induces tissue-specific modulations of the apelinergic system in the fetoplacental unit in rat
    Joanna Ivars
    Univ Lille Nord de France, Unité Environnement Périnatal et Croissance, EA 4489, Equipe dénutritions maternelles périnatales, Universite de Lille 1, Bâtiment SN4, F 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq, France
    Peptides 35:136-8. 2012
  8. ncbi [Effect of swimming exercise on the expression of apelin and its receptor in pulmonary tissues of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension]
    Si Chen
    Laboratory of Cor Pulmonale, Institute of Hypoxia Medicine, Wenzhou 325035, China
    Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 28:5-8. 2012
  9. doi Apelin levels are increased in morbidly obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Federico Soriguer
    Servicio de Endocrinologia y Nutricion, Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Malaga, Spain
    Obes Surg 19:1574-80. 2009
  10. doi Effect of apelin on glomerular hemodynamic function in the rat kidney
    Annette Hus-Citharel
    INSERM, U 691, Paris, France
    Kidney Int 74:486-94. 2008

Scientific Experts

  • Zhen Gui Huang
  • Tim Van Mieghem
  • Bogdan Gurzu
  • Yoshitaka Iwanaga
  • Jiu Chang Zhong
  • Inho Soh
  • Jens Peter Goetze
  • David Sunter
  • Guiyun Wang
  • Song Han
  • George H Greeley
  • Ella W Englander
  • Xiang Qi
  • Catherine Llorens-Cortes
  • Ines Falcao-Pires
  • Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
  • Laurence Bodineau
  • Dennis K Lee
  • Jing Zhang
  • Xin lei Wang
  • Si Chen
  • Joanna Ivars
  • Yan Bo
  • Shino Ohno
  • Xiaogang Zhang
  • Nádia Gonçalves
  • Y Kawamata
  • Alain Frugière
  • Qi Zhang
  • Zhi Zhang
  • Federico Soriguer
  • Carolina Tiani
  • Y Habata
  • Zhao Li
  • G Erdem
  • Annette Hus-Citharel
  • Alessandro Principe
  • Françoise Moos
  • Lauren A O'Donnell
  • Diego García-Díaz
  • Veli Pekka Ronkainen
  • Pavan Atluri
  • Klára Farkasfalvi
  • Tieying Dai
  • Yong Fen Qi
  • Anaya Mitra
  • Yue Xia Jia
  • Tatsuo Hashimoto
  • Patrick T Ellinor
  • Shuntaro Kagiyama
  • M V Heinonen
  • Wei Wei
  • Susan R George
  • Regina Cheng
  • Brian F O'Dowd
  • Tuan Nguyen
  • R Fujii
  • M Hosoya
  • Nadia De Mota
  • S Fukusumi
  • H Onda
  • M Jászberényi
  • S Hinuma
  • M Fujino
  • C Kitada
  • Xing Cheng
  • A M O'Carroll
  • K Tatemoto
  • Philippe Deruelle
  • Tsuneko Onouchi
  • Yong Tao
  • Sylvain Mayeur
  • Shoki Ro
  • Qiang Lu
  • Mitsuko Ochiai
  • Claude Knauf
  • Lie Chen
  • Thomas Bouckenooghe
  • Laura Butruille
  • Yu Chen
  • Gao Feng Wang
  • Yong sheng Gong
  • Jean Lesage
  • A Reaux
  • Koji Yakabi
  • Philippe Valet
  • Yan Rong Jiang
  • Hidehiko Takabayashi
  • Li Ping Yuan
  • Didier Vieau

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi [Effect of puerarin combined with felodipine on mRNA and protein expression of apelin and APJ in renovascular hypertensive rat]
    Zhen Gui Huang
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Grade Three Laboratory, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, China
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 38:381-5. 2013
    ..To explore the effect of puerarin combined with felodipine on the mRNA and protein expression of apelin and APJ in renal tissue of renovascular hypertensive rat...
  2. doi Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
    G Erdem
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 116:289-92. 2008
    ....
  3. doi Up-regulation of apelin in brain tissue of patients with epilepsy and an epileptic rat model
    Xiaogang Zhang
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, 1st Youyi Road, Chongqing 400016, China
    Peptides 32:1793-9. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrated that the increased expression of apelin in the brain may be involved in human TLE...
  4. doi Glomerular expression of apelin and its association with proteinuria
    Yan Bo
    Department of Medical Technology, Anhui Medical College, Hefei, China
    Indian J Pediatr 79:1028-32. 2012
    ..To investigate the distribution and expression of apelin in kidney of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephrotic rats, and to explore the possible association of apelin expression with the development of proteinuria...
  5. doi Apelin-12 stimulates acid secretion through an increase of histamine release in rat stomachs
    Shino Ohno
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe City, Saitama, Japan
    Regul Pept 174:71-8. 2012
    ..In this study, we studied the action of apelin in acid secretion and demonstrated its mechanism of action...
  6. doi Apelin supports primary rat retinal Müller cells under chemical hypoxia and glucose deprivation
    Xin lei Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology, People s Hospital, Peking University, and Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China
    Peptides 33:298-306. 2012
    ..01), whereas they both down-regulated during 4-12h GD. Our results suggested that apelin induced the tolerance of Müller cells to hypoxia and GD. Its administration might be a promising protection for blood-retinal barrier to ischemia...
  7. doi Maternal hypertension induces tissue-specific modulations of the apelinergic system in the fetoplacental unit in rat
    Joanna Ivars
    Univ Lille Nord de France, Unité Environnement Périnatal et Croissance, EA 4489, Equipe dénutritions maternelles périnatales, Universite de Lille 1, Bâtiment SN4, F 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq, France
    Peptides 35:136-8. 2012
    ..Apelin expression was increased only in the heart. We postulate that the apelinergic system may control fetal growth and cardiovascular functions in utero...
  8. ncbi [Effect of swimming exercise on the expression of apelin and its receptor in pulmonary tissues of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension]
    Si Chen
    Laboratory of Cor Pulmonale, Institute of Hypoxia Medicine, Wenzhou 325035, China
    Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 28:5-8. 2012
    ..To study the effects of swimming exercise on the expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) system in pulmonary tissues of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia...
  9. doi Apelin levels are increased in morbidly obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Federico Soriguer
    Servicio de Endocrinologia y Nutricion, Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya, Malaga, Spain
    Obes Surg 19:1574-80. 2009
    ..We measured the changes in apelin levels in morbidly obese subjects, with and without diabetes, and in the inverse situation of improvement in carbohydrate metabolism as a result of bariatric surgery...
  10. doi Effect of apelin on glomerular hemodynamic function in the rat kidney
    Annette Hus-Citharel
    INSERM, U 691, Paris, France
    Kidney Int 74:486-94. 2008
    ..These results show that apelin has complex effects on the pre- and post glomerular microvasculature regulating renal hemodynamics. Its role on tubular function (if any) remains to be determined...
  11. ncbi Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Jing Zhang
    Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China
    Life Sci 79:1153-9. 2006
    ....
  12. doi A possible role for hypoxia-induced apelin expression in enteric cell proliferation
    Song Han
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R1832-9. 2008
    ..Apelin treatment during normoxia was ineffective. Our studies imply that the elevation in apelin expression during hypoxia and inflammation in the GI tract functions in part to stimulate epithelial cell proliferation...
  13. ncbi Apelin, an endogenous neuronal peptide, protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxic injury
    Lauren A O'Donnell
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurochem 102:1905-17. 2007
    ..Thus, apelin/APJ signaling likely represents an endogenous hippocampal neuronal survival response, and therefore apelin should be further investigated as a potential neuroprotectant against hippocampal injury...
  14. ncbi Adiposity dependent apelin gene expression: relationships with oxidative and inflammation markers
    Diego García-Díaz
    Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea s n, 31008, Pamplona, Spain
    Mol Cell Biochem 305:87-94. 2007
    ..701; r=0.692 and r=0.561, respectively). These associations evidence a possible role for apelin in the excessive weight gain induced by high-fat feeding and increased adiposity, insulin-resistance, liver oxidative stress and inflammation...
  15. ncbi Direct effects of apelin on cardiomyocyte contractility and electrophysiology
    Klára Farkasfalvi
    Heart Science Centre, Laboratory of Cell Electrophysiology, NHLI, Imperial College London, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, Middlesex UB9 6JH, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:889-95. 2007
    ..One of the mechanisms involved in the inotropic effect may be an increased myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+) as apelin enhanced the activity of NHE with consequent intracellular alkalinization...
  16. ncbi Increased colonic apelin production in rodents with experimental colitis and in humans with IBD
    Song Han
    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0725, USA
    Regul Pept 142:131-7. 2007
    ....
  17. doi The hepatic apelin system: a new therapeutic target for liver disease
    Alessandro Principe
    Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Service, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas CIBERehd, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Hepatology 48:1193-201. 2008
    ..Human patients also showed a marked increase in apelin levels...
  18. pmc Involvement of a Stat3 binding site in inflammation-induced enteric apelin expression
    Song Han
    Dept of Surgery, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295:G1068-78. 2008
    ..Together, our findings indicate that binding of phospho-Stat3 to the apelin promoter is the final step underlying proinflammatory cytokine-induced enteric apelin expression during intestinal inflammation...
  19. ncbi Reduced apelin levels in stable angina
    Zhao Li
    Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
    Intern Med 47:1951-5. 2008
    ..To investigate the change in the plasma apelin level in patients with stable angina...
  20. doi Data supporting a new physiological role for brain apelin in the regulation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in lactating rats
    Laurence Bodineau
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris F 75231, France
    Endocrinology 152:3492-503. 2011
    ..In conclusion, these findings highlight the inhibitory role of apelin as an autocrine/paracrine peptide acting on OXY neurons during breastfeeding...
  21. doi Maternal apelin physiology during rat pregnancy: the role of the placenta
    T Van Mieghem
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Campus Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, Belgium
    Placenta 31:725-30. 2010
    ..To gain further insight in apelin physiology, we investigated relative tissue expression, plasma clearance and metabolic pathways of apelin in pregnant rats...
  22. ncbi Apelin protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation
    Zhi Zhang
    Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, China
    Chin Med J (Engl) 122:2360-5. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apelin on apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes induced by glucose deprivation (GD) and study the related signaling pathway...
  23. doi Correlation between plasma levels of apelin and myocardial hypertrophy in rats and humans: possible target for treatment?
    Ines Falcao-Pires
    University of Porto, Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular R and D Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 4200 319 Porto, Portugal
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 14:231-41. 2010
    ..To investigate the effects of left ventricular (LV) pressure overload and diabetes on the apelinergic system...
  24. pmc Ontogeny of apelin and its receptor in the rodent gastrointestinal tract
    Guiyun Wang
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    Regul Pept 158:32-9. 2009
    ..Together, our data support a role for the apelin-APJ system in the regulation of smooth muscle, epithelial and goblet cell function in the GI tract...
  25. pmc Apelin gene transfer into the rostral ventrolateral medulla induces chronic blood pressure elevation in normotensive rats
    Qi Zhang
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, 1401 Albrecht Blvd, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
    Circ Res 104:1421-8. 2009
    ..Thus, the apelin system in the RVLM may play a very important role in central blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension...
  26. doi Apelin decreases myocardial injury and improves right ventricular function in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension
    Ines Falcao-Pires
    Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular R and D Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200 319 Porto, Portugal
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296:H2007-14. 2009
    ....
  27. doi Apelin signaling modulates splanchnic angiogenesis and portosystemic collateral vessel formation in rats with portal hypertension
    Carolina Tiani
    Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Liver Unit, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, CIBERehd, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
    J Hepatol 50:296-305. 2009
    ..The apelin/APJ signaling pathway plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. Therefore, we determined whether the apelin system modulates angiogenesis-driven processes in portal hypertension...
  28. ncbi Hypoxia inducible factor regulates the cardiac expression and secretion of apelin
    Veli Pekka Ronkainen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu, Finland
    FASEB J 21:1821-30. 2007
    ..Because apelin gene expression has been shown to increase in cardiac ischemia, we investigated if apelin (Apln) gene expression was sensitive to hypoxia...
  29. ncbi Interactions between apelin and angiotensin II on rat portal vein
    Bogdan Gurzu
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr T Popa, 16 Universitatii Str, RO 700115 Iasi, Romania
    J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 7:212-6. 2006
    ..Our results sustain the hypothesis that AP13 could increase the activity of both constitutive and inducible NO synthase on either endothelium intact or endothelium denuded rat portal vein rings...
  30. ncbi Ischemic heart failure enhances endogenous myocardial apelin and APJ receptor expression
    Pavan Atluri
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell Mol Biol Lett 12:127-38. 2007
    ..008). Infusion of apelin-13 significantly enhanced myocardial function in sham and failing hearts. We conclude that total myocardial apelin and APJ receptor levels increase in compensation for ischemic cardiomyopathy...
  31. pmc Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release
    Nadia De Mota
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 36, College de France, 75231 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10464-9. 2004
    ..The coexistence of apelin and AVP in magnocellular neurons, their opposite biological effects, and regulation are likely to play a key role for maintaining body fluid homeostasis...
  32. ncbi Dehydration-induced cross-regulation of apelin and vasopressin immunoreactivity levels in magnocellular hypothalamic neurons
    Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, Room 896, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    Endocrinology 145:4392-400. 2004
    ....
  33. ncbi Apelin, a new enteric peptide: localization in the gastrointestinal tract, ontogeny, and stimulation of gastric cell proliferation and of cholecystokinin secretion
    Guiyun Wang
    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0725, USA
    Endocrinology 145:1342-8. 2004
    ..Together, these data indicate that apelin is an important new stomach peptide with a potential physiological role in the gastrointestinal tract...
  34. ncbi Agonist-independent nuclear localization of the Apelin, angiotensin AT1, and bradykinin B2 receptors
    Dennis K Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:7901-8. 2004
    ..This discovery of apelin, AT(1), and B(2) receptors with agonist-independent nuclear translocation suggests major unanticipated roles for these receptors in cell signaling and function...
  35. ncbi Intracerebroventricular injection of apelin-13 reduces food intake in the rat
    David Sunter
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Neurosci Lett 353:1-4. 2003
    ..In fasted rats, food intake was reduced at 24-h post-injection only. These data provide evidence of a possible role for apelin-13 in the control of food intake...
  36. ncbi Venous dilator effect of apelin, an endogenous peptide ligand for the orphan APJ receptor, in conscious rats
    Xing Cheng
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2176 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Eur J Pharmacol 470:171-5. 2003
    ..These results show that apelin is an arterial and venous dilator in vivo. The depressor effect of apelin is accompanied by tachycardia which is abolished by ganglion blockade...
  37. ncbi Regulation of rat APJ receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in magnocellular neurones of the paraventricular and supraopric nuclei by osmotic stimuli
    A M O'Carroll
    University Research Centre for Neuroendocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 15:661-6. 2003
    ..These data verify a role for APJ receptors in body fluid regulation and suggest a role for apelin in the regulation of vasopressin-containing neurones via a local autocrine/paracrine action of the peptide...
  38. ncbi Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain
    A Reaux
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris, France Laboratory of Neuromorphology, Faculty of Medicine Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
    J Neurochem 77:1085-96. 2001
    ..Together, these results suggest that neuronal apelin plays an important role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis...
  39. ncbi Molecular properties of apelin: tissue distribution and receptor binding
    Y Kawamata
    Discovery Research Laboratories 1, Pharmaceutical Discovery Research Division, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd, Wadai 10, Tsukuba, 300 4293, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1538:162-71. 2001
    ..Our results demonstrate that the long and short forms of apelin differently interact with APJ...
  40. ncbi Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor
    D K Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurochem 74:34-41. 2000
    ..Intraperitoneal apelin injections induced an increase in drinking behavior within the first 30 min after injection, with a return to baseline within 1 h...
  41. ncbi Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum
    Y Habata
    Discovery Research Laboratories 1, Pharmaceutical Discovery Research Division, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd, Wadai 10, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1452:25-35. 1999
    ..Since apelin partially suppressed cytokine production by mouse spleen cells in response to T cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking, the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and milk might modulate immune responses in neonates...
  42. ncbi Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action
    Dennis K Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Endocrinology 146:231-6. 2005
    ..However, concomitant administration of apelin-13(F13A) (30 microg/kg) blocked hypotensive effects of apelin-13 (15 microg/kg), which revealed that apelin-13(F13A) behaved as an apelin-specific antagonist...
  43. ncbi Behavioral, neuroendocrine and thermoregulatory actions of apelin-13
    M Jászberényi
    Department of Pathophysiology, University of Szeged, Neurohumoral Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis u 1, PO Box 427, H 6701, Szeged, Hungary
    Neuroscience 129:811-6. 2004
    ..Since the corticosterone response could be blocked by the CRH antagonist, it is likely to be mediated through the activation of the CRH neurons...
  44. ncbi Central and peripheral cardiovascular actions of apelin in conscious rats
    Shuntaro Kagiyama
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3 1 1, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Regul Pept 125:55-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest that apelin plays a role in both central and peripheral cardiovascular regulation in conscious rats, and that the cardiovascular effects of apelin are not mediated by the AT1R...
  45. ncbi Characterization of the 5'-regulatory regions of the rat and human apelin genes and regulation of breast apelin by USF
    Guiyun Wang
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    FASEB J 20:2639-41. 2006
    ..Together, our findings show that USF exerts a stimulatory role in regulation of breast apelin expression during pregnancy and lactation...
  46. pmc Apelin increases contractility in failing cardiac muscle
    Tieying Dai
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Tower 711, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States
    Eur J Pharmacol 553:222-8. 2006
    ..The increased force development is the result of increased [Ca(2+)](i) transients rather than changes in myofilament calcium responsiveness...
  47. ncbi Down-regulation of cardiac apelin system in hypertrophied and failing hearts: Possible role of angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor system
    Yoshitaka Iwanaga
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoinn kawahara cho Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 41:798-806. 2006
    ..Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system may have beneficial effects, at least in part, through restoration of the cardiac apelin system in the treatment of HF...
  48. ncbi Cellular localization of apelin and its receptor in the anterior pituitary: evidence for a direct stimulatory action of apelin on ACTH release
    Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 691, College de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, Paris, France
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E7-15. 2007
    ....
  49. ncbi Effects of central and peripheral injections of apelin on fluid intake and cardiovascular parameters in rats
    Anaya Mitra
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250, USA
    Physiol Behav 89:221-5. 2006
    ....
  50. ncbi Apelin stimulates myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Tatsuo Hashimoto
    Division of Cellular Pathobiology, Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, 236 0004, Japan
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:1267-72. 2006
    ..The present study determined whether apelin activates myosin light chain (MLC), a major regulatory event in initiating smooth muscle contraction...
  51. ncbi Reduced apelin levels in lone atrial fibrillation
    Patrick T Ellinor
    Cardiac Arrhythmia Service and Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Boston, MA, USA
    Eur Heart J 27:222-6. 2006
    ..This peptide has been reported to be down-regulated in subjects with acute heart failure, but has not been studied in other cardiovascular conditions. We studied apelin levels in 73 subjects with lone atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  52. ncbi Apelin protects myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats
    Yue Xia Jia
    Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China
    Regul Pept 133:147-54. 2006
    ..Apelin could have a cardioprotective effect, and the apelin-APJ system may be a new therapeutic target in myocardial injury and heart failure...
  53. ncbi Apelin: a new plasma marker of cardiopulmonary disease
    Jens Peter Goetze
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, 9 Blegdamsvej, DK 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Regul Pept 133:134-8. 2006
    ..We therefore examined whether plasma concentrations of apelin, a novel inotropic hormone, is affected in patients with chronic parenchymal lung disease without cardiac dysfunction...
  54. ncbi Apelin, orexin-A and leptin plasma levels in morbid obesity and effect of gastric banding
    M V Heinonen
    Department of Biotechnology Molecular Medicine, A I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    Regul Pept 130:7-13. 2005
    ..In addition, we measured in a subgroup of these patients in the same individual orexin-A and leptin plasma levels one year after gastric banding surgery...
  55. ncbi Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on orphan receptor APJ signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Jiu Chang Zhong
    Center for Molecular Biology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, China
    Cardiovasc Res 65:743-50. 2005
    ..To further validate effects of atRA on the cardiovascular GPCRs, the present study was designed to assess whether atRA will modulate orphan receptor APJ, a homologue of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor...
  56. ncbi Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor
    K Tatemoto
    Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi, 371 8512, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251:471-6. 1998
    ....