AMP activated protein kinase

Summary

Gene Symbol: AMP activated protein kinase
Description: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 2
Alias: Ampk, Ampka2, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2, ACACA kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK alpha-2 chain, AMPK subunit alpha-2, HMGCR kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinase, protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Bergeron R, Ren J, Cadman K, Moore I, Perret P, Pypaert M, et al. Chronic activation of AMP kinase results in NRF-1 activation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E1340-6 pubmed
    ..ATP, and ATP/AMP ratios were all markedly decreased and led to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the beta-GPA-fed rats compared with control rats...
  2. Hardie D, Scott J, Pan D, Hudson E. Management of cellular energy by the AMP-activated protein kinase system. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:113-20 pubmed
    ..A survey of the range of downstream targets for this important signalling pathway is presented. ..
  3. Carey A, Steinberg G, Macaulay S, Thomas W, Holmes A, Ramm G, et al. Interleukin-6 increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans and glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro via AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetes. 2006;55:2688-97 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IL-6 rapidly and markedly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  4. Scott J, Norman D, Hawley S, Kontogiannis L, Hardie D. Protein kinase substrate recognition studied using the recombinant catalytic domain of AMP-activated protein kinase and a model substrate. J Mol Biol. 2002;317:309-23 pubmed
    We have expressed a truncated form of the alpha1 kinase domain of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in Escherichia coli as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion (GST-KD)...
  5. Krause U, Bertrand L, Hue L. Control of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase by AMP-activated protein kinase and protein phosphatases in isolated hepatocytes. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:3751-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses the energy state of the cell and becomes activated under metabolic stress, inactivates by ..
  6. Lopez M, Varela L, Vazquez M, Rodriguez Cuenca S, González C, Velagapudi V, et al. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance. Nat Med. 2010;16:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (..
  7. Hawley S, Davison M, Woods A, Davies S, Beri R, Carling D, et al. Characterization of the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase from rat liver and identification of threonine 172 as the major site at which it phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27879-87 pubmed
    ..A., Selbert, M. A., Goldstein, E. G., Edelman, A. M., Carling, D., and Hardie, D. G. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27186-27191). ..
  8. Bertrand L, Ginion A, Beauloye C, Hebert A, Guigas B, Hue L, et al. AMPK activation restores the stimulation of glucose uptake in an in vitro model of insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes via the activation of protein kinase B. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H239-50 pubmed
    ..Part of these metabolic effects is thought to be mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  9. Peck G, Chavez J, Roach W, Budnik B, Lane W, Karlsson H, et al. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the Rab GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates GLUT4 translocation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, phosphorylation of TBC1D1 is required for GLUT4 translocation. Thus, the regulation of TBC1D1 resembles that of its paralog, AS160. ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Hawley S, Boudeau J, Reid J, Mustard K, Udd L, Makela T, et al. Complexes between the LKB1 tumor suppressor, STRAD alpha/beta and MO25 alpha/beta are upstream kinases in the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade. J Biol. 2003;2:28 pubmed publisher
    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge that acts as a 'metabolic master switch' and inhibits cell proliferation...
  2. Bolster D, Crozier S, Kimball S, Jefferson L. AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23977-80 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as an energy sensor that acts to modulate glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle...
  3. Nagata D, Takeda R, Sata M, Satonaka H, Suzuki E, Nagano T, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Circulation. 2004;110:444-51 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated protein kinase that works as a metabolic sensor of cellular ATP levels...
  4. Andersson U, Treebak J, Nielsen J, Smith K, Abbott C, Small C, et al. Exercise in rats does not alter hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:719-25 pubmed
    Recent studies have demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake...
  5. Coven D, Hu X, Cong L, Bergeron R, Shulman G, Hardie D, et al. Physiological role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart: graded activation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E629-36 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a key signaling pathway that modulates cellular metabolic processes. In skeletal muscle, AMPK is activated during exercise...
  6. Marsin A, Bertrand L, Rider M, Deprez J, Beauloye C, Vincent M, et al. Phosphorylation and activation of heart PFK-2 by AMPK has a role in the stimulation of glycolysis during ischaemia. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1247-55 pubmed
    ..The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the oxygen supply is restricted...
  7. Gwinn D, Shackelford D, Egan D, Mihaylova M, Mery A, Vasquez D, et al. AMPK phosphorylation of raptor mediates a metabolic checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2008;30:214-26 pubmed publisher
    b>AMPK is a highly conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP...
  8. Itani S, Saha A, Kurowski T, Coffin H, Tornheim K, Ruderman N. Glucose autoregulates its uptake in skeletal muscle: involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetes. 2003;52:1635-40 pubmed
    ..Activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to increase insulin-independent glucose transport into skeletal muscle in response to such stimuli ..
  9. Kim J, Kundu M, Viollet B, Guan K. AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, autophagy is promoted by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key energy sensor and regulates cellular metabolism to maintain energy homeostasis...
  10. Reznick R, Zong H, Li J, Morino K, Moore I, Yu H, et al. Aging-associated reductions in AMP-activated protein kinase activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. Cell Metab. 2007;5:151-6 pubmed
    ..Given the important role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined AMPK activity in young and old rats ..
  11. Pehmøller C, Treebak J, Birk J, Chen S, MacKintosh C, Hardie D, et al. Genetic disruption of AMPK signaling abolishes both contraction- and insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E665-75 pubmed publisher
    ..in response to insulin, growth factors, pharmacological agonists that activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and muscle contraction...
  12. Woods A, Salt I, Scott J, Hardie D, Carling D. The alpha1 and alpha2 isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase have similar activities in rat liver but exhibit differences in substrate specificity in vitro. FEBS Lett. 1996;397:347-51 pubmed
    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta and gamma). Two isoforms of the catalytic subunit (alpha1 and alpha2) have been identified...
  13. Koh H, Hirshman M, He H, Li Y, Manabe Y, Balschi J, et al. Adrenaline is a critical mediator of acute exercise-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation in adipocytes. Biochem J. 2007;403:473-81 pubmed
    Exercise increases AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activity in human and rat adipocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of this activation are not known...
  14. Stuck B, Lenski M, Bohm M, Laufs U. Metabolic switch and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes following treatment with angiotensin II are prevented by AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of angiotensin II on glucose and fatty acid utilization and the modifying role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of metabolism and proliferation...
  15. Horman S, Vertommen D, Heath R, Neumann D, Mouton V, Woods A, et al. Insulin antagonizes ischemia-induced Thr172 phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha-subunits in heart via hierarchical phosphorylation of Ser485/491. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5335-40 pubmed
  16. Cheung P, Salt I, Davies S, Hardie D, Carling D. Characterization of AMP-activated protein kinase gamma-subunit isoforms and their role in AMP binding. Biochem J. 2000;346 Pt 3:659-69 pubmed
    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis within the cell. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta and gamma)...
  17. Park S, Paulsen S, Gammon S, Mustard K, Hardie D, Winder W. Effects of thyroid state on AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression in muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93:2081-8 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma...
  18. Fujii N, Hirshman M, Kane E, Ho R, Peter L, Seifert M, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 activity is not essential for contraction- and hyperosmolarity-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39033-41 pubmed
    To examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle glucose transport, we generated muscle-specific transgenic mice (TG) carrying cDNAs of inactive alpha2 (alpha2i TG) and alpha1 (alpha1i TG) catalytic subunits...
  19. Park H, Kaushik V, Constant S, Prentki M, Przybytkowski E, Ruderman N, et al. Coordinate regulation of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase by AMP-activated protein kinase in rat tissues in response to exercise. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32571-7 pubmed
    ..acyltransferase (GPAT), which like MCD and ACC can be regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was assayed...
  20. Aymerich I, Foufelle F, Ferre P, Casado F, Pastor Anglada M. Extracellular adenosine activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1612-21 pubmed
    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex that senses intracellular energy status and exerts rapid regulation on energy-demanding and -consuming metabolic pathways...
  21. Ropelle E, Pauli J, Zecchin K, Ueno M, De Souza C, Morari J, et al. A central role for neuronal adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in cancer-induced anorexia. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5220-9 pubmed
    ..and a chronic peripheral injection of 2 deoxy-d-glucose promotes hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, increases food intake, and prolongs the survival of anorexic tumor-bearing (TB) rats...
  22. Suwa M, Egashira T, Nakano H, Sasaki H, Kumagai S. Metformin increases the PGC-1alpha protein and oxidative enzyme activities possibly via AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in vivo. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;101:1685-92 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was activated by an antihyperglycemic drug metformin, has been hypothesized to mediate metabolic adaptations...
  23. Park S, Kim S, Baek W, Lim B, Park J, Sung H, et al. Regulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion by insulin: possible role of AMP-activated protein kinase. Life Sci. 2009;85:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..as well as phosphorylation of the insulin signaling pathway and the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  24. Sriwijitkamol A, Ivy J, Christ Roberts C, DeFronzo R, Mandarino L, Musi N. LKB1-AMPK signaling in muscle from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats and effects of training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E925-32 pubmed
    b>AMPK is a key regulator of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It has been postulated that defects in AMPK signaling could be responsible for some of the metabolic abnormalities of type 2 diabetes...
  25. Park S, Choi J, Ryu H, Pak Y, Park K, Lee H, et al. C1q tumor necrosis factor alpha-related protein isoform 5 is increased in mitochondrial DNA-depleted myocytes and activates AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27780-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to adiponectin, C1QTNF5 induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to increased cell surface recruitment of GLUT4 and increased glucose uptake...
  26. Lee W, Lee I, Kim H, Kim Y, Koh E, Won J, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:2488-94 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese rats...
  27. Martins L, Seoane Collazo P, CONTRERAS C, González García I, Martínez Sánchez N, González F, et al. A Functional Link between AMPK and Orexin Mediates the Effect of BMP8B on Energy Balance. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2231-2242 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and orexin (OX) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) modulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis...
  28. Yang J, Craddock L, Hong S, Liu Z. AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses LXR-dependent sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c transcription in rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:414-26 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular fuel sensor that plays a key role in regulating fatty acid synthesis in liver...
  29. Chanda D, Li T, Song K, Kim Y, Sim J, Lee C, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor family negatively regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis via induction of orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner in primary hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28510-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and MSP on SHP gene expression was demonstrated to be mediated via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway...
  30. Zheng X, Xu M, Fang Q. Role of AMPK ? in skeletal muscle glycometabolism regulation and adaptation in relation to sepsis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:390760 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein always involve disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism...
  31. Turnley A, Stapleton D, Mann R, Witters L, Kemp B, Bartlett P. Cellular distribution and developmental expression of AMP-activated protein kinase isoforms in mouse central nervous system. J Neurochem. 1999;72:1707-16 pubmed
  32. Zhou L, Wang X, Shao L, Yang Y, Shang W, Yuan G, et al. Berberine acutely inhibits insulin secretion from beta-cells through 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate signaling pathway. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4510-8 pubmed publisher
    Berberine, a hypoglycemic agent, has recently been shown to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) contributing to its beneficial metabolic effects in peripheral tissues...
  33. Browne G, Finn S, Proud C. Stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase leads to activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase and to its phosphorylation at a novel site, serine 398. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12220-31 pubmed
    ..An important regulator of energy supply and demand in eukaryotic cells is the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  34. Williams D, Sutherland L, Bomhof M, Basaraba S, Thrush A, Dyck D, et al. Muscle-specific differences in the response of mitochondrial proteins to beta-GPA feeding: an evaluation of potential mechanisms. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E1400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that beta-GPA feeding would result in a preferential activation of p38 MAPK and AMPK signaling and reductions in RIP140 protein content in triceps but not soleus muscle...
  35. Clark H, Carling D, Saggerson D. Covalent activation of heart AMP-activated protein kinase in response to physiological concentrations of long-chain fatty acids. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:2215-24 pubmed
    ..acids resulted in increased activities of the alpha-1 or the alpha-2 isoforms of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and a decrease in the tissue content of malonyl-CoA...
  36. Deng H, Chai J, Shen C, Zhang X, Ma L, Sun T, et al. Insulin down-regulates the expression of ubiquitin E3 ligases partially by inhibiting the activity and expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    While insulin is an anabolic hormone, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not only a key energy regulator, but it can also control substrate metabolism directly by inducing skeletal muscle protein degradation...
  37. Wang J, Liu Z, Feng X, Gao S, Xu S, Liu P. Tumor suppressor gene ING3 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of AMPK and activation of p38 MAPK signaling. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;562:22-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that overexpression of ING3 could inactivate the AMPK and activate the canonical p38 MAPK signaling...
  38. Boutchueng Djidjou M, Collard Simard G, Fortier S, Hébert S, Kelly I, Landry C, et al. The last enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) plays a central role in insulin signaling and the Golgi/endosomes protein network. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1079-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The IR interactome (IRGEN) connects ATIC to AMPK within the Golgi/endosome protein network (GEN)...
  39. Kim W, Lee J, Suh Y, Lee H, Lee S, Oh Y, et al. AICAR potentiates ROS production induced by chronic high glucose: roles of AMPK in pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis. Cell Signal. 2007;19:791-805 pubmed
    ..These events are potentiated in AMPK-overexpressing cells, but are prevented in cells transfected with mutant dominant-negative AMPK (AMPK-K45R)...
  40. Wu X, Motoshima H, Mahadev K, Stalker T, Scalia R, Goldstein B. Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in glucose uptake stimulated by the globular domain of adiponectin in primary rat adipocytes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1355-63 pubmed
  41. Chen C, Tsai Y, Kao C, Lee S, Wu M, Mallikarjuna K, et al. Effect of mild intermittent hypoxia on glucose tolerance, muscle morphology and AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling. Chin J Physiol. 2010;53:62-71 pubmed
    ..The involvement of AMPK-PGC-1alpha-VEGF signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle was also determined during the first 8 hours of hypoxia...
  42. Kelly M, Gauthier M, Saha A, Ruderman N. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by interleukin-6 in rat skeletal muscle: association with changes in cAMP, energy state, and endogenous fuel mobilization. Diabetes. 2009;58:1953-60 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vivo and in vitro; however, the mechanism by which it does so is unknown...
  43. Pang J, Choi Y, Park T. Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;476:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..paraguariensis extract protected rats from the HFD-induced decreases in the phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/AMPK and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)/ACC protein ratio related to fatty acid oxidation in the edipidymal ..
  44. Gybina A, Prohaska J. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is lower in copper deficient rat cerebellum despite higher content of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy "master-switch" that is thought to augment glycolysis through ..
  45. Gao G, Widmer J, Stapleton D, Teh T, Cox T, Kemp B, et al. Catalytic subunits of the porcine and rat 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase are members of the SNF1 protein kinase family. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1266:73-82 pubmed
    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the fatty acid and sterol synthesizing pathways via phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and HMG-CoA reductase, respectively...
  46. Miller R, Binkowski B, Belshaw P. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers that inhibit the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:945-57 pubmed
    ..of ligand-regulated peptide aptamers that interact with and inhibit the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  47. Sakamoto K, Göransson O, Hardie D, Alessi D. Activity of LKB1 and AMPK-related kinases in skeletal muscle: effects of contraction, phenformin, and AICAR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E310-7 pubmed
    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise and metformin is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  48. Kawaguchi T, Osatomi K, Yamashita H, Kabashima T, Uyeda K. Mechanism for fatty acid "sparing" effect on glucose-induced transcription: regulation of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein by AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3829-35 pubmed
    ..to the fatty acids, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide, a specific activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) also inhibited the l-PK transcription activity in ChREBP-overexpressed hepatocytes...
  49. Shaw R, Lamia K, Vasquez D, Koo S, Bardeesy N, Depinho R, et al. The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin. Science. 2005;310:1642-6 pubmed
    ..syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase]...
  50. Li Y, Xu S, Mihaylova M, Zheng B, Hou X, Jiang B, et al. AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits SREBP activity to attenuate hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. Cell Metab. 2011;13:376-388 pubmed publisher
    b>AMPK has emerged as a critical mechanism for salutary effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolic disorders in type 1 and type 2 diabetes...
  51. Diraison F, Motakis E, Parton L, Nason G, Leclerc I, Rutter G. Impact of adenoviral transduction with SREBP1c or AMPK on pancreatic islet gene expression profile: analysis with oligonucleotide microarrays. Diabetes. 2004;53 Suppl 3:S84-91 pubmed
    ..3%) were upregulated. By contrast, overexpression of constitutively active AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), expected to promote lipolysis, altered the expression of 752 genes, of which 702 (93%) were upregulated...
  52. Shimizu H, Arima H, Watanabe M, Goto M, Banno R, Sato I, et al. Glucocorticoids increase neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide gene expression via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling in the arcuate nucleus of rats. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4544-53 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in the hypothalamus is the master regulator of energy balance...
  53. Yang T, Ku P, Hsu C, Chung H, Lee W, Cheng J. Mediation of AMP kinase in the increase of glucose uptake in L6 cells induced by activation of imidazoline I-2 receptors. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:359-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression were also identified by Western blot analysis...
  54. Sejima E, Yamauchi A, Nishioku T, Koga M, Nakagama K, Dohgu S, et al. A role for hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in the mediation of hyperphagia and weight gain induced by chronic treatment with olanzapine in female rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..olanzapine (2 mg/kg) or vehicle once a day for 2 weeks to ascertain if hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates olanzapine-induced weight gain and hyperphagia...
  55. Hawley S, Pan D, Mustard K, Ross L, Bain J, Edelman A, et al. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase. Cell Metab. 2005;2:9-19 pubmed
    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Two upstream kinases have been reported to activate AMPK in cell-free assays, i.e...
  56. Mountjoy P, Bailey S, Rutter G. Inhibition by glucose or leptin of hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide Y requires changes in AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Diabetologia. 2007;50:168-77 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the role of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a trimeric complex encoded by seven distinct genes of the PRKA family, in the responses to glucose and leptin of ..
  57. Li J, Coven D, Miller E, Hu X, Young M, Carling D, et al. Activation of AMPK alpha- and gamma-isoform complexes in the intact ischemic rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H1927-34 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in modulating cellular metabolic processes...
  58. Woods A, Dickerson K, Heath R, Hong S, Momcilovic M, Johnstone S, et al. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells. Cell Metab. 2005;2:21-33 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a kinase cascade that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis...
  59. Carling D, Aguan K, Woods A, Verhoeven A, Beri R, Brennan C, et al. Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is homologous to yeast and plant protein kinases involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11442-8 pubmed
    In mammals, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in vitro and has been proposed to play a major role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in vivo...
  60. Ndisang J, Jadhav A. Up-regulating the hemeoxygenase system enhances insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..signal transduction is positively correlated to adiponectin, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and glucose-transporter-4 (GLUT4) but negatively to oxidative/inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor-..
  61. Ju K, Kim H, Tsogbadrakh B, Lee J, Ryu H, Cho E, et al. HL156A, a novel AMP-activated protein kinase activator, is protective against peritoneal fibrosis in an in vivo and in vitro model of peritoneal fibrosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;310:F342-50 pubmed publisher
    HL156A is a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator. We aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of HL156A against peritoneal fibrosis (PF) in in vivo and in vitro models...
  62. Barbosa V, Luciano T, Marques S, Vitto M, Souza D, Silva L, et al. Acute exercise induce endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation via Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase in aorta of rats: Role of reactive oxygen species. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While incubation with H2O2 increased Akt, AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation, pre-incubation with NAC strongly reduced the phosphorylation of these enzymes...
  63. Gélinas R, Mailleux F, Dontaine J, Bultot L, Demeulder B, Ginion A, et al. AMPK activation counteracts cardiac hypertrophy by reducing O-GlcNAcylation. Nat Commun. 2018;9:374 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy...
  64. Zhang X, Sun N, Wang L, Guo H, Guan Q, Cui B, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase and pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 involved in insulin secretion under high leucine exposure in rat insulinoma beta-cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:758-70 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate effect of leucine on GSIS and its mechanism focusing on contribution of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1)...
  65. Arumugam S, Thandavarayan R, Veeraveedu P, Giridharan V, Soetikno V, Harima M, et al. Involvement of AMPK and MAPK signaling during the progression of experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats and its blockade using a novel antioxidant. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;93:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently much attention has been paid to studying the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in various cardiovascular ailments...
  66. Toyoda T, Hayashi T, Miyamoto L, Yonemitsu S, Nakano M, Tanaka S, et al. Possible involvement of the alpha1 isoform of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase in oxidative stress-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E166-73 pubmed
    Recent studies have suggested that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to metabolic stresses, such as contraction, hypoxia, and the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, which leads to insulin-independent ..
  67. Iseli T, Walter M, van Denderen B, Katsis F, Witters L, Kemp B, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase beta subunit tethers alpha and gamma subunits via its C-terminal sequence (186-270). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13395-400 pubmed
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important metabolic stress-sensing protein kinase responsible for regulating metabolism in response to changing energy demand and nutrient supply...
  68. Evans A, Mustard K, Wyatt C, Peers C, Dipp M, Kumar P, et al. Does AMP-activated protein kinase couple inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by hypoxia to calcium signaling in O2-sensing cells?. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41504-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, metabolic sensing by AMP-activated protein kinase may mediate chemotransduction by hypoxia. ..
  69. Shah M, Kola B, Bataveljic A, Arnett T, Viollet B, Saxon L, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass. Bone. 2010;47:309-19 pubmed publisher
    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones...
  70. Song X, Li Z, Liu F, Wang Z, Wang L. Restoration of autophagy by puerarin in lead-exposed primary rat proximal tubular cells via regulating AMPK-mTOR signaling. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2017;31: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, PU dramatically enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target proteins p70S6 kinase (..
  71. Watt M, Steinberg G, Chen Z, Kemp B, Febbraio M. Fatty acids stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase and enhance fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes. J Physiol. 2006;574:139-47 pubmed
    We investigated the role of fatty acid availability on AMPK signalling and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle...
  72. Salvador Adriano A, Vargas Chávez S, Hernandez Vazquez A, Ortega Cuellar D, Tovar A, Velazquez Arellano A. Insulin sensitivity is inversely related to cellular energy status, as revealed by biotin deprivation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E1442-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They are most likely the consequence of an insulin-independent effect of AMPK activation on GLUT4 membrane translocation with increased glucose uptake...
  73. Jaswal J, Gandhi M, Finegan B, Dyck J, Clanachan A. Inhibition of p38 MAPK and AMPK restores adenosine-induced cardioprotection in hearts stressed by antecedent ischemia by altering glucose utilization. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1107-14 pubmed
    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are activated by metabolic stresses and are implicated in the regulation of glucose utilization and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury...
  74. Sengupta A, Kalinichenko V, Yutzey K. FoxO1 and FoxM1 transcription factors have antagonistic functions in neonatal cardiomyocyte cell-cycle withdrawal and IGF1 gene regulation. Circ Res. 2013;112:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential regulators of Fox activity, including the metabolic indicator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Fox transcriptional targets (p21, p27, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF1]) also were examined...
  75. Klaus A, Polge C, Zorman S, Auchli Y, Brunisholz R, Schlattner U. A two-dimensional screen for AMPK substrates identifies tumor suppressor fumarate hydratase as a preferential AMPK?2 substrate. J Proteomics. 2012;75:3304-13 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is emerging as a central cellular signaling hub involved in energy homeostasis and proliferation...
  76. Hernández J, Barreto Torres G, Kuznetsov A, Khuchua Z, Javadov S. Crosstalk between AMPK activation and angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes: the role of mitochondria. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18:709-20 pubmed publisher
    AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation reduces cardiac hypertrophy, although underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we elucidated the anti-hypertrophic action of metformin, specifically, the role of the AMPK/eNOS/p53 pathway...
  77. Furugen A, Kobayashi M, Narumi K, Watanabe M, Otake S, Itagaki S, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 4 in skeletal muscle. Life Sci. 2011;88:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, on monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) expression in rat skeletal muscle and a prototypic embryonal ..
  78. Liu M, Lin X, Guo D, Zhang Y, Yuan C, Tan T, et al. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through the AMPK/P53 pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:1281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/P53 pathway in mediating DOX-induced cytotoxicity...
  79. Huang C, Wang T, Tung Y, Lin W. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1? Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age. Int J Med Sci. 2016;13:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1?, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined...
  80. Sakoda H, Ogihara T, Anai M, Fujishiro M, Ono H, Onishi Y, et al. Activation of AMPK is essential for AICAR-induced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle but not adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E1239-44 pubmed
    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) reportedly activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells...
  81. Wang C, Li L, Zhang Z, Fan D, Zhu Y, Wu L. Globular adiponectin inhibits angiotensin II-induced nuclear factor kappaB activation through AMP-activated protein kinase in cardiac hypertrophy. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, gAd promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which is a downstream signaling mediator of adiponectin...
  82. Lee C, Ussher J, Mohammad A, Lam A, Lopaschuk G. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase increases glucose uptake independent of GLUT4 translocation in cardiac myocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;92:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemmal membrane, while both GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocation can occur following AMPK stimulation...
  83. Steinbusch L, Dirkx E, Hoebers N, Roelants V, Foretz M, Viollet B, et al. Overexpression of AMP-activated protein kinase or protein kinase D prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;55:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon increased contraction both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase D (PKD) are activated, and mediate the stimulation of glucose uptake into cardiomyocytes...