Akr1b1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Akr1b1
Description: aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B
Alias: ALDRED, ALR-P-I, Akr1b3, Akr1b4, Aldr1, Alr, RATALDRED, aldose reductase, Aldehyde reductase 1 (low Km aldose reductase) (5.8 kb PstI fragment, probably the functional gene)
Species: rat
Products:     Akr1b1

Top Publications

  1. Carper D, Nishimura C, Shinohara T, Dietzchold B, Wistow G, Craft C, et al. Aldose reductase and p-crystallin belong to the same protein superfamily as aldehyde reductase. FEBS Lett. 1987;220:209-13 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) has been implicated in a variety of diabetic complications. Here we present the first primary sequence data for the rat lens enzyme, obtained by amino acid and cDNA analysis...
  2. Laeng P, Bouillon P, Taupenot L, Labourdette G. Long-term induction of an aldose reductase protein by basic fibroblast growth factor in rat astrocytes in vitro. Electrophoresis. 1995;16:1240-50 pubmed
    ..Two tryptic digest peptides had N-terminal sequences similar to rat lens aldose reductase. This protein was also expressed in oligodendroglial and neuronal cells in culture, but it was not ..
  3. Jiang T, Che Q, Lin Y, Li H, Zhang N. Aldose reductase regulates TGF-beta1-induced production of fibronectin and type IV collagen in cultured rat mesangial cells. Nephrology (Carlton). 2006;11:105-12 pubmed
    To study the effects of aldose reductase (AR) on production of fibronectin and type IV collagen in rat mesangial cells (MsC). The vector, pcDNA3-AR, was constructed based on pET-15b-AR...
  4. Mulhern M, Madson C, Danford A, Ikesugi K, Kador P, Shinohara T. The unfolded protein response in lens epithelial cells from galactosemic rat lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3951-9 pubmed
    ..Lenses from rats fed a standard diet containing 50% galactose with or without an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) were investigated...
  5. Ramana B, Kumar V, Krishna P, Kumar C, Reddy P, Raju T. Effect of quercetin on galactose-induced hyperglycaemic oxidative stress in hepatic and neuronal tissues of Wistar rats. Acta Diabetol. 2006;43:135-41 pubmed
    ..appears to reduce the osmotic stress induced by hyperglycaemia, as assessed by polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase. These results imply that inclusion of quercetin in the diet controls, to some extent, galactose-induced ..
  6. Iwata N, Inazu N, Satoh T. The purification and properties of aldose reductase from rat ovary. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990;282:70-7 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase has been highly purified from rat ovary to apparent homogeneity, as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  7. Bains O, Grigliatti T, Reid R, Riggs K. Naturally occurring variants of human aldo-keto reductases with reduced in vitro metabolism of daunorubicin and doxorubicin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;335:533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ns-SNPs in human AKR1C3, AKR1C4, and AKR7A2 significantly decrease the in vitro metabolism of DOX and DAUN. ..
  8. Sato S. Aldose reductase the major protein associated with naphthalene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity in rat lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1993;34:3172-8 pubmed
    Recent studies have indicated that certain aldose reductase inhibitors prevent the formation of cataracts in naphthalene-fed rats...
  9. La Motta C, Sartini S, Salerno S, Simorini F, Taliani S, Marini A, et al. Acetic acid aldose reductase inhibitors bearing a five-membered heterocyclic core with potent topical activity in a visual impairment rat model. J Med Chem. 2008;51:3182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..acids and oxazol-4-yl-acetic acids were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase (ALR2)...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Powell H, Garrett R, Kador P, Mizisin A. Fine-structural localization of aldose reductase and ouabain-sensitive, K(+)-dependent p-nitro-phenylphosphatase in rat peripheral nerve. Acta Neuropathol. 1991;81:529-39 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase was visualized by light and electron microscopy using a goat anti-rat antibody with immunoperoxidase and immunogold, respectively...
  2. Dobretsov M, Hastings S, Romanovsky D, Stimers J, Zhang J. Mechanical hyperalgesia in rat models of systemic and local hyperglycemia. Brain Res. 2003;960:174-83 pubmed
    ..The aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil (2.5 mg/ml) when added to 30-mM glucose perfusion solution prevented hyperalgesia...
  3. Hwang Y, Sato S, Tsai J, Yan S, Bakr S, Zhang H, et al. Aldose reductase activation is a key component of myocardial response to ischemia. FASEB J. 2002;16:243-5 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase, a member of the aldo-keto reductase family, has been implicated in the development of vascular and neurological complications in diabetes...
  4. Shah V, Dorin R, Sun Y, Braun M, Zager P. Aldose reductase gene expression is increased in diabetic nephropathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:2294-8 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase gene expression is increased in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with nephropathy...
  5. Soltesova Prnova M, Ballekova J, Gajdosikova A, Gajdosik A, Stefek M. A novel carboxymethylated mercaptotriazinoindole inhibitor of aldose reductase interferes with the polyol pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Physiol Res. 2015;64:587-91 pubmed
    ..work was to study the effect of 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (CMTI), an efficient aldose reductase inhibitor, on sorbitol accumulation in selected organs of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in vivo...
  6. Zablocki G, Ruzycki P, Overturf M, Palla S, Reddy G, Petrash J. Aldose reductase-mediated induction of epithelium-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lens. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..While the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract formation is poorly understood, previous research has identified aldose reductase (ALR2) as a key player...
  7. Graham C, Szpirer C, Levan G, Carper D. Characterization of the aldose reductase-encoding gene family in rat. Gene. 1991;107:259-67 pubmed
    Although the enzyme aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of tissue pathology in diabetes, the exact mechanism of this involvement remains unclear...
  8. Abhary S, Hewitt A, Burdon K, Craig J. A systematic meta-analysis of genetic association studies for diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2009;58:2137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty genes and 34 variants have previously been studied in multiple cohorts. The aldose reductase (AKR1B1) gene was found to have the largest number of polymorphisms significantly associated with diabetic ..
  9. Sun W, Oates P, Coutcher J, Gerhardinger C, Lorenzi M. A selective aldose reductase inhibitor of a new structural class prevents or reverses early retinal abnormalities in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2006;55:2757-62 pubmed
    Previously studied inhibitors of aldose reductase were largely from two chemical classes, spirosuccinamide/hydantoins and carboxylic acids...
  10. Ng D, Hardy C, Burns W, Muggli E, Kerr N, McCausland J, et al. Prevention of diabetes-induced albuminuria in transgenic rats overexpressing human aldose reductase. Endocrine. 2002;18:47-56 pubmed
    Studies using pharmacologic inhibitors have implicated the enzyme aldose reductase in the pathogenesis of albuminuria and diabetic renal disease...
  11. Kador P, Randazzo J, Babb T, Koushik K, Takamura Y, Zhu W, et al. Topical aldose reductase inhibitor formulations for effective lens drug delivery in a rat model for sugar cataracts. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23:116-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether increasing the viscosity of a topical aldose reductase inhibitor suspension increases the lenticular bioavailability of the inhibitor and whether such a formulation ..
  12. Vikramadithyan R, Hu Y, Noh H, Liang C, Hallam K, Tall A, et al. Human aldose reductase expression accelerates diabetic atherosclerosis in transgenic mice. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2434-43 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme that mediates the generation of toxic products from glucose, is expressed at low levels in ..
  13. Ferraretto A, Negri A, Giuliani A, De Grada L, Fuhrman Conti A, Ronchi S. Aldose reductase is involved in long-term adaptation of EUE cells to hyperosmotic stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1175:283-8 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase has been shown to be expressed in large amount by human embryonic epithelial cells (EUE) in response to osmotic stress...
  14. Nakanishi T, Yamauchi A, Sugita M, Takamitsu Y. Aldose reductase and myo-inositol transporter mRNA are independently regulated in rat renal medulla. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7:283-9 pubmed
    ..relationship between intra- or extracellular solutes and the regulation of Na/myo-inositol cotransporter and aldose reductase, mRNA of these osmo-regulatory proteins were determined in water-deprived sodium chloride-, potassium ..
  15. Srivastava S, Ramana K, Tammali R, Srivastava S, Bhatnagar A. Contribution of aldose reductase to diabetic hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Diabetes. 2006;55:901-10 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine whether the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase mediates diabetes abnormalities in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth...
  16. Kicic E, Palmer T. Is sorbitol dehydrogenase gene expression affected by streptozotocin-diabetes in the rat?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1226:213-8 pubmed
    The polyol pathway, which comprises the enzymes aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, is recognised to play a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications...
  17. Shen B, Vetri F, Mao L, Xu H, Paisansathan C, Pelligrino D. Aldose reductase inhibition ameliorates the detrimental effect of estrogen replacement therapy on neuropathology in diabetic rats subjected to transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res. 2010;1342:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..under diabetic conditions, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are excessively generated through the aldose reductase (AR)-polyol pathway...
  18. Liu K, Li C, Li Y, Yuan B, Xu M, Xia Z, et al. Proteomic analysis of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and ischemic preconditioning in rats reveals the protective role of aldose reductase. Proteomics. 2010;10:4463-75 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these proteins, aldose reductase (AR), removes reactive oxygen species...
  19. Galvez A, Ulloa J, Chiong M, Criollo A, Eisner V, Barros L, et al. Aldose reductase induced by hyperosmotic stress mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis: differential effects of sorbitol and mannitol. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38484-94 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we assessed the role of aldose reductase, the key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cardiac myocyte apoptosis...
  20. Balasubbu S, Sundaresan P, Rajendran A, Ramasamy K, Govindarajan G, Perumalsamy N, et al. Association analysis of nine candidate gene polymorphisms in Indian patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:158 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven candidate genes (RAGE, PEDF, AKR1B1, EPO, HTRA1, ICAM and HFE) were chosen based on reported association with DR in the literature...
  21. Gui T, Tanimoto T, Kokai Y, Nishimura C. Presence of a closely related subgroup in the aldo-ketoreductase family of the mouse. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:448-53 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase (alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase), an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, catalyzes the reduction of a variety of aldehydes...
  22. Akileshwari C, Muthenna P, Nastasijevic B, Joksic G, Petrash J, Reddy G. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:147965 pubmed publisher
    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes...
  23. Tammali R, Saxena A, Srivastava S, Ramana K. Aldose reductase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by modulating G1/S phase transition of cell cycle. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that inhibition of the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) prevents high glucose (HG)- and/or TNF-alpha-induced VSMC proliferation by accumulating cells at the G1 ..
  24. Kang E, Hwang J, Ham S, Park M, Kim G, Paek K, et al. 15-Deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 prevents oxidative injury by upregulating the expression of aldose reductase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Free Radic Res. 2014;48:218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report the finding that 15d-PGJ2 elicited a time and concentration- dependent increase in aldose reductase (AR) expression...
  25. Hwang Y, Shaw S, Kaneko M, Redd H, Marrero M, Ramasamy R. Aldose reductase pathway mediates JAK-STAT signaling: a novel axis in myocardial ischemic injury. FASEB J. 2005;19:795-7 pubmed
    The aldose reductase pathway has been demonstrated to be a key component of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury...
  26. Vinores S, Van Niel E, Swerdloff J, Campochiaro P. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical evidence for the mechanism of blood-retinal barrier breakdown in galactosemic rats and its association with aldose reductase expression and inhibition. Exp Eye Res. 1993;57:723-35 pubmed
    ..b>Aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme in the polyol pathway, has been implicated in several of these complications...
  27. Klepac N, Rudes Z, Klepac R. Effects of melatonin on plasma oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60:32-5 pubmed
    ..radical, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes and the aldose reductase activity. The injected melatonin decreased the superoxide radical in the rat plasma...
  28. Lim S, Jung S, Ji J, Shin K, Keum S. Synthesis of flavonoids and their effects on aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat tissues. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53:653-68 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase, the key enzyme of the polyol pathway, and oxidative stress are known to play important roles in the complications of diabetes...
  29. Yadav U, Srivastava S, Ramana K. Aldose reductase inhibition prevents endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4634-42 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) in the mediation of ocular inflammation in a rat model of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU)...
  30. Jang D, Lee G, Kim Y, Lee Y, Kim C, Yoo J, et al. Anthraquinones from the seeds of Cassia tora with inhibitory activity on protein glycation and aldose reductase. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2207-10 pubmed
    ..to evaluate their inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR)...
  31. Ho H, Chung S, Law J, Ko B, Tam S, Brooks H, et al. Aldose reductase-deficient mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5840-6 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase (ALR2) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with diabetes mellitus, such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy...
  32. Liao C, Tai P, Huang Y, Chen R, Wu S, Kuo L, et al. Regulation of AKR1B1 by thyroid hormone and its receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;307:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), as previously identified by c-DNA microarray, is known to be up-regulated by T(3) treatment...
  33. Kropotova E, Zinov eva O, Zyrianova A, Choinzonov E, Afanas ev S, Cherdyntseva N, et al. [Expression of genes involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human gastric cancer]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2013;47:317-30 pubmed
    ..that catalyze the reversible oxidation/reduction of retinol and retinaldehyde (ADH4, ADH1B, ADH1C, RDHL, AKR1B10, AKR1B1, and RDH12), as well as the oxidation of retinaldehyde (RALDH1) were revealed in most of the tumor samples...
  34. Laclau M, Lu F, MacDonald M. Enzymes in pancreatic islets that use NADP(H) as a cofactor including evidence for a plasma membrane aldehyde reductase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;225:151-60 pubmed
    ..Significant activities of glutathione reductase, aldose reductase (EC.1.1.1.21) and aldehyde reductase (EC.1.1.1.2) were present in islets...
  35. Ramana K, Willis M, White M, Horton J, Dimaio J, Srivastava D, et al. Endotoxin-induced cardiomyopathy and systemic inflammation in mice is prevented by aldose reductase inhibition. Circulation. 2006;114:1838-46 pubmed
    ..that inflammatory signaling and cytokine generation during sepsis depend on the activity of the enzyme aldose reductase, which catalyzes the reduction of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates...
  36. Carvalho V, Barreto E, Serra M, Cordeiro R, Martins M, Fortes Z, et al. Aldose reductase inhibitor zopolrestat restores allergic hyporesponsiveness in alloxan-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;549:173-8 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the aldose reductase in the refractoriness of diabetic rats to allergic inflammation...
  37. Maekawa K, Tanimoto T, Okada S. Gene expression of enzymes comprising the polyol pathway in various rat tissues determined by the competitive RT-PCR method. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002;88:123-6 pubmed
    The quantitative measurements of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) gene expression in various rat tissues were performed by the competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  38. Lacroix P pin N, Chapdelaine P, Fortier M. Evaluation of the prostaglandin F synthase activity of human and bovine aldo-keto reductases: AKR1A1s complement AKR1B1s as potent PGF synthases. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013;106:124-32 pubmed publisher
    b>AKR1B1 of the polyol pathway was identified as a prostaglandin F2? synthase (PGFS)...
  39. Liu X, Hu R, Lian H, Liu Y, Liu J, Liu J, et al. Dual-color immunofluorescent labeling with quantum dots of the diabetes-associated proteins aldose reductase and Toll-like receptor 4 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:3651-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There are multiple possible mechanisms associated with DN. Aldose reductase (AR) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be involved in the occurrence and development of DN...
  40. Yu J, Zhang Y, Sun S, Shen J, Qiu J, Yin X, et al. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;84:579-87 pubmed
    ..AGS-IV increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in nerves, depressed the activation of aldose reductase in erythrocytes, and decreased the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in both nerves and ..
  41. Heesom A, Hibberd M, Millward A, Demaine A. Polymorphism in the 5'-end of the aldose reductase gene is strongly associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy in type I diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:287-91 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that the gene encoding aldose reductase (ALR2), the enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol, may confer susceptibility to microvascular disease...
  42. Albrethsen J, Miller L, Novikoff P, Angeletti R. Gel-based proteomics of liver cancer progression in rat. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, increased levels of HSP70, HSP90, AKR1B1, AKR7A3, GCLM, ANXA5, VDBP, RGN and SULT1E1 were associated specifically with rat hepatomas, or with liver cancer ..
  43. Schwartz G, Zavilowitz B, Radice A, Garcia Perez A, Sands J. Maturation of aldose reductase expression in the neonatal rat inner medulla. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:1275-83 pubmed
    ..to generate intracellular osmolytes such as sorbitol, which is produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. We sought to discriminate between two possible mechanisms of aldose reductase induction during development: (..
  44. Zhang L, Chang M, Li H, Hou S, Zhang Y, Hu Y, et al. Proteomic changes of PC12 cells treated with proteasomal inhibitor PSI. Brain Res. 2007;1153:196-203 pubmed
    ..GRP94), heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (GRP78), heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (Hsp27), aldehyde reductase 1 (aldose reductase), p47 protein and beta-galactoside-binding lectin (galectin-1)...
  45. Yang J, Tam W, Tam S, Guo H, Wu X, Li G, et al. Genetic restoration of aldose reductase to the collecting tubules restores maturation of the urine concentrating mechanism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F186-95 pubmed
    To investigate the underlying causes for aldose reductase deficiency-induced diabetes insipidus, we carried out studies with three genotypic groups of mice...
  46. Grimshaw C. Aldose reductase: model for a new paradigm of enzymic perfection in detoxification catalysts. Biochemistry. 1992;31:10139-45 pubmed
  47. Olmos P, Bastías M, Vollrath V, Toro L, Trincado A, Salinas P, et al. C(-106)T polymorphism of the aldose reductase gene and the progression rate of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;74:175-82 pubmed
    To study the C(-106)T polymorphism in the promoter of the aldose reductase (ALR2) gene: (a) its local prevalence and (b) its modulation of the susceptibility for developing retinopathy...
  48. Kaiserova K, Srivastava S, Hoetker J, Awe S, Tang X, Cai J, et al. Redox activation of aldose reductase in the ischemic heart. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15110-20 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase (AR) reduces cytotoxic aldehydes and glutathione conjugates of aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation. Its inhibition has been shown to increase oxidative injury and abolish the late phase of ischemic preconditioning...
  49. Ruiz F, Hazemann I, Mitschler A, Joachimiak A, Schneider T, Karplus M, et al. The crystallographic structure of the aldose reductase-IDD552 complex shows direct proton donation from tyrosine 48. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1347-54 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of human aldose reductase (ALR2) in complex with the inhibitor IDD552 was determined using crystals obtained from two crystallization conditions with different pH values (pH 5 and 8)...
  50. Ohta M, Tanimoto T, Tanaka A. Characterization of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase from the medulla of rat kidney. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1990;38:1639-43 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase from the medulla of the rat kidney have been purified to homogeneity by using affinity chromatography, gel filtration and chromatofocusing...
  51. El Gamal H, Eid A, Munusamy S. Renoprotective Effects of Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Epalrestat against High Glucose-Induced Cellular Injury. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5903105 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased glucose flux into the aldose reductase (AR) pathway during diabetes was reported to exert deleterious effects on the kidney...
  52. Ramana K, Chandra D, Srivastava S, Bhatnagar A, Aggarwal B, Srivastava S. Aldose reductase mediates mitogenic signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32063-70 pubmed
    ..Herein we show that inhibition of the aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme aldose reductase (AR) inhibits NF-kappa B activation during restenosis of balloon-injured rat carotid arteries as well as VSMC ..
  53. Sivenius K, Niskanen L, Voutilainen Kaunisto R, Laakso M, Uusitupa M. Aldose reductase gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to microvascular complications in Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2004;21:1325-33 pubmed
    The gene encoding the human aldose reductase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, is a promising candidate gene which may contribute to diabetic microvascular complications...
  54. Wang Y, Luk A, Ng M, Pang C, Lam V, Lee S, et al. Additive effect of aldose reductase Z-4 microsatellite polymorphism and glycaemic control on cataract development in type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28:147-51 pubmed publisher
    To examine the additive effect of the z-4 microsatellite polymorphism of aldose reductase gene (ALR2) and glycaemic control on risk of cataract in a prospective cohort of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients...
  55. Malone J, Leavengood H, Peterson M, O Brien M, Page M, Aldinger C. Red blood cell sorbitol as an indicator of polyol pathway activity. Inhibition by sorbinil in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Diabetes. 1984;33:45-9 pubmed
    ..15 diabetic patients, elevated red blood cell (RBC) sorbitol levels were reduced by oral doses of the potent aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil (250 mg o.d.), to near-normal ranges...
  56. Old S, Sato S, Kador P, Carper D. In vitro expression of rat lens aldose reductase in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4942-5 pubmed
    b>Aldose reductase (alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1...
  57. Yabe Nishimura C, Nishinaka T, Iwata K, Seo H. Up-regulation of aldose reductase by the substrate, methylglyoxal. Chem Biol Interact. 2003;143-144:317-23 pubmed
    ..MG), a reactive dicarbonyl produced during glucose metabolism, is known as a preferred substrate of aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B1) that concomitantly catalyzes the reduction of glucose in the polyol pathway...
  58. Heesom A, Millward A, Demaine A. Susceptibility to diabetic neuropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with a polymorphism at the 5' end of the aldose reductase gene. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;64:213-6 pubmed
    There is evidence that the polyol pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is the first and rate limiting enzyme of this pathway and recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms in and ..
  59. Ramana K, Bhatnagar A, Srivastava S, Yadav U, Awasthi S, Awasthi Y, et al. Mitogenic responses of vascular smooth muscle cells to lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE): role of aldose reductase-catalyzed reduction of the HNE-glutathione conjugates in regulating cell growth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17652-60 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological inhibition or antisense ablation of aldose reductase (which catalyzes the reduction of GS-HNE to GS-DHN) prevented protein kinase C, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 ..
  60. Kawamura M, Eisenhofer G, Kopin I, Kador P, Lee Y, Tsai J, et al. Aldose reductase, a key enzyme in the oxidative deamination of norepinephrine in rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999;58:517-24 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the relative importance of aldose reductase versus aldehyde reductase in the formation of DHPG from DHMAL...
  61. Kim C, Kim J, Lee Y, Sohn E, Jo K, Kim J. Inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on aldose reductase activity in vitro and cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:847-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CA on diabetic cataractogenesis. We evaluated the aldose reductase (AR) activity during cataract development in 50% galactose-fed rats, an animal model of sugar cataract...
  62. Reddy A, Tammali R, Mishra R, Srivastava S, Srivastava S, Ramana K. Aldose reductase deficiency protects sugar-induced lens opacification in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:346-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldose reductase (AKR1B1), which catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol and lipid aldehydes to lipid alcohols, has been shown to be involved in secondary diabetic complications including cataractogenesis...
  63. Jeon U, Han K, Park S, Lee S, Sheen M, Jung J, et al. Downregulation of renal TonEBP in hypokalemic rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F408-15 pubmed
    ..As expected, transcription of aldose reductase, a target of TonEBP, was decreased since the abundance of mRNA and protein was reduced...