Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Ap2m1
Description: adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit
Alias: Ap50, Clapm1, mu2, AP-2 complex subunit mu, AP-2 mu chain, adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit, adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit mu, adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu, adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit mu, clathrin assembly protein complex 2 medium chain, clathrin assembly protein complex 2 mu medium chain, clathrin coat assembly protein AP50, clathrin coat-associated protein AP50, coat assembly protein complex 50 kD, mu2-adaptin, plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein
- Nakatsu F, Kadohira T, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Kakuta H, Copeland N, et al. Genomic structure and chromosome mapping of the genes encoding clathrin-associated adaptor medium chains mu1A (Ap1m1) and mu1B (Ap1m2). Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;87:53-8 pubmed..By contrast, these structures are different from that of the more distantly related Ap2m1 gene encoding mu2...
- Owen D, Setiadi H, Evans P, McEver R, Green S. A third specificity-determining site in mu 2 adaptin for sequences upstream of Yxx phi sorting motifs. Traffic. 2001;2:105-10 pubmed..This structure suggests that some sequences can function as a 'three pinned plug', in which internalization activity is not critically dependent on any one of the three interacting side chains. ..
- Mishra S, Keyel P, Hawryluk M, Agostinelli N, Watkins S, Traub L. Disabled-2 exhibits the properties of a cargo-selective endocytic clathrin adaptor. EMBO J. 2002;21:4915-26 pubmed
- Yu A, Xing Y, Harrison S, Kirchhausen T. Structural analysis of the interaction between Dishevelled2 and clathrin AP-2 adaptor, a critical step in noncanonical Wnt signaling. Structure. 2010;18:1311-20 pubmed publisher..The crystal structure has thus allowed us to identify the specific interaction that leads to Frizzled uptake and to downstream, noncanonical signaling events. ..
- Kastning K, Kukhtina V, Kittler J, Chen G, Pechstein A, Enders S, et al. Molecular determinants for the interaction between AMPA receptors and the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2991-6 pubmed..that an atypical basic motif within the cytoplasmic tails of AMPA-type glutamate receptors directly associates with mu2-adaptin by a mechanism similar to the recognition of the presynaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 by AP-2...
- Kim S, Ryan T. Synaptic vesicle recycling at CNS snapses without AP-2. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3865-74 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that in the absence of AP-2, SV proteins still become endocytosed, and synaptic vesicle recycling remains operational. ..
- Boll W, Ohno H, Songyang Z, Rapoport I, Cantley L, Bonifacino J, et al. Sequence requirements for the recognition of tyrosine-based endocytic signals by clathrin AP-2 complexes. EMBO J. 1996;15:5789-95 pubmed..We conclude that sorting into the endocytic pathway is governed by a surprisingly simple interaction between the mu 2 chain and a tyrosine-containing tetrapeptide sequence. ..
- Boll W, Rapoport I, Brunner C, Modis Y, Prehn S, Kirchhausen T. The mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-2 binds to FDNPVY and YppØ sorting signals at distinct sites. Traffic. 2002;3:590-600 pubmed..with a photoactivated peptide probe to demonstrate the interaction between FDNPVY-containing peptides and the mu2 chain of purified AP-2 clathrin adaptors (the complexes responsible for plasma membrane sorting)...
- Bai M, Gad H, Turacchio G, Cocucci E, Yang J, Li J, et al. ARFGAP1 promotes AP-2-dependent endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:559-67 pubmed publisher..The role of ARFGAP1 in AP-2-regulated endocytosis has mechanistic parallels with its roles in COPI transport, as both its GAP activity and coat function contribute to promoting AP-2 transport. ..
- Rapetti Mauss R, O Mahony F, Sepúlveda F, Urbach V, Harvey B. Oestrogen promotes KCNQ1 potassium channel endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking in colonic epithelium. J Physiol. 2013;591:2813-31 pubmed publisher..This study has provided the first demonstration of hormonal regulation of KCNQ1 trafficking. In conclusion, we propose that internalization of KCNQ1 is a key event in the sustained antisecretory response to oestrogen. ..
- Stephens D, Crump C, Clarke A, Banting G. Serine 331 and tyrosine 333 are both involved in the interaction between the cytosolic domain of TGN38 and the mu2 subunit of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14104-9 pubmed..It was recently demonstrated that this motif specifically interacts with the mu2 subunit of the AP2 adaptor complex...
- Aguilar R, Ohno H, Roche K, Bonifacino J. Functional domain mapping of the clathrin-associated adaptor medium chains mu1 and mu2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27160-6 pubmed..The medium chains of these complexes, mu1 and mu2, have been implicated in two types of interaction: assembly with the beta1 and beta2 chains of the corresponding ..
- Walther K, Diril M, Jung N, Haucke V. Functional dissection of the interactions of stonin 2 with the adaptor complex AP-2 and synaptotagmin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:964-9 pubmed..We hypothesize that stonin 2 may function as an AP-2-dependent sorting adaptor for synaptic vesicle recycling. ..
- Royle S, Bobanovic L, Murrell Lagnado R. Identification of a non-canonical tyrosine-based endocytic motif in an ionotropic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35378-85 pubmed..Mutation of either the tyrosine-binding pocket of the mu2 subunit of adaptor protein-2 or the YXXGL motif in the receptor C terminus caused a decrease in receptor ..
- Kittler J, Chen G, Honing S, Bogdanov Y, McAinsh K, Arancibia Carcamo I, et al. Phospho-dependent binding of the clathrin AP2 adaptor complex to GABAA receptors regulates the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14871-6 pubmed..Therefore phospho-dependent regulation of AP2 binding to GABA(A)Rs provides a mechanism to specify receptor cell surface number and the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission. ..
- Royle S, Qureshi O, Bobanovic L, Evans P, Owen D, Murrell Lagnado R. Non-canonical YXXGPhi endocytic motifs: recognition by AP2 and preferential utilization in P2X4 receptors. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3073-80 pubmed..The crystal structure of a complex between residues 160-435 of the mu2 subunit of AP2 and a P2X4 C-terminal peptide showed that the YEQGL motif binds to mu2 at the same site as YXXPhi ..
- Dickson T, Mintz C, Benson D, Salton S. Functional binding interaction identified between the axonal CAM L1 and members of the ERM family. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:1105-12 pubmed..Together, our data indicate that L1 binds directly to members of the ERM family and suggest this association may coordinate aspects of axonal morphogenesis. ..
- Miller S, Mathiasen S, Bright N, Pierre F, Kelly B, Kladt N, et al. CALM regulates clathrin-coated vesicle size and maturation by directly sensing and driving membrane curvature. Dev Cell. 2015;33:163-75 pubmed publisher..CALM is thus a major factor in controlling CCV size and maturation and hence in determining the rates of endocytic cargo uptake. ..
- Tyukhtenko S, Deshmukh L, Kumar V, Lary J, Cole J, Lemmon V, et al. Characterization of the neuron-specific L1-CAM cytoplasmic tail: naturally disordered in solution it exercises different binding modes for different adaptor proteins. Biochemistry. 2008;47:4160-8 pubmed publisher..In addition, we have shown that the juxtamembrane region of L1-CT has some binding affinity to AP2-mu2, although the specificity of this interaction needs further investigation...
- Kittler J, Chen G, Kukhtina V, Vahedi Faridi A, Gu Z, Tretter V, et al. Regulation of synaptic inhibition by phospho-dependent binding of the AP2 complex to a YECL motif in the GABAA receptor gamma2 subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3616-21 pubmed publisher..These data define a mechanism for tyrosine kinase regulation of GABA(A)R surface levels and synaptic inhibition. ..
- Rapoport I, Miyazaki M, Boll W, Duckworth B, Cantley L, Shoelson S, et al. Regulatory interactions in the recognition of endocytic sorting signals by AP-2 complexes. EMBO J. 1997;16:2240-50 pubmed..The mu2 subunit of isolated AP-2 complexes binds specifically, but rather weakly, to proteins bearing the tyrosine-based ..
- Zhang Y, Moheban D, Conway B, Bhattacharyya A, Segal R. Cell surface Trk receptors mediate NGF-induced survival while internalized receptors regulate NGF-induced differentiation. J Neurosci. 2000;20:5671-8 pubmed..Thus, interactions between Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular signaling molecules are dictated both by phosphotyrosine motifs within the receptors and by the intracellular location of phosphorylated receptors. ..