angiotensin converting enzyme


Gene Symbol: angiotensin converting enzyme
Description: angiotensin I converting enzyme
Alias: CD143, Dcp1, StsRR92, angiotensin-converting enzyme, Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1 (Angiotensin I-converting enzyme), angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 1, angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1, angiotensin I converting enzyme 1, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1), dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I, kininase II
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Turgut S, Turgut G, Atalay E, Atalay A. Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Behçet's disease. Med Princ Pract. 2005;14:213-6 pubmed
    ..3% and I allele frequency 15.7%. An association between Behçet's disease and ACE polymorphism may provide a useful basis for future molecular studies and therapeutic approaches in this complex disease. ..
  2. Ozturk M, Calguneri M, Kiraz S, Ertenli I, Onat A, Ureten K, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Behçet's disease. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23:142-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, possession of either the D or the I allele does not have an impact on the development of ocular, neurologic or vascular manifestations of the disease. ..
  3. Wei L, Alhenc Gelas F, Soubrier F, Michaud A, Corvol P, Clauser E. Expression and characterization of recombinant human angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Evidence for a C-terminal transmembrane anchor and for a proteolytic processing of the secreted recombinant and plasma enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5540-6 pubmed
    ..cells have been transfected with either a full-length cDNA encoding human angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II; EC 3.4.15...
  4. Natesh R, Schwager S, Sturrock E, Acharya K. Crystal structure of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-lisinopril complex. Nature. 2003;421:551-4 pubmed
    ..The structure provides an opportunity to design domain-selective ACE inhibitors that may exhibit new pharmacological profiles. ..
  5. Watanabe H, Kaiser D, Makino S, Macrae C, Ellinor P, Wasserman B, et al. ACE I/D polymorphism associated with abnormal atrial and atrioventricular conduction in lone atrial fibrillation and structural heart disease: implications for electrical remodeling. Heart Rhythm. 2009;6:1327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE activity may play a role in cardiac remodeling after the development of AF and heart disease. ..
  6. Soubrier F, Alhenc Gelas F, Hubert C, Allegrini J, John M, Tregear G, et al. Two putative active centers in human angiotensin I-converting enzyme revealed by molecular cloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:9386-90 pubmed
    ..and several internal peptide sequences of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; peptidyl-dipeptidase A, kininase II; EC purified from human kidney were used to design oligonucleotide probes...
  7. Sadjadi J, Kramer G, Yu C, Welborn M, Modrall J. Angiotensin II exerts positive feedback on the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system by an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism. J Surg Res. 2005;129:272-7 pubmed
    ..plasma ANG II induces the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the non-ischemic kidney by an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) dependent mechanism...
  8. Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, et al. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005;37:964-8 pubmed
    ..they had homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme or angiotensin II receptor type 1...
  9. Challah M, Villard E, Philippe M, Ribadeau Dumas A, Giraudeau B, Janiak P, et al. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme genotype influences arterial response to injury in normotensive rats. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:235-43 pubmed

More Information


  1. Arafat H, Gong Q, Chipitsyna G, Rizvi A, Saa C, Yeo C. Antihypertensives as novel antineoplastics: angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;204:996-1005; discussion 1005-6 pubmed
  2. Tian X, Paul M. Species-specific splicing and expression of angiotensin converting enzyme. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66:1037-44 pubmed
    b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a critical determinant in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases and in the control of male fertility...
  3. Eyries M, Michaud A, Deinum J, Agrapart M, Chomilier J, Kramers C, et al. Increased shedding of angiotensin-converting enzyme by a mutation identified in the stalk region. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5525-32 pubmed
    ..Our results show that different molecular mechanisms are responsible for the common genetic variation of plasma ACE and for its more rare familial elevation. ..
  4. Marre M, Bernadet P, Gallois Y, Savagner F, Guyene T, Hallab M, et al. Relationships between angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphism, plasma levels, and diabetic retinal and renal complications. Diabetes. 1994;43:384-8 pubmed
    ..0022). The II genotype of ACE gene is a marker for reduced risk for diabetic nephropathy. ..
  5. Rousseau A, Michaud A, Chauvet M, Lenfant M, Corvol P. The hemoregulatory peptide N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro is a natural and specific substrate of the N-terminal active site of human angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:3656-61 pubmed
  6. Rivera P, Ocaranza M, Lavandero S, Jalil J. Rho kinase activation and gene expression related to vascular remodeling in normotensive rats with high angiotensin I converting enzyme levels. Hypertension. 2007;50:792-8 pubmed
  7. Tota S, Kamat P, Saxena G, Hanif K, Najmi A, Nath C. Central angiotensin converting enzyme facilitates memory impairment in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin treated rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012;226:317-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, exact role of RAS in cognition is still ambiguous. Our aim was to explore how angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) modulates memory in experimental model of memory impairment...
  8. Wapstra F, van Goor H, Navis G, de Jong P, de Zeeuw D. Antiproteinuric effect predicts renal protection by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in rats with established adriamycin nephrosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 1996;90:393-401 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with the hypothesis that reduction of proteinuria is a mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors exert renoprotection. ..
  9. Rivière G, Michaud A, Breton C, VanCamp G, Laborie C, Enache M, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and ACE activities display tissue-specific sensitivity to undernutrition-programmed hypertension in the adult rat. Hypertension. 2005;46:1169-74 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ACE2 and ACE are coexpressed in numerous rat tissues and that their increased activity in the lung of FR30 rats may participate in hypertension programming. ..
  10. van Ittersum F, de Man A, Thijssen S, De Knijff P, Slagboom E, Smulders Y, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15:1000-7 pubmed
    ..A previously described interaction between the AGT-M235T and the ACE-ID polymorphisms could not be confirmed. Since the number of nephropathic patients in this study is small, these conclusions must be interpreted with caution. ..
  11. Choi J, Yoo K, Cheon H, Kim K, Hong Y, Lee J, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition decreases cell turnover in the neonatal rat heart. Pediatr Res. 2002;52:325-32 pubmed
    ..The loss of myocytes may lead to greater myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial damage during later life. ..
  12. Sancho J, Re R, Burton J, Barger A, Haber E. The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular homeostasis in normal human subjects. Circulation. 1976;53:400-5 pubmed sodium replete and sodium depleted states prior to and subsequent to the intravenous infusion of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI)...
  13. Ma C, Xin H, Jiang X, Wang Y, Zhang Y. Relationship between renal injury and the antagonistic roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13:2333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The increase in Ace mRNA levels was higher than that of Ace2 mRNA levels, leading to an elevated Ace/Ace2 ratio. Together, these data suggest that the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis is the dominant axis in severe kidney injury. ..
  14. Rice G, Thomas D, Grant P, Turner A, Hooper N. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism. Biochem J. 2004;383:45-51 pubmed
    ..These kinetic data highlight that the flux of peptides through the RAS is complex, with the levels of ACE, ACE2 and NEP dictating whether vasoconstriction or vasodilation will predominate. ..
  15. Faulk K, Nedungadi T, Cunningham J. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia hypertension. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central ..
  16. Sugiyama T, Yoshimoto T, Tsuchiya K, Gochou N, Hirono Y, Tateno T, et al. Aldosterone induces angiotensin converting enzyme gene expression via a JAK2-dependent pathway in rat endothelial cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3900-6 pubmed
    ..This may constitute a positive feedback loop for a local renin-angiotensin system, possibly involved in the development of aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury. ..
  17. Sharifi A, Mohseni S, Nekoparvar S, Larijani B, Fakhrzadeh H, Oryan S. Effect of caloric restriction on nitric oxide production, ACE activity, and blood pressure regulation in rats. Acta Physiol Hung. 2008;95:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum ACE activity was lower in the CR group. Therefore, it may be concluded that CR could reduce blood pressure by elevating NO production and lowering ACE activity. ..
  18. Liang S, Pan M, Hu N, Wu Y, Chen H, Zhu J, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene 2350 G/A polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese Han population. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results obtained in this study indicate that ACE 2350 G/A polymorphism is associated with DR in Han Chinese patients with type 2 DM. ..
  19. Wei L, Alhenc Gelas F, Corvol P, Clauser E. The two homologous domains of human angiotensin I-converting enzyme are both catalytically active. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9002-8 pubmed
    Molecular cloning of human endothelial angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II; EC 3.4.15...
  20. Echeverría Rodríguez O, del Valle Mondragon L, Hong E. Angiotensin 1-7 improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo. Peptides. 2014;51:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, endogenous (systemic and/or local) Ang 1-7 could regulate insulin-mediated glucose transport in vivo. ..
  21. Ling Q, Chen T, Guo Z. Inhibition of beta-myosin heavy chain gene expression in pressure overload rat heart by losartan and captopril. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1997;18:63-6 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of beta-MHC gene expression by losartan is achieved primarily by direct blockade of angiotensin II type I receptors in the myocardium, independent on hemodynamics. ..
  22. Sakuta T, Morita Y, Satoh M, Fox D, Kashihara N. Involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of vascular damage in a rat model of arthritis: effect of angiotensin receptor blockers. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have important implications for clinical approaches to the reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  23. Karabuga I, Akbay K, Turna B, Vatansever H, Altay B, Guzel E, et al. Effect of lisinopril on renal tissue damage in unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats. Urol Res. 2012;40:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, lisinopril was effective and it may prevent early renal damage in the direct obstruction model. ..
  24. Sedov V. [To sanitize liv stock raising of helminthiases]. Veterinariia. 1978;:10-2 pubmed
  25. Karram T, Abbasi A, Keidar S, Golomb E, Hochberg I, Winaver J, et al. Effects of spironolactone and eprosartan on cardiac remodeling and angiotensin-converting enzyme isoforms in rats with experimental heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1351-8 pubmed
  26. Ramos P, Rubies C, Torres M, Batlle M, Farre R, Brugada J, et al. Atrial fibrosis in a chronic murine model of obstructive sleep apnea: mechanisms and prevention by mesenchymal stem cells. Respir Res. 2014;15:54 pubmed publisher
    ..MSCs transplantation prevents atrial fibrosis, suggesting that these stem cells could counterbalance inflammation in OSA...
  27. Oka T, Nishimura H, Ueyama M, Kubota J, Kawamura K. Lisinopril reduces cardiac hypertrophy and mortality in rats with aortocaval fistula. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;234:55-60 pubmed
    ..05). Thus, lisinopril reduced left ventricular mass and mortality in rats with high-output heart failure without changing the cardiorenal hemodynamics. Neurohumoral inhibition may play a role in the beneficial effects of lisinopril. ..
  28. Sadjadi J, Kramer G, Yu C, Burress Welborn M, Chappell M, Gregory Modrall J. Angiotensin converting enzyme-independent angiotensin ii production by chymase is up-regulated in the ischemic kidney in renovascular hypertension. J Surg Res. 2005;127:65-9 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated previously that intrarenal ANG II is augmented by an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) dependent mechanism in the non-ischemic kidney, but the role of ACE-independent production of ..
  29. Bourassa E, Speth R. Water deprivation increases angiotensin-converting enzyme but not AT(1) receptor expression in brainstem and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of the rat. Brain Res. 2010;1319:83-91 pubmed publisher
  30. Itoh S, Ding B, Shishido T, Lerner Marmarosh N, Wang N, Maekawa N, et al. Role of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-mediated prorenin-converting enzyme in ischemic and diabetic myocardium. Circulation. 2006;113:1787-98 pubmed
  31. Yoshioka M, Erickson R, Woodley J, Gulli R, Guan D, Kim Y. Role of rat intestinal brush-border membrane angiotensin-converting enzyme in dietary protein digestion. Am J Physiol. 1987;253:G781-6 pubmed
    ..These results show that intestinal brush-border membrane ACE functions as a digestive peptidase in addition to its role as a regulator of biologically active peptides in other tissues...
  32. Matsumoto A, Iwashima Y, Abiko A, Morikawa A, Sekiguchi M, Eto M, et al. Detection of the association between a deletion polymorphism in the gene encoding angiotensin I-converting enzyme and advanced diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000;50:195-202 pubmed
    ..89, P=0.027), respectively. These results indicate a significant relationship between the presence of the D allele polymorphism in the ACE gene and ADR in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes and no overt nephropathy. ..
  33. Kamilic J, Hamming I, Lely A, Korstanje R, Schulze U, Poppinga W, et al. Rat Ace allele variation determines susceptibility to AngII-induced renal damage. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in renal ACE2, mirroring those in ACE, might be involved. ..
  34. Morimoto R, Akeda K, Iida R, Nishimura A, Tsujii M, Obata S, et al. Tissue renin-angiotensin system in the intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:E129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA of tRAS components, including angiotensin converting enzyme, Ang II, Ang II receptor type 1, Ang II receptor type 2, and Cathepsin D (a renin-like enzyme), was ..
  35. Eryuksel E, Ceyhan B, Bircan R, Avsar M, Cirakoglu B. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Turkish asthmatic patients. J Asthma. 2009;46:335-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genes have been identified with a potential role in the pathogenesis of asthma, including the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene...
  36. Geng Z, Liu C, Peng Y, Li L, Zhao X, Cui B, et al. [Effect of carvedilol and perindopril on Ca(2+) pump activity and Ca(2+)-release channel density in myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum in rats with chronic heart failure following myocardial infarction]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:1461-4 pubmed
  37. Leckie B. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system: what's new?. Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents. 2005;3:23-32 pubmed
    ..11 may be of value where there is both sodium retention and increased angiotensin II. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by gene therapy or antibody treatment may provide a longer-term treatment for hypertension. ..
  38. Oikawa T, Freeman M, Lo W, Vaughan D, Fogo A. Modulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vivo: a new mechanism for the anti-fibrotic effect of renin-angiotensin inhibition. Kidney Int. 1997;51:164-72 pubmed
    ..intact glomeruli, P < 0.001). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, captopril or enalapril) or angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIRA, L158,809) ..
  39. Faulk K, Shell B, Nedungadi T, Cunningham J. Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 within the median preoptic nucleus following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;312:R245-R252 pubmed publisher
    ..FosB/?FosB may transcriptionally target ACE1 within the MnPO following CIH to affect the downstream PVN region, which may influence SNA and blood pressure. ..
  40. Hajek D, Tomiska M, Krahulcova E, Druckmuller M, Florianova M, Izakovicova Holla L, et al. I/D ACE gene polymorphism in survival of leukemia patients -- hypothesis and pilot study. Med Hypotheses. 2003;61:80-5 pubmed
    ..This difference (iSUR-mSUR) varied with I/D ACE genotype (p<0.02) but neither with diagnosis nor with ABO blood group. The regression model for iSUR calculation, from mSUR and I/D ACE genotype, has been suggested. ..
  41. Cruz C, Ruiz Torres P, Del Moral R, Rodriguez Puyol M, Rodriguez Puyol D. Age-related progressive renal fibrosis in rats and its prevention with ACE inhibitors and taurine. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:F122-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, taking into account that taurine is considered as an antioxidant amino acid, present data suggest a role for ROS in age-related progressive renal fibrosis, perhaps through interactions with the TGF-beta1 pathway...
  42. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Shen G, Yamato E, Takekawa K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with myocardial infarction, but not with retinopathy or nephropathy, in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:983-5 pubmed
  43. Tarnow L, Cambien F, Rossing P, Nielsen F, Hansen B, Lecerf L, et al. Lack of relationship between an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene and diabetic nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy in IDDM patients. Diabetes. 1995;44:489-94 pubmed
    ..26 (39%)/25 (37%)/16 (24%) had DD/ID/II genotypes, respectively. There was also no difference in plasma ACE concentration detected among patients with no, simplex, or proliferative retinopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  44. Miyakawa A, de Lourdes Junqueira M, Krieger J. Identification of two novel shear stress responsive elements in rat angiotensin I converting enzyme promoter. Physiol Genomics. 2004;17:107-13 pubmed
  45. González Ordóñez A, Fernández Carreira J, Medina Rodriguez J, Martín Sánchez L, Alvarez Díaz R, Alvarez Martinez M, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2000;11:485-90 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, among (Spanish) Caucasians, this study does not support the hypothesis that the deletion allele (D) of the ACE gene could be a significant risk factor for VTE, being protective in men. ..
  46. Jenrow K, Brown S, Liu J, Kolozsvary A, Lapanowski K, Kim J. Ramipril mitigates radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation injury in this context.
  47. Liu X, Bellamy C, Bailey M, Mullins L, Dunbar D, Kenyon C, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme is a modifier of hypertensive end organ damage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15564-72 pubmed publisher
  48. Metzger R, Franke F, Bohle R, Alhenc Gelas F, Danilov S. Heterogeneous distribution of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (CD143) in the human and rat vascular systems: vessel, organ and species specificity. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:206-15 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II, ACE, CD143) availability is a determinant of local angiotensin and kinin concentrations and physiological actions...
  49. Augustyniak R, Maliszewska Scislo M, Chen H, Fallucca J, Rossi N. Acute angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition evokes bradykinin-induced sympathetic activation in diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R2260-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that enhanced bradykinin signaling mediates the baroreflex-independent sympathoexcitatory effect of enalapril in diabetic rats. ..
  50. Goto M, Hoxha N, Osman R, Dell K. The renin-angiotensin system and hypertension in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:2449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help reconcile previous conflicting reports and suggest that intrarenal renin and ACE gene upregulation may represent a novel mechanism for hypertension development or exacerbation in ARPKD. ..
  51. Hegde L, Shukla R, Srimal R, Dikshit M. Attenuation in rat brain nitric oxide synthase activity in the coarctation model of hypertension. Pharmacol Res. 1997;36:109-14 pubmed
    ..Treatment with captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or centhaquin (centrally acting antihypertensive agent) led to significant reduction of ..
  52. Ocaranza M, Godoy I, Jalil J, Varas M, Collantes P, Pinto M, et al. Enalapril attenuates downregulation of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the late phase of ventricular dysfunction in myocardial infarcted rat. Hypertension. 2006;48:572-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in this second arm of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE2 may act through Ang-(1-9), rather than Ang-(1-7), as a counterregulator of the first arm, where ACE catalyzes the formation of Ang II. ..
  53. Neves L, Stovall K, Joyner J, Valdes G, Gallagher P, Ferrario C, et al. ACE2 and ANG-(1-7) in the rat uterus during early and late gestation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R151-61 pubmed