Gene Symbol: Agtr2
Description: angiotensin II receptor, type 2
Alias: AT2-R, AT2R, AT2R, type-2 angiotensin II receptor, AT2, angiotensin II type 2 receptor, angiotensin receptor 2
Species: rat
Products:     Agtr2

Top Publications

  1. Fogarty D, Sánchez Gómez M, Matute C. Multiple angiotensin receptor subtypes in normal and tumor astrocytes in vitro. Glia. 2002;39:304-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the untimely expression of this A((1-7)) receptor may represent an important etiological component in the development of brain astrocytomas. ..
  2. Pinaud F, Bocquet A, Dumont O, Retailleau K, Baufreton C, Andriantsitohaina R, et al. Paradoxical role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors in resistance arteries of old rats. Hypertension. 2007;50:96-102 pubmed
    ..Its vasodilatory and antitrophic properties are well accepted. Nevertheless, in hypertensive rats, AT2R stimulation induces a vasoconstriction counteracting flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
  3. Siddiqui A, Ali Q, Hussain T. Protective role of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in blood pressure increase in obese Zucker rats. Hypertension. 2009;53:256-61 pubmed publisher
  4. Jing T, Wang H, Srivenugopal K, He G, Liu J, Miao L, et al. Conditional expression of type 2 angiotensin II receptor in rat vascular smooth muscle cells reveals the interplay of the angiotensin system in matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression and vascular remodeling. Int J Mol Med. 2009;24:103-10 pubmed
    ..clones resistant to both hygromycin and G418 were selected, many of which showed high, but regulatable levels of AT2R expression within 48 h of doxycycline (Dox) exposure...
  5. Miura S, Karnik S, Saku K. Constitutively active homo-oligomeric angiotensin II type 2 receptor induces cell signaling independent of receptor conformation and ligand stimulation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18237-44 pubmed
  6. Senbonmatsu T, Saito T, Landon E, Watanabe O, Price E, Roberts R, et al. A novel angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling pathway: possible role in cardiac hypertrophy. EMBO J. 2003;22:6471-82 pubmed
    ..PLZF is expressed robustly in the heart in contrast to many other tissues. This cardiac selective pathway involving AT(2), PLZF and p85 alpha PI3K may explain the absence of a cardiac hypertrophic response in AT(2) gene-deleted mice. ..
  7. Benndorf R, Krebs C, Hirsch Hoffmann B, Schwedhelm E, Cieslar G, Schmidt Haupt R, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor deficiency aggravates renal injury and reduces survival in chronic kidney disease in mice. Kidney Int. 2009;75:1039-49 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates at least two receptors, AT1 and AT2, with the majority of its effects-such as vasoconstriction, inflammation, and matrix deposition-mediated by the AT1 receptor...
  8. Tejera N, Gomez Garre D, Lazaro A, Gallego Delgado J, Alonso C, Blanco J, et al. Persistent proteinuria up-regulates angiotensin II type 2 receptor and induces apoptosis in proximal tubular cells. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1817-26 pubmed
    ..In relation to control-UNX rats, renal cortex of nephritic rats showed an increment in AT2 mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blot) expression...
  9. Flores Muñoz M, Smith N, Haggerty C, Milligan G, Nicklin S. Angiotensin1-9 antagonises pro-hypertrophic signalling in cardiomyocytes via the angiotensin type 2 receptor. J Physiol. 2011;589:939-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, we investigated receptor signalling via angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) and Mas. The AT1R antagonist losartan blocked AngII-induced, but not vasopressin-induced, hypertrophy...

More Information


  1. Ichiki T, Labosky P, Shiota C, Okuyama S, Imagawa Y, Fogo A, et al. Effects on blood pressure and exploratory behaviour of mice lacking angiotensin II type-2 receptor. Nature. 1995;377:748-50 pubmed
    There are two major angiotensin II receptor isoforms, AT1 and AT2. AT1 mediates the well-known pressor and mitogenic effects of angiotensin II, but the signalling mechanism and physiological role of AT2 has not been established...
  2. Wang G, Coleman C, Glass M, Zhou P, Yu Q, Park L, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-coupled nitric oxide production modulates free radical availability and voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in NTS neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting NO production antagonizes AT(1)R-mediated ROS and dampens L-type Ca(2+) currents. The ensuing signaling changes in the NTS may counteract the deleterious effects of AT(1)R on cardiovascular function. ..
  3. Yoon H, Chin H, Na K, Chae D, Kim S, Jeon U, et al. Association of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene A1818T polymorphism with progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy in Korean patients. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24 Suppl:S38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and the A1818T polymorphism in intron 2 of Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) gene, which might play protective roles in the pathogenesis of IgAN...
  4. Li H, Gao Y, Raizada M, Sumners C. Intronic enhancement of angiotensin II type 2 receptor transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:29-35 pubmed
    The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) can influence a variety of intracellular signaling molecules and cellular functions...
  5. Gao L, Wang W, Wang W, Li H, Sumners C, Zucker I. Effects of angiotensin type 2 receptor overexpression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla on blood pressure and urine excretion in normal rats. Hypertension. 2008;51:521-7 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of AT(2)R was induced by bilateral microinjection of the AT(2)R adenovirus (Ad5-SYN-AT2R-IRES-EGFP, 2.5 x 10(6) infection units in 0.5 microL; Ad5-SYN-EGFP as the control, 2.5 x 10(6) infection units in 0...
  6. Qi Y, Li H, Shenoy V, Li Q, Wong F, Zhang L, et al. Moderate cardiac-selective overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor protects cardiac functions from ischaemic injury. Exp Physiol. 2012;97:89-101 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that moderate cardiac-selective overexpression of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) would protect the myocardium from ischaemic injury after a myocardial infarction (MI) induced by coronary artery ligation...
  7. Lee S, Brait V, Arumugam T, Evans M, Kim H, Widdop R, et al. Neuroprotective effect of an angiotensin receptor type 2 agonist following cerebral ischemia in vitro and in vivo. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2012;4:16 pubmed publisher
    Intracerebral administration of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, CGP42112, is neuroprotective in a rat model of ischemic stroke...
  8. Hilliard L, Nematbakhsh M, Kett M, Teichman E, Sampson A, Widdop R, et al. Gender differences in pressure-natriuresis and renal autoregulation: role of the Angiotensin type 2 receptor. Hypertension. 2011;57:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a gender-specific role for the AT?R in renal autoregulation was evident in females, which may be a direct vascular AT?R effect. ..
  9. Mukoyama M, Nakajima M, Horiuchi M, Sasamura H, Pratt R, Dzau V. Expression cloning of type 2 angiotensin II receptor reveals a unique class of seven-transmembrane receptors. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:24539-42 pubmed
    Angiotensin II acts on at least two distinct receptor subtypes (AT1 and AT2). Most known effects of angiotensin II in adult tissues are attributable to the AT1 receptor...
  10. Sourris K, Morley A, Koitka A, Samuel P, Coughlan M, Penfold S, et al. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) blockade may exert its renoprotective effects in patients with diabetic nephropathy via induction of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..whether the protective effects of RAGE blockade are exerted via modulation of the renal angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor...
  11. Zhang S, Moini B, Ingelfinger J. Angiotensin II increases Pax-2 expression in fetal kidney cells via the AT2 receptor. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1452-65 pubmed
  12. Yoneda A, Cascio S, Green A, Barton D, Puri P. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene is not responsible for familial vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 2002;168:1138-41 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that disruption of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) gene leads to congenital anomalies of the kidney and ureter in mice, including vesicoureteral ..
  13. Hashikawa Hobara N, Hashikawa N, Inoue Y, Sanda H, Zamami Y, Takatori S, et al. Candesartan cilexetil improves angiotensin II type 2 receptor-mediated neurite outgrowth via the PI3K-Akt pathway in fructose-induced insulin-resistant rats. Diabetes. 2012;61:925-32 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) results in nerve facilitation...
  14. Flores Munoz M, Work L, Douglas K, Denby L, Dominiczak A, Graham D, et al. Angiotensin-(1-9) attenuates cardiac fibrosis in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat via the angiotensin type 2 receptor. Hypertension. 2012;59:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, angiotensin-(1-9) reduced cardiac fibrosis and altered aortic contraction via the angiotensin type 2 receptor supporting a direct role for angiotensin-(1-9) in the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  15. Bregonzio C, Seltzer A, Armando I, Pavel J, Saavedra J. Angiotensin II AT(1) receptor blockade selectively enhances brain AT(2) receptor expression, and abolishes the cold-restraint stress-induced increase in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the locus coeruleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stress. 2008;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
  16. Siragy H, Xue C, Abadir P, Carey R. Angiotensin subtype-2 receptors inhibit renin biosynthesis and angiotensin II formation. Hypertension. 2005;45:133-7 pubmed
    Renin is regulated by angiotensin subtype 1 (AT1) receptor, but it is unknown whether angiotensin subtype 2 (AT2) receptor contributes to this regulation...
  17. Stennett A, Qiao X, Falone A, Koledova V, Khalil R. Increased vascular angiotensin type 2 receptor expression and NOS-mediated mechanisms of vascular relaxation in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H745-55 pubmed publisher
  18. Cui T, Nakagami H, Nahmias C, Shiuchi T, Takeda Matsubara Y, Li J, et al. Angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor activation inhibits insulin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt and induces apoptosis in PC12W cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2113-23 pubmed
    In the present study, we identified novel negative cross-talk between the angiotensin II subtype 2 (AT2) receptor and insulin receptor signaling in the regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and apoptosis in rat ..
  19. Mertens B, Vanderheyden P, Michotte Y, Sarre S. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. ..
  20. Podhorska Okolow M, Dziegiel P, Gomulkiewicz A, Kisiela D, Dolinska Krajewska B, Jethon Z, et al. Exercise-induced apoptosis in rat kidney is mediated by both angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of angiotensin II and its AT1 and AT2 receptors in mediation of exercise-induced apoptosis in kidney...
  21. Duke L, Evans R, Widdop R. AT2 receptors contribute to acute blood pressure-lowering and vasodilator effects of AT1 receptor antagonism in conscious normotensive but not hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H2289-97 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to determine the contribution of the AT2 receptor to the antihypertensive and regional vasodilatory effects of AT1 receptor blockade in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 2-kidney, 1-clip ..
  22. Chan L, Leung J, Tang S, Choy C, Lai K. Tubular expression of angiotensin II receptors and their regulation in IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2306-17 pubmed
    ..Tubular expression of AT1R and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) was increased in IgAN...
  23. Hakam A, Hussain T. Angiotensin II AT2 receptors inhibit proximal tubular Na+-K+-ATPase activity via a NO/cGMP-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F1430-6 pubmed
    Angiotensin II AT2 receptors act as a functional antagonist for the AT1 receptors in various tissues...
  24. Hakam A, Hussain T. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist directly inhibits proximal tubule sodium pump activity in obese but not in lean Zucker rats. Hypertension. 2006;47:1117-24 pubmed
    We have reported recently that the renal angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors are upregulated and involved in promoting natriuresis/diuresis in obese but not in lean Zucker rats...
  25. Alwasel S, Kaleem I, Sahajpal V, Ashton N. Maternal protein restriction reduces angiotensin II AT(1) and AT(2) receptor expression in the fetal rat kidney. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2010;33:251-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Diniz G, Carneiro Ramos M, Barreto Chaves M. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors mediate the increase in TGF-beta1 in thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:75-81 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time the TH-modulated induction of cardiac TGF-beta1 in cardiac hypertrophy, and that this effect is mediated by ANG II receptors. ..
  27. Brassard P, Amiri F, Schiffrin E. Combined angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptor blockade on vascular remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases in resistance arteries. Hypertension. 2005;46:598-606 pubmed
    We investigated the role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and AT2 receptors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and extracellular matrix (ECM) components involved in vascular remodeling of resistance arteries induced by angiotensin II (Ang ..
  28. Zhang X, Lassila M, Cooper M, Cao Z. Retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor is mediated by angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors. Hypertension. 2004;43:276-81 pubmed
    ..However, the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor subtype in inducing VEGF expression has been controversial...
  29. Chabrashvili T, Kitiyakara C, Blau J, Karber A, Aslam S, Welch W, et al. Effects of ANG II type 1 and 2 receptors on oxidative stress, renal NADPH oxidase, and SOD expression. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R117-24 pubmed
    ..type 2 receptors (AT1-R and AT2-R, respectively) is unknown. We infused ANG II subcutaneously in rats for 1 wk...
  30. Igarashi M, Hirata A, Nozaki H, Kadomoto Antsuki Y, Tominaga M. Role of angiotensin II type-1 and type-2 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cell growth and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;75:267-77 pubmed
    ..AT1R) in aortae from WF were more enhanced than those in aortae from WL, but the level of Ang II type-2 receptors (AT2R) was not different...
  31. Gendron L, Payet M, Gallo Payet N. The angiotensin type 2 receptor of angiotensin II and neuronal differentiation: from observations to mechanisms. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:359-72 pubmed
    ..Based on its altered expression in neurological disorders, a role for the AT(2) receptor in control of neuronal plasticity is proposed. ..
  32. Abadir P, Walston J, Carey R, Siragy H. Angiotensin II Type-2 receptors modulate inflammation through signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins 3 phosphorylation and TNF? production. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011;31:471-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Restoration of AT(2)R expression and/or its activation constitute a potentially novel therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory processes. ..
  33. Waseda Y, Yasui M, Nishizawa Y, Inuzuka K, Takato H, Ichikawa Y, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Respir Res. 2008;9:43 pubmed publisher
    The role of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. To evaluate the influence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and AT2 antagonists in a mouse model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
  34. Suzuki K, Han G, Miyauchi N, Hashimoto T, Nakatsue T, Fujioka Y, et al. Angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors play opposite roles in regulating the barrier function of kidney glomerular capillary wall. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1841-53 pubmed
    ..its pharmacological mechanism and the differential roles of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R) are not well understood...
  35. Siragy H, Inagami T, Carey R. NO and cGMP mediate angiotensin AT2 receptor-induced renal renin inhibition in young rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1461-7 pubmed
    ..Reversal of the PD effects by SNAP and SNAP effects by ODQ confirms that NO and cGMP mediate the AT(2) receptor inhibition of renal renin production. ..
  36. D Amore A, Black M, Thomas W. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor causes constitutive growth of cardiomyocytes and does not antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated hypertrophy. Hypertension. 2005;46:1347-54 pubmed
    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has important actions on the heart via type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors...
  37. Naito T, Ma L, Yang H, Zuo Y, Tang Y, Han J, et al. Angiotensin type 2 receptor actions contribute to angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker effects on kidney fibrosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F683-91 pubmed publisher is due solely to blockade of AT1, or whether diversion of angiotensin II from the AT1 to the available AT2 receptor, thus potentially enhancing AT2 receptor effects, is not known...
  38. Porrello E, Delbridge L. Cardiomyocyte autophagy is regulated by angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors. Autophagy. 2009;5:1215-6 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that AngII increases autophagosome formation via the AngII type I (AT1) receptor and that this response is constitutively antagonized by co-expression of the AngII type 2 (AT2) receptor in neonatal cardiomyocytes.
  39. Hakam A, Siddiqui A, Hussain T. Renal angiotensin II AT2 receptors promote natriuresis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F503-8 pubmed
    Angiotensin II AT2 receptors have been implicated to play a role in the regulation of renal/cardiovascular functions under pathological conditions...
  40. De Gasparo M, Catt K, Inagami T, Wright J, Unger T. International union of pharmacology. XXIII. The angiotensin II receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2000;52:415-72 pubmed
    ..The development of specific nonpeptide receptor antagonists has led to major advances in the physiology, pharmacology, and therapy of the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  41. Nishimura H, Yerkes E, Hohenfellner K, Miyazaki Y, Ma J, Hunley T, et al. Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor gene in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT, of mice and men. Mol Cell. 1999;3:1-10 pubmed
    ..Various features of mouse CAKUT impressively mimic human CAKUT. Studies of the human type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene in two independent cohorts found that a significant association exists between CAKUT and a nucleotide ..
  42. Hobara N, Goda M, Yoshida N, Takatori S, Kitamura Y, Mio M, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptors facilitate reinnervation of phenol-lesioned vascular calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in rat mesenteric arteries. Neuroscience. 2007;150:730-41 pubmed
    The present study was designed to investigate involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptors (AT2 receptors) in restoration of perivascular nerve innervation injured by topical phenol treatment...
  43. Yayama K, Hiyoshi H, Imazu D, Okamoto H. Angiotensin II stimulates endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation in thoracic aorta of mice with abdominal aortic banding via type 2 receptor. Hypertension. 2006;48:958-64 pubmed
    Abdominal aortic banding in mice induces upregulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 (AT2) receptors in the pressure-overloaded thoracic aorta...
  44. Moulder J, Fish B, Cohen E. Impact of angiotensin II type 2 receptor blockade on experimental radiation nephropathy. Radiat Res. 2004;161:312-7 pubmed
    ..II type 1 blockers in renal disease are caused by a rise in angiotensin II that stimulates the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. If this hypothesis applied in this model, blockade of the type 2 receptor should exacerbate radiation ..
  45. Wu L, Iwai M, Li Z, Shiuchi T, Min L, Cui T, et al. Regulation of inhibitory protein-kappaB and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by angiotensin II type 2 receptor-activated Src homology protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 in fetal vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:666-78 pubmed
  46. Sabuhi R, Ali Q, Asghar M, Al Zamily N, Hussain T. Role of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor in inflammation and oxidative stress: opposing effects in lean and obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F700-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present studies suggest anti-inflammatory and antioxidative functions of AT(2) receptor in obese Zucker rats but proinflammatory and prooxidative functions in lean Zucker rats...
  47. Jöhren O, Dendorfer A, Dominiak P. Cardiovascular and renal function of angiotensin II type-2 receptors. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;62:460-7 pubmed
    ..The question whether AT(2) receptors are activated in patients with elevated ANG levels when treated with AT(1) receptor antagonists and whether these effects are relevant awaits further clarification. ..
  48. Kagiyama T, Kagiyama S, Phillips M. Expression of angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors in brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Regul Pept. 2003;110:241-7 pubmed
    ..To test this, we have examined the expression of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), AT2R and Ang II levels in the brain 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
  49. Yatabe J, Yoneda M, Yatabe M, Watanabe T, Felder R, Jose P, et al. Angiotensin III stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland partially via angiotensin II type 2 receptor but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ang II-induced aldosterone release was blocked (30.3 ± 7.1%) by an Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist, PD123319...
  50. Padia S, Howell N, Siragy H, Carey R. Renal angiotensin type 2 receptors mediate natriuresis via angiotensin III in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor-blocked rat. Hypertension. 2006;47:537-44 pubmed
    ..II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, with and without coinfusion of PD-123319 (PD), a specific Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2) blocker, on Na+ excretion (UNaV) in uninephrectomized rats...
  51. Gelosa P, Pignieri A, Fandriks L, de Gasparo M, Hallberg A, Banfi C, et al. Stimulation of AT2 receptor exerts beneficial effects in stroke-prone rats: focus on renal damage. J Hypertens. 2009;27:2444-51 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin II acts through two major receptors: AT1-R and AT2-R...
  52. Cao Z, Bonnet F, Candido R, Nesteroff S, Burns W, Kawachi H, et al. Angiotensin type 2 receptor antagonism confers renal protection in a rat model of progressive renal injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:1773-87 pubmed
  53. Akishita M, Yamada H, Dzau V, Horiuchi M. Increased vasoconstrictor response of the mouse lacking angiotensin II type 2 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;261:345-9 pubmed
    The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor mediates various actions of Ang II, whereas the function of the type 2 (AT2) receptor is not well understood...
  54. McCarthy C, Vinh A, Callaway J, Widdop R. Angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation causes neuroprotection in a conscious rat model of stroke. Stroke. 2009;40:1482-9 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) is implicated to be neuroprotective in stroke, although this premise has not been directly tested...
  55. Jezova M, Armando I, Bregonzio C, Yu Z, Qian S, Ferrans V, et al. Angiotensin II AT(1) and AT(2) receptors contribute to maintain basal adrenomedullary norepinephrine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase transcription. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2092-101 pubmed
    ..Whereas AT(1) and AT(2) receptors involve the Fos-related antigen Fra-2, AT(1) receptor transcriptional effects include pCREB and ERK2, indicating common as well as different regulatory mechanisms for each receptor type. ..
  56. Kim H, Sato T, Rodriguez Iturbe B, Vaziri N. Role of intrarenal angiotensin system activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activity in the progression of focal glomerulosclerosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;337:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammation, increased angiotensin II expressing cell population, up-regulations of AT1 receptor, AT2 receptor, NAD(P)H oxidase, and inflammatory mediators, activation of nuclear factor-?B and reduction of Nrf2 ..
  57. López Aguilera F, Plateo Pignatari M, Biaggio V, Ayala C, Seltzer A. Hypoxic preconditioning induces an AT2-R/VEGFR-2(Flk-1) interaction in the neonatal brain microvasculature for neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2012;216:1-9 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 (AT2-R) has been proposed to mediate protective vascular actions after brain injury...
  58. Lehtonen J, Daviet L, Nahmias C, Horiuchi M, Dzau V. Analysis of functional domains of angiotensin II type 2 receptor involved in apoptosis. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:1051-60 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that the intracellular third loop (i3 loop) of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) plays a key role in mediating the biological functions of this receptor...
  59. Guilluy C, Rolli Derkinderen M, Loufrani L, Bourgé A, Henrion D, Sabourin L, et al. Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates Ser188 of RhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II Type 2 receptor activation. Circ Res. 2008;102:1265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results thus identify the molecular mechanism linking AT(2)R to RhoA inhibition and vasodilation. ..
  60. Esteban V, Lorenzo O, Ruperez M, Suzuki Y, Mezzano S, Blanco J, et al. Angiotensin II, via AT1 and AT2 receptors and NF-kappaB pathway, regulates the inflammatory response in unilateral ureteral obstruction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1514-29 pubmed
  61. Dolley Hitze T, Jouan F, Martin B, Mottier S, Edeline J, Moranne O, et al. Angiotensin-2 receptors (AT1-R and AT2-R), new prognostic factors for renal clear-cell carcinoma?. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:1698-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-R) in a broad range of cell types and tumours and through the type-2 receptor (AT2-R) in a more restricted group of cell types...
  62. Sarlos S, Rizkalla B, Moravski C, Cao Z, Cooper M, Wilkinson Berka J. Retinal angiogenesis is mediated by an interaction between the angiotensin type 2 receptor, VEGF, and angiopoietin. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:879-87 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether angiotensin type 2-receptor blockade (AT2-RB) reduces retinal angiogenesis and alters the expression of VEGF/VEGF-R2 and angiopoietin-Tie2...
  63. Zhang Q, He F, Kuruba R, Gao X, Wilson A, Li J, et al. FXR-mediated regulation of angiotensin type 2 receptor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;77:560-9 pubmed
    ..1 receptor (AT1R) or type 4 receptor (AT4R) but led to a significant increase in the expression of type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
  64. He M, Zhang L, Shao Y, Xue H, Zhou L, Wang X, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor mediated angiotensin II and high glucose induced decrease in renal prorenin/renin receptor expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that activation of AT(2)R, but not AT(1)R, is most likely responsible for the reduced (P)RR expression in response to Ang II and high glucose in glomerular MCs and the renal tissue of STZ-treated rats. ..
  65. Yang J, Chen C, Ren H, Han Y, He D, Zhou L, et al. Angiotensin II AT(2) receptor decreases AT(1) receptor expression and function via nitric oxide/cGMP/Sp1 in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto rats. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These results indicate that the renal AT(2) receptor, via nitric oxide/cGMP/Sp1 pathway, regulates AT(1 )receptor expression and function, which may be important in the regulation of sodium excretion and blood pressure. ..
  66. Abadir P, Periasamy A, Carey R, Siragy H. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-bradykinin B2 receptor functional heterodimerization. Hypertension. 2006;48:316-22 pubmed
    Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2R) or bradykinin B2 (B2R) receptor activation enhances NO production. Recently, we demonstrated enhancement of NO production when AT2R and B2R are simultaneously activated in vivo...
  67. Masaki H, Kurihara T, Yamaki A, Inomata N, Nozawa Y, Mori Y, et al. Cardiac-specific overexpression of angiotensin II AT2 receptor causes attenuated response to AT1 receptor-mediated pressor and chronotropic effects. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:527-35 pubmed
    Angiotensin (Ang) II has two major receptor isoforms, AT1 and AT2. Currently, AT1 antagonists are undergoing clinical trials in patients with cardiovascular diseases...
  68. Downie L, Vessey K, Miller A, Ward M, Pianta M, Vingrys A, et al. Neuronal and glial cell expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the rat retina. Neuroscience. 2009;161:195-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoreactivity for the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) was observed on conventional and displaced GABAergic amacrine cells...
  69. Batenburg W, Garrelds I, Bernasconi C, Juillerat Jeanneret L, van Kats J, Saxena P, et al. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation in human coronary microarteries. Circulation. 2004;109:2296-301 pubmed
    Angiotensin (Ang) II type 2 (AT2) receptor stimulation results in coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. In contrast, AT2 receptor-mediated vasodilation could not be observed in large human coronary arteries...
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    ..Therefore, the blockade of the NF-kappaB-activating properties of the receptor Mas could be a new strategy in the therapy of failing kidney. ..
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    ..Thus, we clearly establish that SHP-1 activation, mediated by the AT(2) subtype, involves c-Src and precedes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation, in rat fetal membranes. ..
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