Gene Symbol: Alad
Description: aminolevulinate dehydratase
Alias: ALADR, aminolevulinatedelta-dehydratase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALADH, aminolevulinate, delta-, dehydratase, delta - aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, porphobilinogen synthase
Species: rat
Products:     Alad

Top Publications

  1. Rendón Ramirez A, Cerbón Solorzáno J, Maldonado Vega M, Quintanar Escorza M, Calderón Salinas J. Vitamin-E reduces the oxidative damage on delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase induced by lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1121-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that vitamin-E could be useful in order to protect membrane-lipids and, notably, to prevent protein oxidation produced by lead intoxication. ..
  2. Lee B, Lee G, Stewart W, Ahn K, Simon D, Kelsey K, et al. Associations of blood pressure and hypertension with lead dose measures and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:383-9 pubmed
    ..toxicokinetics of lead--namely, those for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD)--may independently influence blood pressure and hypertension risk...
  3. Kang H, Matsuo T, Choue R, Suzuki M. Effects of voluntary resistance exercise on heme biosynthesis in rats given glucocorticoid-injections. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:2710-4 pubmed
    ..Resistance exercise may be a preventive therapy for iron-deficiency anemia associated with aging. ..
  4. Bonkovsky H, Healey J, Lincoln B, Bacon B, Bishop D, Elder G. Hepatic heme synthesis in a new model of experimental hemochromatosis: studies in rats fed finely divided elemental iron. Hepatology. 1987;7:1195-203 pubmed
    ..synthase; the first and rate-controlling enzyme of the pathway, 5-aminolevulinate dehydrase (or porphobilinogen synthase), and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, the activity of which is decreased in porphyria cutanea tarda, a ..
  5. Frydman R, Tomaro M, Sburlati A, Gutnisky A. The regulation of porphobilinogen oxygenase and porphobilinogen deaminase activities in rat bone marrow under conditions of erythropoietic stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;870:520-9 pubmed
    ..The solubilized enzyme could be succinylated without loss of its catalytic activity, while the membrane-bound enzyme could not be succinylated. ..
  6. Kade I, Borges V, Savegnago L, Ibukun E, Zeni G, Nogueira C, et al. Effect of oral administration of diphenyl diselenide on antioxidant status, and activity of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2009;25:415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the inhibition of catalase, delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (eth-ALA-D) and isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) accompanied by hyperglycemia were ..
  7. Ajioka R, Phillips J, Kushner J. Biosynthesis of heme in mammals. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:723-36 pubmed
    ..The biochemistry, structural biology and the mechanisms of tissue-specific regulation are presented in this review along with the key features of the porphyric disorders. ..
  8. Sharmila Banu G, Kumar G, Murugesan A. Effects of leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum L. on arsenic-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood...

More Information


  1. Li N, Chu X, Liu X, Li D. Probing the active site of rat porphobilinogen synthase using newly developed inhibitors. Bioorg Chem. 2009;37:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Porphobilinogen synthase catalyzes a rate-limiting step for the biosyntheses of tetrapyrrolic natural products...
  2. Coleman D. Purification and properties of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from tissues of two strains of mice. J Biol Chem. 1966;241:5511-7 pubmed
  3. Ishida N, Fujita H, Noguchi T, Doss M, Kappas A, Sassa S. Message amplification phenotyping of an inherited delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency in a family with acute hepatic porphyria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;172:237-42 pubmed
    ..basis of the enzymatic defect responsible for acute hepatic porphyria due to delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) deficiency was investigated in a family including a proband with the acute disease...
  4. Woods J, Fowler B. Alteration of mitochondrial structure and heme biosynthetic parameters in liver and kidney cells by bismuth. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987;90:274-83 pubmed
    ..These findings are comparable to those previously reported of other trace metals with known toxicologic potential and may represent early events in bismuth-induced cell injury. ..
  5. Mishra D, Flora S. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes. ..
  6. Bhadauria S, Flora S. Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2007;23:91-104 pubmed
    ..Arsenic exposure led to the inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and depletion of glutathione (GSH) level...
  7. Casas J, Castaño M, Sanchez A, Sordo J, Torres M, Couce M, et al. Interactions of diorganolead(IV) with 3-(2-thienyl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acid and/or thiamine: chemical and in vitro and in vivo toxicological results. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:2173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Sprague-Dawley rats dosed 30 min previously with PbMe(2)(NO(3))(2) was associated with reduced inhibition of delta-ALAD by the organolead compound, and with lower lead levels in kidney and brain, but joint administration of both H(2)..
  8. Dani V, Malhotra A, Dhawan D. 131I induced hematological alterations in rat blood: protection by zinc. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007;120:219-26 pubmed
    ..hematocrit, zinc protoporphyrins (ZPP), activities of enzymes which included aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) and Na+ K+ ATPase and uptake of 65Zn in blood...
  9. Avila D, Gubert P, Fachinetto R, Wagner C, Aschner M, Rocha J, et al. Involvement of striatal lipid peroxidation and inhibition of calcium influx into brain slices in neurobehavioral alterations in a rat model of short-term oral exposure to manganese. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:1062-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Mn caused increased oxidative stress and decreased (45)Ca(2+) influx into the striatum, which are likely linked to impaired locomotor activity, but not with the occurrence of orofacial dyskinesia. ..
  10. Barupala D, Dzul S, RIGGS GELASCO P, Stemmler T. Synthesis, delivery and regulation of eukaryotic heme and Fe-S cluster cofactors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016;592:60-75 pubmed publisher
  11. Anderson K, Sassa S, Peterson C, Kappas A. Increased erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-l-synthetase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and protoporphyrin in hemolytic anemias. Am J Med. 1977;63:359-64 pubmed
  12. Cifuentes F, Bravo J, Norambuena M, Stegen S, Ayavire A, Palacios J. Chronic exposure to arsenic in tap water reduces acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the aorta and increases oxidative stress in female rats. Int J Toxicol. 2009;28:534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that chronic environmental exposure to low levels of arsenic alters the release of vasoactive substances, causes changes in oxidative stress, and increases blood pressure in female rats. ..
  13. Stankiewicz Wróblewska J. [Activity of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAD) in erythrocytes of patients with chronic hepatic porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda)]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1993;89:212-6 pubmed
    Erythrocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was estimated in chronic hepatic porphyria, correlated with some tests of liver function and compared with enzyme activity in chronic liver diseases...
  14. Gautam P, Flora S. Oral supplementation of gossypin during lead exposure protects alteration in heme synthesis pathway and brain oxidative stress in rats. Nutrition. 2010;26:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The antioxidant and moderate chelating properties of oral gossypin suggest a promising role in use either as a nutritional supplement during lead exposure or as a complementary chelating agent during chelation therapy. ..
  15. Abdulla M, Svensson S, Haeger Aronsen B. Antagonistic effects of zinc and aluminum on lead inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Arch Environ Health. 1979;34:464-9 pubmed
    ..The in vitro activation of zinc is inhibited by increasing concentrations of aluminum. Aluminum and lead together depress the enzyme activity in an additive way that can be reactivated by the addition of zinc. ..
  16. Noriega G, Gonzales S, Tomaro M, Batlle A. Paraquat-generated oxidative stress in rat liver induces heme oxygenase-1 and aminolevulinic acid synthase. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:633-9 pubmed
    ..This study shows that oxidative stress produced by paraquat leads to an increase in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase-1 activities, indicating that the herbicide affects both heme biosynthesis and degradation. ..
  17. Maines M. Evidence for the catabolism of polychlorinated biphenyl-induced cytochrome P-448 by microsomal heme oxygenase, and the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase by polychlorinated biphenyls. J Exp Med. 1976;144:1509-19 pubmed
    ..PCB were also found to decrease the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in liver...
  18. Noriega G, Tomaro M, del Batlle A. Bilirubin is highly effective in preventing in vivo delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative cell damage. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1638:173-8 pubmed
    ..These results add further support to the proposal assigning bilirubin a key protective role against oxidative damage here induced by ALA. ..
  19. Bardag Gorce F, French S. Delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase is a proteasome interacting protein. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;91:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus of this study is to examine the proteasome interaction with Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD)...
  20. Munoz J, Roca C, Santos J, Arroyo M, de Salamanca R. Effect of zinc or S-adenosyl-l-methionine on long term administration of low doses of lead to rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993;73:189-91 pubmed
    ..01) higher activities of the enzyme. It is argued that SAM treatment causes a surplus of thiols that allows the full expression of ALA-D catalytic activity. ..
  21. Bishop T, Frelin L, Boyer S. Nucleotide sequence of rat liver delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:10115 pubmed
  22. Margolis F, Russell E. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in mice with hereditary anemia. Science. 1965;150:496-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that perhaps a deficiency in the fetal level of ALD may be responsible for the transitory fetal anemia. ..
  23. Corte C, Fachinetto R, Puntel R, Wagner C, Nogueira C, Soares F, et al. Chronic treatment with fluphenazine alters parameters of oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data point to the relationship between the oxidative stress and fluphenazine treatment in liver and kidney of rats. ..
  24. Matsuo T, Kang H, Suzuki H, Suzuki M. Voluntary resistance exercise improves blood hemoglobin concentration in severely iron-deficient rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002;48:161-4 pubmed
    ..Resistance exercise may be a useful therapy for iron-deficient anemia. ..
  25. Flora S, Mehta A, Gautam P, Jatav P, Pathak U. Essential metal status, prooxidant/antioxidant effects of MiADMSA in male rats: age-related effects. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007;120:235-47 pubmed
    ..Apart from this it also significantly reduced the glutathione disulfide levels in tissues. However, administration of MiADMSA caused some concern over the copper loss. MiADMSA was found to be safe in rats of all ages. ..
  26. Solomon L, Crouch J. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in rat liver: studies on the effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and B6 vitamers. J Lab Clin Med. 1990;116:228-36 pubmed
    Because ethanol ingestion lowers delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in liver and red cells, effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on ALAD in rat liver cytosol were studied. When added to the assay mix, as little as 0...
  27. Grinblat B, Pour N, Malik Z. Regulation of porphyrin synthesis and photodynamic therapy in heavy metal intoxication. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2006;25:145-58 pubmed
    ..The heavy metal intoxication affected two of the heme-synthesis enzymes, ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD)...
  28. Schmatz R, Perreira L, Stefanello N, Mazzanti C, Spanevello R, Gutierres J, et al. Effects of resveratrol on biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the activity of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biochimie. 2012;94:374-83 pubmed publisher
  29. Prigol M, Wilhelm E, Schneider C, Rocha J, Nogueira C, Zeni G. Involvement of oxidative stress in seizures induced by diphenyl diselenide in rat pups. Brain Res. 2007;1147:226-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this paper could add to our understanding of diphenyl diselenide neurotoxic effect demonstrated by the appearance of seizures which are, at least in part, related to the oxidative stress. ..
  30. Antunes Soares F, Farina M, Böettcher A, Braga A, Batista T Rocha J. Organic and inorganic forms of selenium inhibited differently fish (Rhamdia quelen) and rat (Rattus norvergicus albinus) delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase. Environ Res. 2005;98:46-54 pubmed
    ..From an ecotoxicological point of view, our results suggest a link between selenium-induced anemia signs in fish and the sensitivity of fish delta-ALA-D to selenium in natural habitats. ..
  31. Adjarov D, Naydenova E, Kerimova M, Pentieva K, Ivanova L, Ivanova A. Influence of protein calorie malnutrition and fasting on the activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1994;46:199-202 pubmed
    ..The erythrocyte activity of porphobilinogen deaminase was reduced by 42% and its hepatic activity--by 16%. ..
  32. Wilhelm E, Jesse C, Roman S, Nogueira C, Savegnago L. Hepatoprotective effect of 3-alkynyl selenophene on acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. Exp Mol Pathol. 2009;87:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound a attenuated D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatic histopathological alterations. Based on the results, we demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of compound a on acute liver injury induced by D-GalN/LPS. ..
  33. Zareba G, Chmielnicka J. Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood of rats exposed to tin and zinc. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1985;9:40-6 pubmed
    ..Control animals received 0.9% NaCl. Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was clearly decreased due to the double tin dose (total dose 4 mg Sn/kg), whereas 7 doses (altogether 14 ..
  34. Gupta S, Bhosale S, Pandya K. Effect of simultaneous low level exposure of Pb and Cd on delta-ALAD and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32:819-21 pubmed
    Dose dependent study was performed to identify subcritical level of Pb and Cd. Blood delta-ALAD activity was inhibited by (0...
  35. Kaganda J, Matsuo T, Suzuki H. Development of iron deficiency decreases zinc requirement of rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003;49:234-40 pubmed
    ..The decrease in apparent Zn absorption and the increase in tissue Zn concentration of rats might be related to the lowered Zn requirement, which is associated with the depressed Zn metabolism caused by feeding Fe-deficient diets. ..
  36. Doyle D, Schimke R. The genetic and developmental regulation of hepatic delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in mice. J Biol Chem. 1969;244:5449-59 pubmed
  37. Maines M, Kappas A. Enzymes of heme metabolism in the kidney: regulation by trace metals which do not form heme complexes. J Exp Med. 1977;146:1286-93 pubmed
    ..Pt(4+) severely inhibited the activity of ALAD and UROS...
  38. Chouhan S, Lomash V, Flora S. Fluoride-induced changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, neurological variables and tissue histopathology of rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes support our earlier findings regarding the role of decreased ionic mobility of fluoride ion at higher concentrations, leading to less pronounced toxicity. ..
  39. Saxena G, Flora S. Changes in brain biogenic amines and haem biosynthesis and their response to combined administration of succimers and Centella asiatica in lead poisoned rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:547-59 pubmed
    ..Lead exposure caused a significant depletion of blood and brain delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, an important enzyme of the haem biosynthesis pathway, and glutathione (GSH) level...
  40. Calgaroto N, Thomé G, da Costa P, Baldissareli J, Hussein F, Schmatz R, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2014;32:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. ..
  41. Ibrahim M, Prigol M, Hassan W, Nogueira C, Rocha J. Protective effect of binaphthyl diselenide, a synthetic organoselenium compound, on 2-nitropropane-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28:258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Results presented here indicate that the protective mechanism of (NapSe)(2) against 2-NP hepatotoxicity is possibly linked to its antioxidant activity. ..
  42. Simon N, Kiss M. Study of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in porphyria cutanea tarda. Arch Dermatol Res. 1979;266:121-6 pubmed
  43. Jaffe E, Martins J, Li J, Kervinen J, Dunbrack R. The molecular mechanism of lead inhibition of human porphobilinogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1531-7 pubmed
    Human porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a main target in lead poisoning. Human PBGS purifies with eight Zn(II) per homo-octamer; four ZnA have predominantly nonsulfur ligands, and four ZnB have predominantly sulfur ligands...
  44. Princ F, Maxit A, Cardalda C, Batlle A, Juknat A. In vivo protection by melatonin against delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative damage and its antioxidant effect on the activity of haem enzymes. J Pineal Res. 1998;24:1-8 pubmed
    ..The potential use of melatonin as an antioxidant and for its reactivating properties in the treatment of acute porphyrias is considered. ..
  45. Guo G, Gu M, Etlinger J. 240-kDa proteasome inhibitor (CF-2) is identical to delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12399-402 pubmed
    ..We now report that this inhibitory factor is indistinguishable from delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the second enzyme in the pathway of heme synthesis, based upon the following observations: 1) common sequence of ..
  46. Begum R, Koshy R, Sengupta A. Effect of homeopathic drugs plumbum and opium on experimentally induced lead toxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32:192-5 pubmed
    Homeopathic drugs plumbum 1M and Opium 30 were partially effective in the recovery of delta ALAD activity of the lead (150 mg% lead acetate) intoxicated rats...
  47. França R, Da Silva A, Wolkmer P, Oliveira V, Pereira M, Leal M, et al. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in red blood cells of rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitology. 2011;138:1272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..i. It was concluded that the increased activity of ?-ALA-D in blood might have occurred in response to the anaemia in remission as heme synthesis was enhanced. ..
  48. Jollie D, Maines M. Effect of cis-platinum on kidney cytochrome P-450 and heme metabolism: evidence for the regulatory role of the pituitary hormones. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985;240:51-9 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, could increase the production of cytochrome P-450. It is suggested that the anterior pituitary hormones control the concentration of the cytochrome P-450 in the kidney, and this process may be interrupted by cis-platinum. ..
  49. Brandão R, Acker C, Leite M, Barbosa N, Nogueira C. Diphenyl diselenide protects against glycerol-induced renal damage in rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:612-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present results indicate that (PhSe)(2) was effective in protecting against acute renal failure induced by glycerol. ..
  50. Barbosa N, Oliveira C, Araldi D, Folmer V, Rocha J, Nogueira C. Acute diphenyl diselenide treatment reduces hyperglycemia but does not change delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:2200-4 pubmed
    ..Although the dose of diphenyl diselenide used here for treating diabetic animals has been relatively high and produced toxic effects, the compound or analogous molecules might not be rejected as a promising anti-hyperglycemic agent. ..
  51. Callegaro M, Milbradt B, Diettrich T, Alves E, Duarte F, Flores E, et al. Influence of cereal bran supplement on cadmium effects in growing rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:467-76 pubmed publisher
  52. Trevisan A, Borella Venturini M, Di Marco L, Fabrello A, Giraldo M, Zanetti E, et al. Erythrocyte aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition by cis-platin. Toxicol Lett. 2004;152:105-10 pubmed
    The effect of cis-platin on erythrocyte aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was studied in vivo and in vitro. Young male Wistar rats were treated with a single i.p. injection of cis-platin at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0mg/kg dose...
  53. Vij A, Satija N, Flora S. Lead induced disorders in hematopoietic and drug metabolizing enzyme system and their protection by ascorbic acid supplementation. Biomed Environ Sci. 1998;11:7-14 pubmed
    ..Oral supplementation of vitamin C (100 mg/kg for 3 days) completely restored blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, uroporphyrinogen I synthetase and a few drug metabolizing enzymes...